Treaty of St. Louis
The Treaty of St. Louis is the name of a series of treaties signed between the United States and various Native American tribes from 1804 through 1824. The fourteen treaties were all signed in the St. Louis, Missouri area.
1804 - Sauk and Fox (Meskwaki)
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The Treaty of St. Louis of 1804 was treaty signed by William Henry Harrison for the United States and representatives of the Sauk and Meskwaki tribes led by Quashquame, signed on November 3, 1804 and proclaimed on February 21, 1805. Despite the name, the treaty was conducted at Portage des Sioux, Missouri, located immediately north of St. Louis, Missouri. In exchange for an annual payment of $1,000 in goods to be delivered to the tribe in St. Louis ($600 for the Sacs and $400 for the Fox), the tribes gave up a swath of land stretching from northeast Missouri through almost all of Illinois north of the Illinois River as well as a large section of southern Wisconsin. This treaty was deeply resented by the Sauk, especially Black Hawk, who felt that Quashquame was not authorized to sign treaties. This treaty led to many Sauk siding with the British during the War of 1812.
The specific terms for the boundary were:
- The general boundary line between the lands of the United States and of the said Indian tribes shall be as follows, to wit: Beginning at a point on the Missouri river opposite to the mouth of the Gasconade river; thence in a direct course so as to strike the river Jeffreon at the distance of thirty miles from its mouth, and down the said Jeffreon to the Mississippi, thence up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ouisconsing river and up the same to a point which shall be thirty-six miles in a direct line from the mouth of the said river, thence by a direct line to the point where the Fox river (a branch of the Illinois) leaves the small lake called Sakaegan, thence down the Fox river to the Illinois river, and down the same to the Mississippi. And the said tribes, for and in consideration of the friendship and protection of the United States which is now extended to them, of the goods (to the value of two thousand two hundred and thirty-four dollars and fifty cents) which are now delivered, and of the annuity hereinafter stipulated to be paid, do hereby cede and relinquish forever to the United States, all the lands included within the above-described boundary.
Included in this cessation were the historic villages along the Rock River (Illinois), particularly Saukenuk. William Henry Harrison, the representative for the United States, was governor of the Indiana territory and of the District of Louisiana, superintendent of Indian Affairs for the said territory and district. The party of Sauk who signed the treaty, led by Quashquame, were not expecting to negotiate land and did not include important tribal leaders who would ordinarily have been in such negotiations. Black Hawk never recognized the treaty as valid and this led him to side with the British against settlers in the area during the War of 1812. The treaty was upheld again in the Treaties of Portage des Sioux in 1815 at the end of the war. Black Hawk eventually led the Black Hawk War to fight its terms.
In his autobiography, Black Hawk recalled:
- Quashquame, Pashepaho, Ouchequaka and Hashequarhiqua were sent by the Sacs to St. Louis to try and free a prisoner who had killed an American. The Sac tradition was to see if the Americans would release their friend. They were willing to pay for the person killed, thus covering the blood and satisfying the relations of the murdered man.
- Upon return Quashquame and party came up and gave us the following account of their mission:
- On our arrival at St. Louis we met our American father and explained to him our business, urging the release of our friend. The American chief told us he wanted land. We agreed to give him some on the west side of the Mississippi, likewise more on the Illinois side opposite Jeffreon. When the business was all arranged we expected to have our friend released to come home with us. About the time we were ready to start our brother was let out of the prison. He started and ran a short distance when he was SHOT DEAD!
- This was all they could remember of what had been said and done. It subsequently appeared that they had been drunk the greater part of the time while at St. Louis.
- This was all myself and nation knew of the treaty of 1804. It has since been explained to me. I found by that treaty, that all of the country east of the Mississippi, and south of Jeffreon was ceded to the United States for one thousand dollars a year. I will leave it to the people of the United States to say whether our nation was properly represented in this treaty? Or whether we received a fair compensation for the extent of country ceded by these four individuals?
1816 - Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi
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The Treaty of St. Louis of 1816 was treaty signed by Ninian Edwards, William Clark, and Auguste Chouteau for the United States and representatives of the Council of Three Fires (united tribes of Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi) residing on the Illinois and Milwaukee rivers, signed on August 24, 1816 and proclaimed on December 30, 1816. Despite the name, the treaty was conducted at Portage des Sioux, Missouri, located immediately north of St. Louis, Missouri.
By signing the treaty, the tribes, their chiefs, and their warriors relinquished all right, claim, and title to land previously ceded to the United States by the Sac and Fox tribes on November 3, 1804 (see, 1804 Treaty, above), By signing, the united tribes also ceded a 20-mile strip of land to the United States, which connected Chicago and Lake Michigan with the Illinois River. In 1848, the Illinois and Michigan Canal was built on the ceded land and, in 1900, the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal.
