Treaty of London (1827)
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The Treaty of London was signed on of 6 July 1827 by the United Kingdom, France, and Russia on 6 July 1827. The three main European powers had called upon Greece and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) to cease hostilities that had been going on since the Greeks had revolted against Ottoman rule on 6 March 1821. After years of negotiation, the European allied powers had finally decided to intervene in the war on the side of the Greeks. The Allied powers mainly wanted this treaty to cause the Ottoman Empire to create an independent Greek state. It stated that while the Ottoman Empire should recognize the independence of Greece, the Sultan would be the supreme ruler of Greece. The treaty declared the intention of the three Allied powers to mediate between the Greeks and the Ottoman Turks. The base arrangement was that Greece would become a dependency of Turkey and pay tribute as such Additional articles were added to detail the response should the Turkish Sultan refuse the offer of mediation and continue hostilities in Greece. These articles detailed that the Turks had one month to accept the mediation or that the Allied powers would form a partnership with the Greeks through commercial relations. Measures were also adopted that if the Ottoman Sultan refused the armistice, the Allies would use the appropriate force to ensure the adoption of the armistice.
However, the Ottoman Empire, basing its decision upon its (supposedly) superior naval force, declined to accept the treaty. The Treaty of London allowed the three European powers to intervene together on behalf of the Greeks. At the naval Battle of Navarino, on 20 October 1827, the allied powers crushed the combined Ottoman–Egyptian fleet in an overwhelming victory which forcefully and effectively created an independent Greek state.
The Treaty of London also bound Russia to a promise not to attempt any territorial aggrandisement at the expense of Turkey and/or secure any exclusive commercial advantage from Turkey as the result of any subsequent Russian war with Turkey. The war between Russia and Turkey anticipated by the treaty, actually broke out in June 1828 when Russian Troops crossed the Danube into the Ottoman controlled province of Dobruja. This war became the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829. The Treaty of Adrianople, signed by Russia and Turkey on 14 September 1829, ended the Russo-Turkish War. On top of recognizing the independence of Greece, Turkey was forced by the Treaty to give the Danube Delta and its islands, and a considerable portion of the Black Sea south of the Kuban estuary over to Russia. Because of these new territorial arrangements and the other articles contained in the treaty, Britain and the other European powers came to regard the Treaty of Adrianople as infringing on the promises that Russia had made in the Treaty of 1827.
- "Internet History Sourcebooks". legacy.fordham.edu. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Karl Marx, "Palmerston: Eighth Article" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 12 (International Publishers: New York, 1979) p. 400.
- Note 35 contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 12, p. 642.
- Karl Marx, "Palmerston Eighth Article" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 12, p. 400.