Treaty 5 is a treaty that was first established in September, 1875, between Queen Victoria and Saulteaux and Swampy Cree non-treaty band governments and peoples around Lake Winnipeg in the District of Keewatin. Much of what is today central and northern Manitoba was covered by the treaty, as were a few small adjoining portions of the present-day provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. The Treaty was completed in two rounds. The first was from September 1875 to September 1876. The Crown intended in 1875 to include only "the Indians [east and west] of Lake Winnipeg for the surrender of the Territory uncovered by previous treaties" including "the proposed migration of the Norway House band". Pimicikamak territory was north of the lake. It was included by accident or design of Tepastenam attending the Norway House signing. Additional peoples and groups signed on between 1908 and 1910.
- 20 September 1875: signing of Treaty 5 at Berens River, Manitoba
- 24 September 1875: signing of Treaty 5 by Norway House and Pimicikamak peoples at Norway House, Manitoba
- 27 September. 1875: Grand Rapids signing
- 28 September 1875: signing by Wa-Pang or Dog-Head community, to be included with the reservation assigned for the Norway House community
- 26 July 1876: Big Island signing at Wa-Pang/Dog-Head Island
- 4 August 1876: signing by Grand Rapids tribes at Beren's River
- 7 September 1876: signing by Black River Saulteaux band, signed in Winnipeg
- 7 September 1876: The Pas signing by tribes in that region
- 26 June 1908: Split Lake adhesion signing
- 8 July 1908: Norway House adhesion signing
- 15 July 1908: Cross Lake adhesion signing
- 30 July 1908: Nelson House adhesion signing
- 24 August 1908: Fisher River adhesion signing
- 29 July 1909: Oxford House adhesion signing
- 6 August 1909: God's Lake adhesion signing
- 13 August 1909: Island Lake adhesion signing
- 9 June 1910: Deer's Lake East adhesion signing
- 10 August 1910: York Factory adhesion signing
- Tough, Frank (1997). As Their Natural Resources Fail: Native Peoples and the Economic History of Northern Manitoba, 1870-1930 (DIGITIZED ONLINE BY GOOGLE BOOKS). UBC Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-7748-0571-1. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
- A written text is included in Alexander Morris, The Treaties of Canada with the Indians, Belfords , Clarke & Co., Toronto (1880); see also http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/trts/trty5_e.html, accessed August 14, 2008.
- Manitoba Free Press, Winnipeg, Letter to the Editor, Thursday, March 27, 1875, p.5.
- Kenneth S. Coates & William R. Morrison, Treaty Research Report: Treaty 5 (1875), Treaties and Historical Research Centre, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (1986), pp. 10-13.
- The Privy Council adopted a recommendation from the Department of the Interior that excluded Pimicikamak from the Commissioners' authority to treat; LAC, Privy Council Office: Treaty with Indians on either side of Lake Winnipeg - Interior 2 July - Expediency of negotiating; Order-in-Council Number 1875-0707, Date Approved: 1875/07/09, ref. RG2, Privy Council Office, Ser. A-1-a.
- Most of the Norway House residents moved in 1876 to Fisher River; see Alexander Morris, The Treaties of Canada with the Indians, Belfords , Clarke & Co., Toronto (1880).
- The Pimicikamak people were allotted a reserve at Cross Lake; see Dispatch of Lieut.-Gov. of N.W.T. to the Minister of the Interior, October 11, 1875, in Alexander Morris, The Treaties of Canada with the Indians.
List of Treaty 5 First Nations / Peoples
- The Canadian Crown and First Nations, Inuit and Métis
- Council of Keewatin
- District of Keewatin
- Nishnawbe Aski Nation