Travelogues of Palestine
Travelogues of Palestine are the written descriptions of the region of Palestine by travellers, particularly prior to the 20th century. The works are important sources in the study of the History of Palestine and the History of Israel. Surveys of the geographical literature on Palestine were published by Edward Robinson in 1841, Titus Tobler in 1867 and subsequently by Reinhold Röhricht in 1890. Röhricht catalogued 177 works between 333—1300CE, 19 works in the 14th c., 279 works in the 15th c., 333 works in the 16th c., 390 works in the 17th c. 318 works in the 18th c., and 1,915 works in the 19th c.
In total, more than 3,000 books and other materials detailing accounts of the journeys of primarily European and North American travelers to Ottoman Palestine. The number of published travelogues proliferated during the 19th century, and these travelers' impressions of 19th-century Palestine have been often quoted in the history and historiography of the region, although their accuracy and impartiality has been called into question in modern times.
List of travelogues
Chronological list by years of travel, also indicating first publication, and/or edition available online.
Until the 18th century
|Date||Author||Title (with link)||Language||Editions|
|518-530||Theodosius||De Situ Terrae Sanctae||Latin|
|570s||Anonymous pilgrim of Piacenza||Latin|
|698||Arculf (with Adomnán)||De locis sanctis||Latin|
|778||Willibald (with Hygeburg)||Hodoeporicon||Latin|
|800s||Bernard the Pilgrim||Itinerarium||Latin|
|985||al-Maqdisi||Description of Syria||Arabic|
|1108||Daniel the Traveller||Puteshestive igumena Daniila||Russian|
|1157||Níkulás Bergsson||Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan||Icelandic|
|1160s||John of Würzburg||Description of the Holy Land||Latin|
|1172||Theoderich||Libellus de locis sanctis||Latin|
|1173||Benjamin of Tudela||Travels or Itinerary||Hebrew|
|1192||Historia de profectione Danorum in Hierosolymam||Latin|
|1170s-1180s||Petachiah of Regensburg||Travels of Rabbi Petachia of Ratisbon||Hebrew|
|1210||Menachem ben Peretz of Hebron||Hebrew|
|1249||Máel Muire Ó Lachtáin||account lost|
|1320s||Symon Semeonis||Itinerarium Symonis Semeonis ab Hybernia ad Terram Sanctam||Latin|
|1420||Nompar of Caumont||Voyaige d'oultremer en Jhérusalem||French||first published 1858|
|1400||Al-Maqrizi||A history of Mamluk sultans of Egypt||Arabic||Al-Maqrizi (1840). Histoire des sultans mamlouks, de l'Égypte, écrite en arabe (in French and Latin). 1, part 1. Translator: Étienne Marc Quatremère. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.|
|1433||Bertrandon de La Brocquière||Travels of Bertrandon de La Brocq́uière||French||Bertrandon de La Brocquière, Thomas Johnes, Legrand, Translated by Thomas Johnes, (1807): The Travels of Bertrandon de La Brocq́uière, to Palestine: And His Return from Jerusalem Overland to France, During the Years 1432 & 1433. Extracted and Put Into Modern French from a Manuscript in the National Library at Paris, 336 pages|
|1458||Accounts of the 1458 pilgrimage: Giovanni Matteo Bottigella, Latin; Gabriele Capodilista, Italian Anton Pelchinger, German; Roberto Sanseverino d'Aragona, Italian; William Wey, Latin; an anonymous Dutch account||various|
|1486||Georges Lengherand||Travel description of Venice, Rome, Jerusalem, Mount Sinai and Cairo||French|
|1486||Conrad Grünenberg||Description of a pilgrimage from Konstanz to Jerusalem||Alemannic German||**Conrad Grünenberg, Pilgrimage to the Holy Land (1486), ed. J. Goldfriedrich, W. Fränzel (1912, new facsimile edition 2009); ed. K. Aercke (2005); ed. A. Denke (2010)|
|1486||Girolamo da Castiglione||Description of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land||Italian|
|1486||Anonymous pilgrim from Rennes, possibly Guy de Tourestes of Saintes||Description of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and Mount Sinai||French|
|1483||Felix Fabri||Latin||Fabri, Felix (1896). Felix Fabri (circa 1480–1483 A.D.) vol I, part I. Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society.|
Fabri, Felix (1896). Felix Fabri (circa 1480–1483 A.D.) vol I, part II. Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society.
