Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875)
The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (樺太・千島交換条約 Karafuto-Chishima Kōkan Jōyaku?) (Russian:Петербургский договор) was signed on 7 May 1875 between the Empire of Japan and Empire of Russia. Its terms stipulated that Japan give up all claims to Sakhalin island in exchange for undisputed sovereignty over the Kuril islands up to the Kamchatka peninsula.
The authoritative texts of the Treaty are the Russian and French texts. The Treaty was ratified on 22 August 1875.
The Treaty of Shimoda of 1855 had defined the border between Japan and Russia to be the strait between Iturup (Etorofu) and Urup (Uruppu) islands in the Kurile chain, but had left the status of Sakhalin (Karafuto) open. Without well-defined borders, incidents between Russian and Japanese settlers began to occur. In order to remedy this situation the Japanese government sent an ambassador, Enomoto Takeaki, to Saint Petersburg to clearly define the border. After a year of negotiations, Japan agreed to renounce its claims to Sakhalin, with compensation for Japanese residents, access by the fishing fleet to the Sea of Okhotsk, ten-years free use of Russian ports in the area and ownership of all of the Kuril Islands.
- G. Patrick March (1996). Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-95566-4.
- Tim Chapman (2001). Imperial Russia, 1801-1905. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-23109-4.
- Thierry Mormanne (1992). "Le problème des Kouriles: pour un retour à Saint-Pétersbourg", in: Cipango, N° 1, Paris, p.58-89. ISSN 1164-5857.