Treaty of Greenwich
The Treaty of Greenwich (also known as the Treaties of Greenwich) contained two agreements both signed on 1 July 1543 in Greenwich between representatives of England and Scotland. The accord, overall, entailed a plan developed by Henry VIII of England to unite both kingdoms (i.e. Union of the Crowns). The first sub-treaty helped to establish peace between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. The second sub-treaty was a marriage proposal between Edward VI of England and Mary, Queen of Scots. In this part of the treaty, it was agreed that Mary would be accompanied by an English nobleman/gentleman (and his wife) until she was ten years old. Afterwards, Mary would reside in England until the time of her marriage. Also, the Treaty of Greenwich permitted the Kingdom of Scotland to maintain its laws. Even though the Earl of Arran signed the accord on 1 July and ratified it on 25 August 1543, the Treaty of Greenwich was ultimately rejected by the Parliament of Scotland on 11 December 1543, leading to eight years of Anglo-Scottish conflict known as the Rough Wooing.
The treaty was the culmination of diplomatic efforts by Adam Otterburn, George Douglas of Pittendreich and Earl of Glencairn in London, and Ralph Sadler in Edinburgh. The commissioners for Mary (with the consent of Regent Arran) were Glencairn, Pittendreich, William Hamilton, James Learmonth of Dairsie and Henry Balnaves. Henry's commissioners were Baron Audley of Walden, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester, Thomas Thirlby Bishop of Westminster, and the Barons St.John and Gage.
- Fisher, p. 459.
- Loades, pp. 59–60.
- Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, vol. 18 part 1, (1901), no.804.
- Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher. The History of England, from the Accession of Henry VII, to the Death of Henry VIII, 1485–1547 (Volume V). Longmans, Green, and Co., 1906.
- Loades, David Michael. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 1504–53. Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-19-820193-1
- Merriman, Marcus, The Rough Wooings. Tuckwell, 2000, pp 111–136. ISBN 1-86232-090-X