|1586||Giovanni Zuallardo||Description of a pigrimage to Jerusalem||Latin||Giovanni Zuallardo (Fr.: Jean Zuallart), Dominique Danesi, Jac Demius, Philippe de Mérode (1595): Il devotissimo viaggio di Gierusalemme: fatto, e descritto in sei libri Published by Appresso Domenico Basa, 351 pages|
|1608||Kryštof Harant||Journey from Bohemia to the Holy Land, by way of Venice and the Sea||Czech|
|1670s||Evliya Çelebi||Seyahatnâme ("book of travels")||Ottoman Turkish|
|1665||Thevenot, J. de||Relation d’un voyage fait au Levant||French|
|1703||Henry Maundrell||A Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem At Easter A. D. 1697||English|
Ottoman period, 18th century
- "Travels of Two English Pilgrims". The Harleian Miscellany, Or A Collection of Scarce, Curious, and Entertaining Pamphlets and Tracts, as Well in Ms. as in Print, Found in the Earl of Oxford's Library: Interspersed with Historical, Critical and Political Notes. 1744. pp. 339–.
- Anson, George (1853): A voyage round the world, in the years 1740, 41, 42, 43, 44 (compiled by R. Walter).
- Browne, W. G. (1799): Travels in Africa, Egypt and Syria From the year 1792 to 1798.
- Egmond van der Nijenburg, Johannes Aegidius van, Johannes Wilhelmus Heyman, Johannes Heyman, Jan Willem Heyman (1759): Travels Through Part of Europe, Asia Minor, the Islands of the Archipelago; Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mount Sinai, &c. ... By ... J. Ægidius Van Egmont, ... and John Heyman, ... Translated from the Low Dutch. In Two Volumes: Giving a Particular Account of the Most Remarkable Places .. Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers
- Egmont, van; Heyman, John (1759). Travels through part of Europe, Asia Minor, the islands of the archipelago, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mount Sinai, & c. giving a particular account of the most remarkable places. 1. London: L. Davis and C. Reymers.
- Egmont, van; Heyman, John (1759). Travels through part of Europe, Asia Minor, the islands of the archipelago, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mount Sinai, &c. giving a particular account of the most remarkable places. 2. London: L. Davis and C. Reymers.
- Hasselquist, Fredrik, Carl von Linné (1766): Voyages and Travels in the Levant in the Years 1749, 50, 51, 52: Containing Observations in Natural History, Physick, Agriculture, and Commerce, Particularly on the Holy Land, and the Natural History of the Scriptures Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers, 456 pages
- Kortens, Jonas (1743): Reise nach dem Weiland gelobten, nun aber seit Siebenzehn hundert Jahren unter dem Fluche liegenden Lande: Wie, auch nach Egkypten, dem Berg Libanon, Syrien und Mesopotamien Edition: 2 Published by Joh. Christian Grunert, 876 pages
- Lusignan, Sauveur (1783): A history of the revolt of Ali Bey, against the Ottoman Porte: including an account of the form of government of Egypt : together with a description of Grand Cairo and of several celebrated places in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria : to which are added, A short account of the present state of the Christians who are subjects to the Turkish government, and the journal of a gentleman who travelled from Aleppo to Bassora ... Published by printed and sold for the author, by James Phillips: and sold also by L. Davis; Paine and Son; J. Sewell; J. Walter; and by the author, 259 pages
- Mariti, G. (1792). Travels Through Cyprus, Syria, and Palestine; with a General History of the Levant. 1. Dublin: P. Byrne.
- Pococke, Richard (1743). A description of the East, and some other countries. 1. London: Printed for the author, by W. Bowyer : And sold by J. and P. Knapton, W. Innys, W. Meadows, G. Hawkins, S. Birt, T. Longman, C. Hitch, R. Dodsley, J. Nourse, and J. Rivington.
- Tott, François (1786): Memoirs of Baron de Tott: Containing the state of the Turkish empire & the Crimea, during the late war with Russia. With numerous anecdotes, facts, & observations, on the manners & customs of the Turks & Tartars Edition: 2 Published by G.G.J. & J. Robinson, Item notes: v. 2
- Volney, Constantin-François (1788). Travels Through Syria and Egypt, in the Years 1783, 1784, and 1785: containing the Present Natural and Political State of Those Countries, Their Productions, Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce : with Observations on the Manners, Customs, and Government of the Turks and Arabs : Illustrated. 1. (Volume 2)
- Wittman, William (1803): Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the desert into Egypt: during the years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in company with the Turkish army, and the British military mission : to which are annexed, observations on the plague, and on the diseases prevalent in Turkey, and a meteorological journal Printed and sold by James Humphreys, 595 pages
Ottoman period, 19th century
- Albert; George V (1886). The cruise of Her Majesty's ship "Bacchante", 1879-1882. 2. London: Macmillan and co.
