Treaty of Ahmet Pasha
In the 17th century, a stalemate between the Ottoman and Safavid empires had been reached by the treaties of Serav and Zuhab. However, during the short rule of Afghanistan based Hotaki dynasty, chaos in Iran resulted in clashes along frontiers, especially in Caucasus. Meanwhile, Peter I of Russia began to occupy North Caucasus and Azerbaijan. Fearing a Russian-controlled Caucasus, the Ottomans decided to capture Tblisi to balance the Russian advance. But this operation resulted in a long Ottoman Safavid war.
Between 1723 and 1730, the Ottomans were able to control South Caucasus by capturing Yerevan and Gence in addition to Tblisi. In the southern fronts (i.e., Western Iran), Ottomans captured Tabriz, Urmia, Kermanshah and Hamedan. But after Tahmasp II of Safavids began controlling Iran, the Ottoman advance was checked. Tired of war, both sides decided to end the war. Ahmet Pasha (Ottomon) and Mehmet Rıza Kulu (Persian) signed the treaty.
Terms of treaty
The terms of the treaty were:
- Ottoman Empire kept its gains in Caucasus,
- Ottoman gains in West Iran were conceded to Persia, and
- Aras River became the new border line in South Caucasus.
The treaty proved to be an armistice rather than a permanent treaty. Because, neither Ottoman sultan Mahmut I approved the loss of Tabriz nor Nader Shah, then the commander in chief of the Persian army, the losses in Caucasus. During Nader Shah’s reign, Afsharid Persia was able to regain its losses.
- Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi vol.III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp. 282-290
- Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi vol.IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp. 3-4
- On line document (in Turkish)