Treaty 1

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Treaty 1 is a controversial agreement established August 3, 1871, between Queen Victoria and various First Nation band governments in southeastern Manitoba including the Chippewa (Ojibwe) and Swampy Cree Nations.


This would be the first treaty signed since the 1867 formation of the modern Canadian government and one year after the Province of Manitoba was formed as a part of the Canadian Confederation.[1] Alexander Morris was an important negotiator of these treaties, but the Ojibwe and others may have set the agenda, and wanted good treaties before many settlers would be allowed to enter the area. It was also known as the Stone Fort Treaty, based on the nickname of Lower Fort Garry, Manitoba, where the treaty was signed.[1] Treaty 1 and Treaty 2 were amended by a Canadian government Order in Council on April 30, 1875, to add provisions which were originally promised verbally by the government. Similar "outside promises" were included in the text of 1873's Treaty 3 adding further pressure on the government to include such provisions in the earlier treaties.[1]

List of Treaty 1 First Nations[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Numbered Treaty Overview". (Formerly Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions). Canada in the Making. Retrieved November 16, 2009. ARTICLES OF A TREATY made and concluded this third day of August in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, between Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland by Her Commissioner, Wemyss M. Simpson, Esquire, of the one part, and the Chippewa and Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians, inhabitants of the country within the limits hereinafter defined and described, by their Chiefs chosen and named as hereinafter mentioned, of the other part. 

External links[edit]