- Arundale, Francis (1837): Illustrations of Jerusalem and Mount Sinai: Including the Most Interesting Sites Between Grand Cairo and Beirout, 116 pages
- Bannister, J.T. (1844):Survey of the Holy Land: Its Geography, History, and Destiny, Adam Matthew Publications
- Dawson Borrer, Louis Maurice Adolphe Linant de Bellefonds (1845): A Journey from Naples to Jerusalem, by Way of Athens, Egypt, and the Peninsula of Sinai, Including a Trip to the Valley of Fayoum, 579 pages
- Barclay Johnson, Sarah (1858): Hadji in Syria: Or, Three Years in Jerusalem, 295 pages
- Barclay, J[ames] T[urner] (1858). The City of the Great King: Or, Jerusalem as it Was, as it Is, and as it is to be. Philadelphia: J. Challen and sons [etc.]
- Bartlett, W. H. (1863): Jerusalem revisited 202 pages
- Bond, Alvan, 1793-1882; Fisk, Pliny, 1792-1825 (1828): Memoir of the Rev. Pliny Fisk, A.M. : late missionary to Palestine.
- Buckingham, James Silk (1821). Travels in Palestine through the countries of Bashan and Gilead, east of the River Jordan, including a visit to the cities of Geraza and Gamala in the Decapolis. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown.
- Buckingham, James Silk. (1825): Travels among the Arab Tribes Inhabiting the Countries East of Syria and Palestine.
- Burckhardt, John Lewis, 1784-1817 (1822): Travels in Syria and the Holy Land
- Isabel Burton (1875): The Inner Life of Syria, Palestine, and the Holy Land: From My Private Journal.
- Carne, John (1826): Letters from the East: Written During a Recent Tour Through Turkey, Egypt, Arabia, the Holy Land, Syria, and Greece. Vol.1; Vol.2.
- Charles, Elizabeth (1862): Wanderings over Bible lands and seas. By the author of the "Schönberg-Cotta family."
- Chateaubriand, François-René, (1812): Travels in Greece, Palestine, Egypt, and Barbary During the Years 1806 and 1807
- Chesney, Francis Rawdon (1868): Narrative of the Euphrates expedition: carried on by order of the British government during the years 1835, 1836, and 1837 Published by Longmans, Green, and co., 564 pages
- Clarke, Edward Daniel (1813): Travels in various countries of Europe, Asia and Africa
- Conder, Josiah (1824): Palestine, Or, the Holy Land: Or, The Holy Land, 372 pages
- Croly, George and Roberts, David, The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia. 2 vols. London, 1842, 1849
- Crosby, Howard, (1851): Lands of the Moslem: A Narrative of Oriental Travel. New York
- Cuinet, Vital, (1896), Syrie, Liban et Palestine, géographie administrative, statistique, descriptive et raisonnée
- Delaborde, H.-François (Henri-François) (1880). Chartes de Terre Sainte provenant de l'Abbaye de N. D. de Josaphat (in French and Latin). Paris: E. Thorin.
- Dixon, William Hepworth (1868): The Holy Land Published by J.B. Lippincott & Co., Edition: 3 Item notes: v. 1, 418 pages
- Joseph Dupuis (1856): The Holy Places: A Narrative of Two Years' Residence in Jerusalem and Palestine Vol II.
- Egerton, Lady Francis (1841): Journal of a tour in the Holy Land, in May and June 1840 London.
- Ernoul, Bernard le Trésorier; Mas Latrie, Louis (1871). Chronique d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier / publiée, pour la première ... (in French). Mme Ve J. Renouard.
- Eugène-Melchior de Vogüé (1894). Syrie, Palestine, Mont Athos: voyage aux pays du passé. Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit et cie. 389 pages
- Fabri, Felix (1848): Fratris Felicis Fabri Evagatorium in Terrae sanctae, Arabiae et Aegypti peregrinationem: 3 vol. in Latin! Vol 1. (volume 3)
- Farley, James Lewis (1858): Two years in Syria
- Finn, Elizabeth Anne, (1866): Home in the Holy Land: A Tale Illustrating Customs and Incidents in Modern Jerusalem., London
- Finn, James (1878). Elizabeth A. Finn (ed.). Stirring Times, or, Records from Jerusalem Consular Chronicles of 1853 to 1856. Edited and Compiled by His Widow E. A. Finn. With a Preface by the Viscountess Strangford. 1. London: C.K. Paul & co.
- Finn, James (1877). Byeways in Palestine. London: James Nisbet.
