Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947
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The Treaty of Peace with Italy was a treaty signed in Paris on February 10, 1947, between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending the hostilities. It came into general effect on September 15, 1947.
- Transfer of the Adriatic islands of Cherso, Lussino, Lastovo and Pelagosa; of Istria south of the river Mirna; of the enclave territory of Zara in Dalmatia; of the city of Fiume and most of the region known as the Slovenian Littoral to Yugoslavia;
- Transfer of the Dodecanese islands to Greece;
- Transfer to France of Briga and Tenda, and minor revisions of the Franco-Italian border;
- Recognition of the independence of Albania and transfer to Albania of the island of Saseno;
- Recognition of the independence of Ethiopia
- Renouncement of claims to colonies (including Libya, Eritrea and Somaliland);
- Cancellation of favourable commercial treaties with the Republic of China (including cessation of the Concession in Tientsin held by Italy since September 7, 1901)
Trieste and the surrounding area were incorporated into a new independent state called the Free Territory of Trieste. In 1954, the Free Territory of Trieste ceased to exist and Trieste and the surrounding area was divided between Yugoslavia and Italy.
On December 24, 1951, Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya.
As provided by Annex XI of the Treaty, upon the recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 390 (V) of 2 December 1950, Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia on 11 September 1952. Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia de facto on May 24, 1991, and de jure on May 24, 1993.
Italian Somaliland was under British administration until 1949 when it became a United Nations Trust Territory under Italian administration. Italian Somaliland combined with British Somaliland on July 1, 1960, and together they became the Somali Republic.
Italy was obliged to pay the following war reparations (article 74):
- 125,000,000 US$ to Yugoslavia
- 105,000,000 US$ to Greece
- 100,000,000 US$ to the Soviet Union
- 25,000,000 US$ to Ethiopia
- 5,000,000 US$ to Albania
The amounts were valued in the US dollar at its gold parity on 1 July 1946 (35$ for one ounce of gold). The reparations were to be paid in goods and services over a seven-year period.
Articles 47 and 48 called for the demolition of all permanent fortifications along the Franco-Italian and Yugoslav-Italian frontier. Italy was banned from possessing, building or experimenting with atomic weapons, guided missiles, guns with a range of over 30 km, non-contact naval mines and torpedoes as well as manned torpedoes (article 51).
The military of Italy was limited in size. Italy was allowed a maximum of 200 heavy and medium tanks (article 54). Former officers and non-commissioned officers of the Blackshirts and the National Republican Army were barred from becoming officers or non-commissioned officers in the Italian military (except those exonerated by the Italian courts, article 55).
The Italian navy was reduced to a smaller number of ships. Some were awarded to the governments of the Soviet Union, the United States, the United kingdom and France (articles 56 and 57). Italy was ordered to scuttle all its submarines (article 58) and was banned from acquiring new battleships, submarines and aircraft carriers (article 59). The navy was limited to a maximum force of 25,000 personnel (article 60). The Italian army was limited to a size of 185,000 personnel plus an additional 65,000 Carabinieri for a maximum total of 250,000 personnel (article 61). The Italian air force was limited to 200 fighters and reconnaissance aircraft plus 150 transport, air-rescue, training and liaison aircraft and was banned from owning and operating bomber aircraft (article 64). The number of air force personnel was limited to 25,000 (article 65).
Article 17 of the treaty banned Fascist organizations ("whether political, military, or semi-military") in Italy.
A subsequent annex to the treaty provided for the cultural autonomy of the German minority in South Tyrol.
- Grant, John P.; J. Craig Barker, ed. (2006). International Criminal Law Deskbook. Routledge: Cavendish Publishing. p. 130.