Tree injection

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Tree injection, also known as trunk[1] or stem injection,[2] is a method of target precise application of pesticides,[3][4][5] plant resistance activators,[6] and fertilizers[7] into the xylem vascular tissue of a tree with the purpose of protecting the tree from pests or nutrition for correction of nutrient deficiencies. This method largely relies on harnessing the tree’s vascular system to translocate and distribute the active compounds into the wood, canopy and roots where protection or nutrition is needed.[8] Tree injection is currently the most popular method for control of damaging insects,[9][10] pathogens,[11][12] and nematodes[13][14][15] in landscape tree care. It has been developed primarily for use on large size trees and in proximity of urban areas where ground- and air-spray applications are impractical due to substantial drift-driven pesticide losses or not allowed due to potential human exposure. However, the prime driver of tree injection use has been a wide spread need for control of many invasive tree pathogens and insects pests. The most infamous examples are that of Ophiostoma fungi that cause Dutch Elm Disease (DED)[16] and insect Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)[17] which have specific biologies that lead to severe internal damage of wood and thus tree death, and which make their management extremely difficult or inefficient with classical pesticide application methods. Trunk injection for tree protection is viewed as environmentally safer alternative for pesticide application since the compound is delivered within the tree,[18] thus allowing for selective exposure to plant pests. In landscapes and urban zones trunk injection significantly reduces the non-target exposure of water, soil, air, and wildlife to pesticides and fertilizers. In the last 20 years, tree injection is gaining momentum with the development and availability of new, efficient injection devices and injectable and xylem mobile formulations of pesticides, biopesticides[19] and nutrients. Further, a number of newly occurring and fast spreading invasive insect pests and diseases such as Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) Euwallacea sp., which vectors plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae,[20] and Sudden Oak Death (SOD) caused by an Oomycete Phytophthora ramorum, establish the use of trunk injection as the most efficient tree protection technique in landscapes and urban forestry.

In the past and recently, trunk injection of pesticides and plant resistance activators has been investigated in agriculture for control of pathogens and insect pests on fruit tree crops and grapevines. The most investigated are diseases and pests of avocado,[21][22] apple,[23][24] and grapevine,[25][26] such as Phytophthora root rot of avocado Phytophthora cinnamomi and avocado thrips Scirtothrips perseae, fire blight Erwinia amylovora and apple scab Venturia inaequalis, oblique banded leaf roller Choristoneura rosaceana and codling moth Cydia pomonella, and grapevine downy mildew Plasmopara viticola and powdery mildew Uncinula necator. Apple trees are especially interesting as a research model in agriculture since it is known that apple production requires intensive spray schedules for control of pathogenic fungus V. inaequalis with as many as 15-22 sprays of fungicides per season in humid climate.[27][28] Hence, trunk injection of pesticides is considered as an option for precise compound delivery which will reduce the negative impact of drift-driven pesticide losses in the environment, that occur after each spraying.[29][30] Besides negative consequences of frequent pesticide applications in the environment,[31] stem injection of grapevines is investigated in viticulture for control of pathogens with difficult biologies which infect and destroy woody tissues and that cannot be controlled efficiently by canopy spray applications of fungicides. To increase the efficiency of injected compounds in trees and vines, important considerations are plant anatomy,[32] weather and soil conditions,[33] tree physiology processes, spatial and temporal distribution of injected compound,[34] and the chemical properties of injected compound and formulation.[35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aćimović, S. G.; VanWoerkom, A. H.; Reeb, P. D.; Vandervoort, C.; Garavaglia, T.; Cregg, B. M.; Wise, J. C. (2014). "Spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected imidacloprid in apple tree canopies". Pest Management Science. 70 (11): 1751–1760. doi:10.1002/ps.3747. PMID 24481641.
  2. ^ Düker, A.; Kubiak, R. (2011). "Stem injection of prohexadione carboxylic acid to protect blossoms of apple trees from fire blight infection (Erwinia amylovora)". Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 118 (5): 156–160. doi:10.1007/BF03356398. JSTOR 43229291.
  3. ^ Dula, T.; Kappes, E. M.; Horvath, A.; Rabai, A. (2007). "Preliminary trials on treatment of esca-infected grapevines with trunk injection of fungicides". Phytopathologia Mediterranea (46): 91–95.