- Fisk, George (1845): A pastor's memorial of Egypt, the Red Sea, the wildernesses of Sin and Paran, Mount Sinai, Jerusalem, and other principal localities of the Holy Land visited in 1842
- Forsyth, J. Bell (James Bell), 1802-1869) (1861): A Few Months in the East: Or, A Glimpse of the Red, the Dead, and the Black Seas Printed by J. Lovell, 181 pages
- Fuller, John (1830): Narrative of a Tour Through Some Parts of the Turkish Empire Published by John Murray, 560 pages
- Guérin, M. V. (1868): Description géographique, historique et archéologique de la Palestine. Judee Item notes
- Hartwell Horne, Thomas, Contributor William Finden, Edward Francis Finden (1836):Landscape Illustrations of the Bible: Consisting of Views of the Most Remarkable Places Mentioned in the Old and New Testaments : from Original Sketches Taken on the Spot
- Henniker, Frederick, (1823): Notes, During a Visit to Egypt, Nubia, the Oasis, Mount Sinai, and Jerusalem, Published by J. Murray, 340 pages
- Hofland (Barbara), Mrs Hofland, John Harris, John Harris (Firm) Contributor John Harris, John Harris (Firm) (1825): Alfred Campbell, the Young Pilgrim: Containing Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land Published by John Harris, corner of St. Paul's Church-Yard
- Hogg, Edward (1835): Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem, During the Successful Campaign of Ibrahim Pasha: During the Successful Campaign of Ibrahim Pasha, Published by Saunders and Otley, 1835 Item notes: v. 2
- Irby, Charles Leonard; Mangles, James (1823). Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor; during the years 1817 & 1818. London: Printed for Private Distribution by T. White & Co. Index
- Jaubert, Pierre-Amédée, Lapie (Pierre), Camille Alphonse Trézel (1821): Voyage en Arménie et en Perse: fait dans les années 1805 et 1806, par P. Amédée Jaubert ... Accompagné d'une carte des pays compris entre Constantinople et Téhéran, dressée par M. le chef d'escadron Lapie, suivi d'une notice sur le Ghilan et le Mazenderan, par M. le colonel Trézel ... 506 pages
- (1855): Journal of a deputation sent to the East by the committee of the Malta Protestant college, in 1849: containing an account of the present state of the Oriental nations, including their religion, learning, education, customs, and occupations By Malta Protestant college Item notes: v. 1 Published by J. Nisbet and co.
- Jessup, Henry Harris (1873): The Women of the Arabs. New York: Dodd and Mead
- Jolliffe, Thomas Robert, Andrew Dickson White (1822): Letters from Palestine: Descriptive of a Tour Through Galilee and Judæa : to which are Added, Letters from Egypt
- Jones, George (1836): Excursions to Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus, and Balbec from the United States Ship Delaware, During Her Recent Cruise: With an Attempt to Discriminate Between Truth and Error in Regard to the Sacred Places of the Holy City Published by Van Nostrand and Dwight, 388 pages
- Walter Keating Kelly, (1844): Syria and the Holy Land: Their Scenery and Their People. Being Incidents of History and Travel, from the Best and Most Recent Authorities, Including J. L. Burckhardt, Lord Lindsay, and Dr. Robinson 451 pages
- de Lamartine, Alphonse (1838): A pilgrimage to the Holy Land: comprising recollections, sketches, and reflections, made during a tour in the east, in 1832-1833
- Lane, Edward William (1860): An account of the manners and customs of the modern Egyptian Edition: 5, Published by J. Murray, 619 pages
- Lees; George Robinson (1905 ): Village life in Palestine: A Description of the Religion, Home, Life, Manners, Customs and Characteristics and Superstitions of the Peasants of the Holy Land with Reference to the Bible. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
- Light, Henry (1818). Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Holy Land, Mount Libanon and Cyprus, in the year 1814. Rodwell and Martin. p. 178.
- Lindsay, Lord (1838): Letters on Egypt, Edom, and the Holy Land Published by H. Colburn, Item notes: v. 1
- Lorenzen, F N. (1859): Jerusalem, Beschreibung meiner Reise nach dem heiligen Lande, 1858
- Lynch, William F. (1849). Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea. London: Richard Bentley.
- Lyon, George Francis (1821): A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa, in the Years 1818, 19, and 20: Accompanied by Geographical Notices of Soudan, and of the Course of the Niger. With a Chart of the Routes, and a Variety of Coloured Plates, Illustrative of the Costumes of the Several Natives of Northern Africa Published by John Murray, 383 pages
- Macgregor, John (1869). The Rob Roy on the Jordan: Nile, Red Sea, & Gennesareth, Etc. : a Canoe Cruise in Palestine and Egypt and the Waters of Damascus. London: John Murray.
