Treaty 4

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Pictograph made by Chief Paskwa in 1874 describing Treaty 4.

Treaty 4 is a treaty established between Queen Victoria and the Cree and Saulteaux First Nation band governments. The area covered by Treaty 4 represents most of current day southern Saskatchewan, plus small portions of what are today western Manitoba and southeastern Alberta.[1] This treaty is also called the "Qu'appelle Treaty," as its first signings were conducted at Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan on 15 September 1874. Additional signings or adhesions would continue until September 1877. This treaty is only indigenous treaty in Canada that has a corresponding indigenous interpretation (a pictograph made at the time by Chief Paskwa) [2]

Reasons for the Treaty[edit]

The Government of Canada negotiated the first five Numbered Treaties to gain land from the First Nations for settlement, agricultural and industry. Also, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald saw the land as necessary to complete a transcontinental railway, which would run through the cities of Regina, Moose Jaw, and Swift Current in southern Saskatchewan.

Terms of the Treaty[edit]

Each family of 5 covered by Treaty 4 would receive 1 square mile (2.59 square km) of land, which they could sell back to the Government of Canada for compensation. Each person received $5 a year and a gift of clothing. A chief would receive $25 immediately plus an additional $25 per year, along with a coat and a silver medal. Every three years, a chief would receive a new suit of clothing. Four people of each band would also receive $15 a year and a new suit of clothing every three years. The people would also receive farming tools portioned by family. The tribe also was to receive powder, shot, ball and twine, in all to the value of $750 annually. Each reserve would get a school when they desired a teacher. The people would also have the right to hunt and fish on all ceded land, except that land used for agriculture, forestry, mining, or on any land that was settled. The treaties are supposed to last forever.[3]


List of Treaty 4 First Nations[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "First Nations Communities and Treaty Boundaries in Saskatchewan" (PDF). Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 30 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-12-02. 
  2. ^ Display at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum in Regina.
  3. ^ Government of Canada, "Treaty 4 Original Text", Treaty 4 Original Text, 20 July 1874

External links[edit]