Treaty of Sugauli
|Drafted||December 2, 1815|
|Signed||March 4, 1816|
|Signatories||Parish Bradshaw (for the Company Government) and Guru Gajaraj Mishra with Chandra Shekhar Upadhaya (for Nepal)|
|Parties|| East India Company |
|Ratifiers||Governor-General David Ochterlony (British India)|
The Treaty of Sugauli (also spelled Sugowlee, Sagauli, Soogoulee), the treaty that established the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 2 December 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and Raj Guru Gajaraj Mishra with Chandra Shekhar Upadhaya for Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16. The treaty represented a Nepali surrender to the British and contained the cession of Nepal's western territory to the British East India Company.
Following the Unification of Nepal under Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nepal attempted to enlarge its domains, conquering much of Sikkim in the east and, in the west, the basins of Gandaki and Karnali and the Uttarakhand regions of Garhwal and Kumaon. This brought them in conflict with the British, who controlled directly or indirectly the north Indian plains between Delhi and Calcutta. A series of campaigns termed the Anglo-Nepalese War occurred in 1814–1816. In 1815 the British general Ochterlony evicted the Nepalese from Garhwal and Kumaon across the Kali River, ending their 12-year occupation, which is remembered for its brutality and repression.
Octherlony offered peace terms to the Nepalese demanding British suzerainty in the form of a protected state and the delimitation of Nepal's territories corresponding roughly to its present day boundaries. The Nepalese refusal to accede to the terms led to another campaign the following year, targeting the Kathmandu Valley, after which the Nepalese capitulated.
Historian John Whelpton writes:
Negotiations for a general settlement produced a draft which was initialled at Sagauli in Bihar in December 1815 and required Nepal to give up all territories west and east of its present-day borders, to surrender the entire Tarai and to accept a permanent British representative (or 'resident') in Kathmandu. The Nepalese government initially balked at these terms, but agreed to ratify them in March 1816 after Ochterloney occupied the Makwanpur Valley only thirty miles from the capital.
- Gurkha War
- Naya Muluk - land in western Terai restored to Nepal in 1860
- 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship
- Kingdom of Nepal
- Unification of Nepal
- Prithvi Narayan Shah
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- Whelpton, A History of Nepal (2005), p. 41-42.
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- Whelpton, A History of Nepal (2005), p. 41-42: "The Nepalese government initially balked at these terms, but agreed to ratify them in March 1816 after Ochterloney occupied the Makwanpur Valley only thirty miles from the capital."
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- Whelpton, A History of Nepal (2005), p. 42.
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