- Madden, Richard Robert (1829): Travels in Turkey, Egypt, Nubia and Palestine in 1824, 1825, 1826 & 1827. Vol. 2
- Madox, John (1834): Excursions in the Holy Land, Egypt, Nubia, Syria, &c: Including a Visit to the Unfrequented District of the Haouran Published by Richard Bentley, Item notes: v. 2
- Macmichael, William (1819): Journey from Moscow to Constantinople: In the Years 1817, 18
- Merrill, Selah (1881): East of the Jordan: A Record of Travel and Observation in the Countries of Moab, Gilead, and Bashan, Published by Bentley, 549 pages
- Meyer, Martin Abraham (1907), History of the city of Gaza: from the earliest times to the present day, Columbia University Press
- Michelant, Henri Victor (1882). Itinéraires a Jérusalem et descriptions de la Terre Sainte: et descriptions ... (in French). Geneve: Imprimerie Jules-Guillaume Fick.
- Monro, Vere (1835). A summer ramble in Syria, with a Tartar trip from Aleppo to Stamboul. 1. London: R. Bentley.
- Mills, John, (1864): Three Months’ Residence at Nablus and an Account of the Modern Samaritans. London
- Fred Arthur Neale (1851): Eight Years in Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor, from 1842 to 1850: From 1842 to 1850 351 p. Vol I.
- Neubauer, Adolf (1868). La géographie du Talmud : mémoire couronné par l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (in French). Paris: Lévy.
- Oliphant, Laurence (1881), The Land of Gilead: With Excursions in the Lebanon, D. Appleton
- Oliphant, Laurence (1887), Haifa, or Life in Modern Palestine
- Osborn, Henry Stafford (1859): Palestine, Past and Present: With Biblical, Literary, and Scientific Notices Published by J. Challen & son, 600 pages
- Paxton, John D. (1839): Letters on Palestine and Egypt: Written During Two Years' Residence A.T. Skillman, 320 pages
- Pfeiffer, Ida (1843): A Visit to the Holy Land, Egypt, and Italy
- Pickthall, Marmaduke William, 1875-1936 (1918): Oriental Encounters Palestine and Syria, 1894-6
- Porter, Josias L. , John Murray (Firm) (1868): A handbook for travellers in Syria and Palestine: including an account of the geography, history, antiquities, and inhabitants of these countries, the peninsula of Sinai, Edom, and the Syrian Desert; with detailed descriptions of Jerusalem, Petra, Damascus, and Palmyra Item notes: v. 2 619 pages
- Porter, Josias Leslie (1867): The Giant Cities of Bashan: And Syria's Holy Places
- Prime, William C. (1857): Tent life in the Holy Land. New York: Harper & Brothers, the full text, University of Michigan Library.
- Ritter, Carl (1866): The Comparative Geography of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula., Volume 1 (Volume 2 and Volume 3 and Volume 4)
- Richardson, Robert (1822): Travels Along the Mediterranean and Parts Adjacent in Company with the Earl of Belmore, During the Years 1816-17-18: Extending as Far as the Second Cataract of the Nile, Jerusalem, Damascus, Balbec,
- Richter, Otto Friedrich von, Johann Philipp G. Ewers (1822): Otto Friedrichs von Richter Wallfahrten im Morganlande, aus seinen Tagebüchern und Briefen dargestellt von J.P.G. Ewers. Mit Kupfern [16 plates].
- Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 1. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1856). Biblical Researches in Palestine and adjacent regions: A Journal of Travels in the years 1838 and 1852, 2nd edition. 1. London: John Murray.
- Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1856). Later Biblical Researches in Palestine and adjacent regions: A Journal of Travels in the year 1852. London: John Murray.
Index p. 643
- George Robinson (1837): Travels in Palestine and Syria: In Two Volumes. Only Vol 2 (?)
- Rogers, Edward Thomas (1855) Notices of the modern Samaritans: illustrated by incidents in the life of Jacob Esh Shelaby Published by S.Low, 55 pages
- Saulcy, Louis Félicien de (1854). Narrative of a journey round the Dead Sea, and in the Bible lands, in 1850 and 1851. 1, new edition. London: R. Bentley.
- Scholz, Johann Martin Augustin (1822): Travels in the Countries Between Alexandria and Paraetonium, the Lybian Desert, Siwa, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, in 1821 Translation of: Reise in die Gegend zwischen Alexandrien und Parätonium, die libysche Wüste, Siwa, Egypten, Palästina und Syrien in den Jahren 1820 und 1821. Published by R. Phillips, 120 pages
- Schumacher, Gottlieb; Oliphant, Laurence; le Strange, Guy (1889). Across the Jordan: being an exploration and survey of part of Hauran and Jaulan. Bentley.
- Yehoseph Schwarz, Translated by Isaac Leeser (1850): A Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical Sketch of Palestine
- Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper (1810). A Brief Account of the Countries Adjoining the Lake of Tiberias, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea. London: Palestine Association of London.
- Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper (1854). Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten (in German). 1. Berlin: G. Reimer.