  4. ^ Darrieutort, G.; Lecomte, P. (2007). "Evaluation of a Trunk Injection Technique to Control Grapevine Wood Diseases". Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 46 (46): 50–57. doi:10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-1853 (inactive 2019-08-20).
  5. ^ Aćimović, S. G.; VanWoerkom, A. H.; Garavaglia, T.; Vandervoort, C.; Wise, J. C.; Sundin, G. W. (2013). "Control of (Venturia inaequalis) using trunk injection of biopesticides and fungicides in apple trees". Phytopathology. 103 (Suppl. 2): S21–S2169. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-103-6-S2.1. PMID 23676108.
  6. ^ Aćimović, S. G.; Zeng, Q.; McGhee, G. C.; Wise, J. C.; Sundin, G. W. "Trunk-injected potassium phosphites and acibenzolar-S-methyl induce SAR in apple trees allowing control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)".
  7. ^ Shaaban, M. M. (2009). "Injection Fertilization: A Full Nutritional Technique for Fruit Trees Saves 90-95% of Fertilizers and Maintains a Clean Environment" (PDF). Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology. 3 (1): 22–27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24.
  8. ^ Barney, D.; Walser, R.H.; Nelson, S.D.; Williams, C. F.; Jolley, Von D. (1985). "Control of iron chlorosis in apple trees with injections of ferrous sulfate and ferric citrate and with soil‐applied iron‐sul". Journal of Plant Nutrition. 7 (1–5): 313–317. doi:10.1080/01904168409363198.
  9. ^ Doccola, J. J.; Bristol, E. J.; Sifleet, S. D.; Lojko, J.; Wild, P. M. (2007). "Efficacy and duration of trunk-injected imidacloprid in the management of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)" (PDF). Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 33 (1): 12–21.
  10. ^ Doccola, J. J.; Wild, P. M. (2012). Chapter 4. Tree Injection as an Alternative Method of Insecticide Application, in Insecticides - Basic and Other Applications, Dr. Sonia Soloneski (Ed.) (1 ed.). Rijeka, Croatia: InTech. pp. 61–78. ISBN 978-953-51-0007-2.
  11. ^ Doccola, J. J.; Strom, B. L.; Brownie, C.; Klepzig, K. D. (2011). "Impact of Systemic Fungicides on Lesions Formed by Inoculation with the Bluestain Fungus (Ophiostoma minus) in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.)". Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 37 (6): 288–292.
  12. ^ Dal Maso, E.; Cocking, J.; Montecchio, L. (2014). "Efficacy tests on commercial fungicides against ash dieback in vitro and by trunk injection". Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 13 (4): 697–703. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2014.07.005.
  13. ^ Viglierchio, D. R.; Maggenti, A. R.; Schmittt, R. V.; Paxman, G. A. (1977). "Nematicidal injection: targeted control of plant-parasitic nematodes of trees and vines". Journal of Nematology. 9 (4): 307–11. PMC 2620266. PMID 19305613.
  14. ^ Jansson, R. K.; Rabatin, S. (December 1997). "Curative and Residual Efficacy of Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Banana". Journal of Nematology. 29 (4S): 695–702. PMC 2619829. PMID 19274271.
  15. ^ Takai, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kawazu, K. (2003). "Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate". Pest Management Science. 59 (3): 365–370. doi:10.1002/ps.651. PMID 12639056.
  16. ^ Clifford, D. R.; Cooke, L. R.; Gendle, P. (1977). "Distribution and performance of chemicals injected into trees for the control of fungal diseases". Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology. 83 (S1): 331–337. doi:10.1007/BF03041448.
  17. ^ McCullough, D. G.; Poland, T. M.; Anulewicz, A. C.; Lewis, P.; Cappaert, D. (2011). "Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one and two seasons after treatment". Journal of Economic Entomology (Submitted manuscript). 104 (5): 1599–612. doi:10.1603/ec11101. PMID 22066190.
  18. ^ Percival, G.C.; Boyle, S. (2005). "Evaluation of microcapsule trunk injections for the control of apple scab and powdery mildew". Annals of Applied Biology. 147 (1): 119–127. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2005.00019.x.
  19. ^ Marshall, C. (2014). "Garlic injection could tackle tree diseases". BBC News - Science & Environment. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  20. ^ Freeman, S.; Sharon, M.; Maymon, M.; Mendel, Z.; Protasov, A.; Aoki, T.; Eskalen, A.; O'Donnell, K. (2013). "Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. - a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California". Mycologia. 105 (6): 1595–1606. doi:10.3852/13-066. PMID 23928415.