The specific land given up included:
- The said chiefs and warriors, for themselves and the tribes they represent, agree to relinquish, and hereby do relinquish, to the United States, all their right, claim, and title, to all the land contained in the before-mentioned cession of the Sacs and Foxes, which lies south of a due west line from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi river. And they moreover cede to the United States all the land contained within the following bounds, to wit: beginning on the left bank of the Fox river of Illinois, ten miles above the mouth of said Fox river; thence running so as to cross Sandy creek, ten miles above its mouth; thence, in a direct line, to a point ten miles north of the west end of the Portage, between Chicago creek, which empties into Lake Michigan, and the river Depleines, a fork of the Illinois; thence, in a direct line, to a point on Lake Michigan, ten miles northward of the mouth of Chicago creek; thence, along the lake, to a point ten miles southward of the mouth of the said Chicago creek; thence, in a direct line, to a point on the Kankakee, ten miles above its mouth; thence, with the said Kankakee and the Illinois river, to the mouth of Fox river, and thence to the beginning: Provided, nevertheless, That the said tribes shall be permitted to hunt and fish within the limits of the land hereby relinquished and ceded, so long as it may continue to be the property of the United States.
In exchange the tribes were to be paid $1,000 in merchandise over 12 years. The land was surveyed by John C. Sullivan and its land was originally intended as land grant rewards for volunteers in the War of 1812. Many of the streets in the survey run at a diagonal that is counter to the Chicago street grid.
1818 - Osage
The Treaty of St. Louis (also known as the Treaty with the Osage or the Osage Treaty) was signed on September 25, 1818 in St. Louis between William Clark of the United States and members of the Osage Nation. Based on the terms of the accord, the Osage ceded all territories to the United States beginning at the Arkansas River and ending at the Verdigris River. The specifications of the lands ceded to the United States are found in Article 1 of the accord:
- Whereas, the Osage nations have been embarrassed by the frequent demands for property taken from citizens of the United States, by war parties, and other thoughtless men of their several bands, (both before and since their war with the Cherokees) and as the exertions of their chiefs have been ineffectual in recovering and delivering such property, conformably with the condition of the ninth article of a treaty, entered into with the United States at Fort Clark, the tenth of November, one thousand eight hundred and eight; and as the deductions from their annuities, in conformity to the said article, would deprive them of any for several years, and being destitute of funds to do that justice to the citizens of the United States, which is calculated to prompt a friendly intercourse, they have agreed, and do hereby agree, to cede to the United States, and forever quit claim to the tract of country included within the following bounds, to-wit: Beginning at the Arkansaw River, at where the present Osage boundary line strikes the river at Frog Bayou; then up the Arkansaw and Verdigris to the fall of Verdigris river; thence, eastwardly, to the said Osage boundary line at a point twenty leagues north from the Arkansaw river; and, with that line, to the place of beginning.
1825 - Shawnee
The Treaty of St. Louis was signed on November 7, 1825 (proclaimed on December 30, 1825) between William Clark on behalf of the United States and delegates from the Shawnee Nation. In this treaty, the Shawnee ceded lands to the United States near Cape Geredeau. In return for Cape Geredeau, the United States government gave the Shawnee a sum of 11,000 dollars and leased to them a blacksmith shop for five years providing all tools and 300 pounds of iron annually. Moreover, peace and friendship between the two nations were renewed and perpetuated.
- Osage Treaty (disambiguation), several treaties
- List of treaties
- Indian Boundary Park - Chicago
- Treaty of Prairie du Chien
- Treaty of Chicago
- Treaty of St. Louis, 1804.
- Black Hawk. Autobiography of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, or Black Hawk. J. B. Patterson, 1882.
- Treaty with the Ottawa, 1816
- The Osage: A Historical Sketch.
- Oklahoma State University Library (Kappler Project: Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties) - Treaty With The Shawnee, 1825 (Article 1) The Shawnee tribe, do, hereby, cede and relinquish to the United States, all their claim, interest and title, to the lands on which they settled, near Cape Geredeau, under an authority of the Spanish government as aforesaid, situate, lying, and being between the River St. Come and Cape Geredeau, and bounded on the east by the Mississippi, and westwardly by White Water.
- Oklahoma State University Library (Kappler Project: Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties) - Treaty With The Shawnee, 1825 (Article 4) It appearing that the Shawnee Indians have various claims against the citizens of the United States to a large amount, for spoliations of various kinds, but which they have not been able to support by the testimony of white men; the United States, in order to a final settlement of all such claims, do hereby agree to pay to the Shawnee nation, the sum of (11,000) eleven thousand dollars, to be distributed by them in such way as may be deemed equitable; and to support and keep a blacksmith for their use on the lands hereby assigned, for the term of five years, or as long as the President may deem advisable; and it is further stipulated, that the United States shall furnish for the use of the Shawnees, the tools necessary for the blacksmith's shop, and (300) three hundred pounds of iron annually, to be furnished at the expense of the United States.
- Oklahoma State University Library (Kappler Project: Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties) - Treaty With The Shawnee, 1825 (Article 5) The friendship heretofore existing between the United States and the Shawnee Nation, is, hereby, renewed and perpetuated.
- The Osage: A Historical Sketch
- Kappler Project - Text of the 1804 Treaty
- Kappler Project - Text of the 1816 Treaty
- Kappler Project - Text of the 1818 Treaty
- Kappler Project - Text of the 1825 Treaty
- Dr. David A. Baerreis - The Geographic Location of Potawatomi Bands: 1795 to 1846
- Indian Boundary from Bolingbrook, Illinois
- Indian Boundary Park in Frankfort, Illinois