- Skinner, Thomas (1836): Adventures During a Journey Overland to India: By Way of Egypt, Syria, and the Holy Land Published by R. Bentley, Item notes: v. 2
- Spilsbury, Francis B., Edward Orme (1823): Picturesque Scenery in the Holy Land and Syria: Delineated During the Campaigns of 1799 and 1800, Published by Howlett & Brimmer for G.S. Tregear, 70 pages
- Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (1857): Sinai and Palestine: In Connection with Their History
- Stanhope, Hester Lucy, Lady, 1776-1839, Charles Lewis Meryon (1845): Memoirs of the Lady Hester Stanhope: Comprising Her Opinions and Anecdotes of Some of the Most Remarkable Persons of Her Time Edition: 2 Published by H. Colburn, Item notes: v. 1 (of 3) 344 pages
- Stebbing, Henry (1847): The Christian in Palestine: Or, Scenes of Sacred History, Historical and Descriptive Illustrated by William Henry Bartlett Published by G. Virtue, 1847, 234 pages
- Stephens, John Lloyd, (1837): Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land. Vol I +Vol II of two volumes
- Taylor, Bayard 1825-1878 (1854): The Lands of the Saracen Pictures of Palestine, Asia Minor, Sicily, and Spain
- Thomas, John (1853): Travels in Egypt and Palestine
- William McClure Thomson, (1859): The Land and the Book: Or, Biblical Illustrations Drawn from the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and Scenery, of the Holy Land Illustrated, 712 p. Vol I (Volume 2)
- Tobler, Titus (1867): Bibliographia geographica Palaestinae: zunächst kritische Uebersicht gedruckter und ungedruckter Beschreibungen der Reisen ins Heilige Land 265 pages
- Tobler, Titus (1853). Dr. Titus Toblers zwei Bucher Topographie von Jerusalem und seinen Umgebungen (in German). 1. Berlin: G. Reimer.
- Tristram, H.B. (1865). Land of Israel, A Journal of travel in Palestine, undertaken with special reference to its physical character. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
- Turner, William (1820): Journal of a Tour in the LevantPublished by J. Murray, Item notes: v.2
- Laura Valentine (1893): Palestine past and present, pictorial and descriptive
- Velde, van de, Charles William Meredith (1854). Narrative of a journey through Syria and Palestine in 1851 and 1852. 1. William Blackwood and son.
- du Velay, ed. (1888). Cartulaire des Hospitaliers: (Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem) (in Latin and French). Paris: A. Picard.
- Walk, C B. (1828): A visit to Jerusalem and the holy places adjacent
- Wallace, Alexander (1868): The Desert and the Holy Land Published by William Oliphant, 400 pages
- Wilson, Charles Williams, ed. (c. 1881). Picturesque Palestine, Sinai and Egypt. 1. New York: D. Appleton.
- Wilson, John (1847): The Lands of the Bible: Visited and Described in an Extensive Journey Undertaken with Special Reference to the Promotion of Biblical Research and the Advancement of the Cause of Philanthropy Published by William Whyte, Item notes: v. 1, 786 pages
- Wilson, William Rae (1823): Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land Edition: 2 Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 544 pages
- Wright, T. (ed. and translated) (1848): Early Travels in Palestine: Comprising the Narratives of Arculf, Willibald, Bernard, Saewulf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tudela, Sir John Maundeville, De la Brocquière, and Maundrell Published by Henry G. Bohn
- Al-Zahiri (1894) Kitb zubdat kashf al-mamlik wa bayn al-uruq wa-al-maslik
- Zimpel, Charles Franz (1865): Strassen-verbindung des Mittelländischen mit dem Todten Meere und Damascus über Jerusalem mit Heranziehung von Bethelehem, Hebron, Tiberias, Nazareth etc.... Published by H.L. Brönner, 47 pages
- Baldensperger, P. J. (1913): The Immovable East: Studies of the People and Customs of Palestine, Boston
- Forder, Archibald (1905). "Ventures among the Arabs in desert, tent and town; thirteen years of pioneer missionary life with the Ishma-elites of Moab, Edom and Arabia". Boston: W. N. Hartshorn. Cite journal requires
- Grant, Elihu (1921): The People of Palestine archive.org
- Inchbold, A C (1906): Under the Syrian sun: The Lebanon, Baalbek, Galilee, and Judaea. With 40 full-page coloured plates and 8 black-and-white drawings by Stanley Inchbold Published by Hutchinson
- Wilson, C. T. (1906). Peasant Life in the Holy Land. New York: E. P. Dutton.