  21. ^ Byrne, F. J.; Krieger, R. I.; Doccola, J.; Morse, J. G. (2014). "Seasonal timing of neonicotinoid and organophosphate trunk injections to optimize the management of avocado thrips in California avocado groves". Crop Protection. 57: 20–26. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2013.11.023.
  22. ^ Byrne, F. J.; Urena, A. A.; Robinson, L. J.; Krieger, R. I.; Doccola, J.; Morse, J. G. (2012). "Evaluation of neonicotinoid, organophosphate and avermectin trunk injections for the management of avocado thrips in California avocado groves". Pest Management Science. 68 (5): 811–817. doi:10.1002/ps.2337. PMID 22396314.
  23. ^ VanWoerkom, A.H.; Aćimović, S.G.; Sundin, G.W.; Cregg, B.M.; Mota-Sanchez, D.; Vandervoort, C.; Wise, J.C. (2014). "Trunk injection: An alternative technique for pesticide delivery in apples". Crop Protection. 65: 173–185. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2014.05.017.
  24. ^ Aćimović, S. G.; Zeng, Q.; McGhee, G. C.; Wise, J. C.; Sundin, G. W. (2013). "Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) with trunk injection of the maximum seasonally allowed doses of SAR inducers and antibiotics in apple trees". Phytopathology. 103 (Suppl. 2): S21–S2169. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-103-6-S2.1. PMID 23676108.
  25. ^ Düker, A.; Kubiak, R. (2011). "Stem injection of triazoles for the protection of Vitis vinifera L. ('Riesling') against powdery mildew (Uncinula necator)" (PDF). Vitis. 50 (2): 73–79.
  26. ^ Düker, A.; Kubiak, R. (2009). "Stem application of metalaxyl for the protection of Vitis vinifera L. ('Riesling') leaves and grapes against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)" (PDF). Vitis. 48 (1): 43–48.
  27. ^ Jamar, L.; Cavelier, M.; Lateur, M. (2010). "Primary scab control using a "during-infection" spray timing and the effect on fruit quality and yield in organic apple production" (PDF). Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement. 14 (3): 423–439.
  28. ^ Holb, I. J.; Heijne, B.; Withagen, J. C.; Gáll, J. M.; Jeger, M. J. (2005). "Analysis of summer epidemic progress of apple scab at different apple production systems in the Netherlands and Hungary". Phytopathology. 95 (9): 1001–20. doi:10.1094/phyto-95-1001. PMID 18943298.
  29. ^ Pimentel, D.; Levitan, L. (1986). "Pesticides: Amounts Applied and Amounts Reaching Pests". BioScience. 36 (2): 86–91. doi:10.2307/1310108. JSTOR 1310108.
  30. ^ Pimentel, D.; Acquay, H.; Biltonen, M.; Rice, P.; Silva, M.; Nelson, J.; Lipner, V.; Giordano, S.; Horowitz, A.; D'Amore, M. (1992). "Environmental and Economic Costs of Pesticide Use". BioScience. 42 (10): 750–760. doi:10.2307/1311994. JSTOR 1311994.
  31. ^ Düker, A.; Kubiak, R.; Höfer, V. (2006). Stem application of plant protective agents in viticulture. Aachen, Germany: Shaker Verlag GmbH. ISBN 9783832248161.
  32. ^ Aćimović, S. G. (2014). Disease Management in Apples Using Trunk Injection Delivery of Plant Protective Compounds. East Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan State University. p. 362.
  33. ^ Aćimović, S. G.; Wise, J. C.; Cregg, B. M. "Trunk Injection: How To Improve The Efficiency of Injected Compounds In Trees". Michigan Nursery and Landscape Association. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  34. ^ Mota-Sanchez, D.; Cregg, B. M.; McCullough, D. G.; Poland, T. M.; Hollingworth, R. M. (2009). "Distribution of trunk-injected 14C-imidacloprid in ash trees and effects on emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults". Crop Protection. 28 (8): 655–661. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2009.03.012.
  35. ^ Doccola, J. J.; Hascher, W.; Aiken, J. J.; Wild, P. M. (2012). "Treatment Strategies Using Imidacloprid in Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) Infested Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carrière) Trees". Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 38 (2): 41–49.