- May, Karl Friedrich, 1842-1912, (1907/1908): Travel Tales in the Promised Land (Palestine)
- Kelman, John, John Fulleylove (1912): The Holy Land Illustrated by John Fulleylove, Published by A. & C. Black, 301 pages
- Livingstone, William Pringle (1923): A Galilee Doctor: Being a Sketch of the Career of Dr. D.W. Torrance of Tiberias, Published by Hodder and Stoughton, 295 pages
- Ludwig Preiss, Paul Rohrbach (1926): Palestine and Transjordania Published by Macmillan, 230 pages
Debate over mid-nineteenth century depictions
During the 19th century, many residents and visitors attempted to estimate the population without recourse to official data, and came up with a large number of different values. Estimates that are reasonably reliable are only available for the final third of the century, from which period Ottoman population and taxation registers have been preserved.
In Chapters 46, 39, 52 and 56 of his Innocents Abroad, American author Mark Twain wrote of his visit to Palestine in 1867: "Palestine sits in sackcloth and ashes. Over it broods the spell of a curse that has withered its fields and fettered its energies. Palestine is desolate and unlovely – Palestine is no more of this workday world. It is sacred to poetry and tradition, it is dreamland."(Chapter 56) "There was hardly a tree or a shrub anywhere. Even the olive and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country". (Chapter 52) "A desolation is here that not even imagination can grace with the pomp of life and action. We reached Tabor safely. We never saw a human being on the whole route". (Chapter 49) "There is not a solitary village throughout its whole extent – not for thirty miles in either direction. ...One may ride ten miles (16 km) hereabouts and not see ten human beings." ...these unpeopled deserts, these rusty mounds of barrenness..."(Chapter 46)
These descriptions of the often quoted non-arable areas few people would inhabit are as Twain says, "by contrast" to occasional scenes of arable land and productive agriculture: "The narrow canon in which Nablous, or Shechem, is situated, is under high cultivation, and the soil is exceedingly black and fertile. It is well watered, and its affluent vegetation gains effect by contrast with the barren hills that tower on either side"..."Sometimes, in the glens, we came upon luxuriant orchards of figs, apricots, pomegranates, and such things, but oftener the scenery was rugged, mountainous, verdureless and forbidding"..."We came finally to the noble grove of orange-trees in which the Oriental city of Jaffa lies buried"..."Small shreds and patches of it must be very beautiful in the full flush of spring, however, and all the more beautiful by contrast with the far-reaching desolation that surrounds them on every side.
Author Kathleen Christison was critical of attempts to use Twain's humorous writing as a literal description of Palestine at that time. She writes that "Twain's descriptions are high in Israeli government press handouts that present a case for Israel's redemption of a land that had previously been empty and barren. His gross characterizations of the land and the people in the time before mass Jewish immigration are also often used by US propagandists for Israel." For example, she noted that Twain described the Samaritans of Nablus at length without mentioning the much larger Arab population at all. The Arab population of Nablus at the time was about 20,000.
In 1852 the American writer Bayard Taylor traveled across the Jezreel Valley, which he described in his 1854 book The Lands of the Saracen; or, Pictures of Palestine, Asia Minor, Sicily and Spain as: "... one of the richest districts in the world"..."The soil is a dark-brown loam, and, without manure, produces annually superb crops of wheat and barley."
Laurence Oliphant, who visited Palestine in 1887, wrote that Palestine's Valley of Esdraelon was "a huge green lake of waving wheat, with its village-crowned mounds rising from it like islands; and it presents one of the most striking pictures of luxuriant fertility which it is possible to conceive."
After a visit to Palestine in 1891, Ahad Ha'am wrote:
From abroad, we are accustomed to believe that Eretz Israel is presently almost totally desolate, an uncultivated desert, and that anyone wishing to buy land there can come and buy all he wants. But in truth it is not so. In the entire land, it is hard to find tillable land that is not already tilled; only sandy fields or stony hills, suitable at best for planting trees or vines and, even that after considerable work and expense in clearing and preparing them- only these remain unworked. ... Many of our people who came to buy land have been in Eretz Israel for months, and have toured its length and width, without finding what they seek.
Henry Baker Tristram
In 1856 Henry Baker Tristram said of Palestine "A few years ago the whole Ghor (Jordan Valley) was in the hands of the fellaheen, and much of it cultivated for corn. Now the whole of it is in the hands of the Bedouin, who eschew all agriculture…The same thing is now going on over the plain of Sharon where….land is going out of cultivation and whole villages rapidly disappeared….Since the year 1838, no less than twenty villages there have thus erased from the map, and the stationary population extirpated."
Norman Finkelstein said in an interview with Adam Horowitz in Mondoweiss about the travel accounts: "... as you can imagine you are coming from London and you are going to Palestine, Palestine looks empty. That's not surprising. You've been to the occupied territories and even now if you are traveling on roads to the West Bank, most of it looks empty and this is now, the population in the West bank is about two million. Back then the population in the whole of Palestine — meaning the West Bank, Gaza, Israel and Jordan, the whole of Palestine — the population was about 300,000. So of course it's going to look empty".
- Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
- Demographic history of Palestine
- History of Palestine
- List of travel books
- Cartography of Palestine
- Stephanie Stidham Rogers (6 January 2011). Inventing the Holy Land: American Protestant Pilgrimage to Palestine, 1865–1941. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-4844-0.
- Eveline van der Steen (14 October 2014). "Travellers in the Levant in the Nineteenth Century". Near Eastern Tribal Societies During the Nineteenth Century: Economy, Society and Politics Between Tent and Town. Routledge. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-317-54348-0.
- Le Strange, Guy (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund., London, 1890.
- Uzi Baram 2002 “Seeing Differences: Travellers to Ottoman Palestine and Accounts of Diversity” Journeys: The International Journal of Travel and Travel Writing 3(2):29-49.
- Biblical Researches in Palestine, volume 3, First Appendix, pages 3-28
- Bibliographia Geographica Palaestinae. Zunächst Kristiche Übersicht Gedruckter und Ungedruckter Beschreibungen der Reisen ins Heilige Land ("Geographical Bibliography of Palestine. The First Critical Overview of Printed and Unprinted Descriptions of Travels to the Holy Land"), 1867
- Reinhold Röhricht Bibliotheca Geographica Palaestinae: Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographie des Heiligen Landes bezüglichen Literatur ("Geographical Bibliography of Palestine: Chronological Index of Literature relating to the Geography of the Holy Land"), Berlin: Reuther und Reichard, 1890
- Zur Shalev (14 October 2011). Sacred Words and Worlds: Geography, Religion, and Scholarship, 1550-1700. BRILL. p. 79. ISBN 978-90-04-20938-1.
- Ilan Pappe (31 July 2006). A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples. Cambridge University Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-521-68315-9.
The foreign visitors were prolific writers. More than three thousand books and travelogues on Palestine were written by Europeans throughout the nineteenth century, all painting a picture of a primitive Palestine waiting to be redeemed by Europeans... We cannot quantify misery or joy, but Palestinian biographies from a short time later, and subsequent anthropological research, tell us that this picture represents the distorted view of European colonists.
- Johann Büssow (11 August 2011). Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem 1872-1908. BRILL. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-90-04-20569-7.
- J. McCarthy, The population of Ottoman Syria and Iraq, 1878–1914, Asian and African Studies, vol. 15 (1981) pp. 3–44. K. H. Karpat, Ottoman population 1830–1914 (Univ. Wisconsin Press, 1985).
- Chapter 56.
- Lester I. Vogel. To See a Promised Land: Americans and the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century. Pennsylvania State Univ Print. ISBN 978-0-271-00884-4.
- Chapter 52.
- Chapter 49.
- Chapter 46.
- Mark Twain – Travellers abroad"The narrow canon in which Nablous, or Shechem, is situated, is under high cultivation, and the soil is exceedingly black and fertile. It is well watered, and its affluent vegetation gains effect by contrast with the barren hills that tower on either side"..."Sometimes, in the glens, we came upon luxuriant orchards of figs, apricots, pomegranates, and such things, but oftener the scenery was rugged, mountainous, verdureless and forbidding" "We came finally to the noble grove of orange-trees in which the Oriental city of Jaffa lies buried" "Small shreds and patches of it must be very beautiful in the full flush of spring, however, and all the more beautiful by contrast with the far-reaching desolation that surrounds them on every side"
- K. Christison, Perceptions of Palestine: Their Influence on U.S. Middle East Policy, Univ. of California Press, 1999; p16.
- K. Christison, Perceptions of Palestine: Their Influence on US Middle East Policy, Univ. of California Press, 1999; p. 20.
- B. B. Doumani, The political economy of population counts in Ottoman Palestine: Nablus, Circa 1950, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol 26 (1994) 1–17.
- "The Lands of the Saracen, by Bayard Taylor". Gutenberg.org. 1 February 2004. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- The Lands of the Saracen By Bayard Taylor – Page 32 "We rode for miles through a sea of wheat, waving far and wide over the swells of land. The tobacco in the fields about Ramleh was the most luxuriant I ever saw, and the olive and fig attain a size and lust' strength wholly unknown in Italy, Judea cursed of God! what a misconception, not only of God's mercy and beneficence, but of the actual fact!"
- Abu-Lughod, 1971, p. 126.
- Alan Dowty, Much Ado about Little: Ahad Ha'am's "Truth from Eretz Yisrael", Zionism, and the Arabs, Israel Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Fall 2000) 154–181.
- H.B. Tristram, The Land of Israel: A Journal of Travels Through Palestine, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1865, p. 490
- "Finkelstein on Joan Peters's legacy (and Dershowitz's legal troubles)". Mondoweiss. 28 January 2015.