Trefoil factor 1

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Protein TFF1 PDB 1hi7.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases TFF1, BCEI, D21S21, HP1.A, HPS2, pNR-2, pS2, trefoil factor 1
External IDs MGI: 88135 HomoloGene: 2426 GeneCards: TFF1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TFF1 205009 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 21: 42.36 – 42.37 Mb Chr 17: 31.16 – 31.17 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Trefoil factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFF1 gene[3][4] (also called pS2 gene[5]).


Members of the trefoil family are characterized by having at least one copy of the trefoil motif, a 40-amino acid domain that contains three conserved disulfides. They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer, and affect healing of the epithelium. This gene, which is expressed in the gastric mucosa, has also been studied because of its expression in human tumors. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a cluster on chromosome 21.[4]

In gastric carcinoma[edit]

TFF1 expression is frequently lost in gastric carcinoma, probably through mechanism of DNA methylation, and it is therefore considered as a tumor suppressor gene.[6]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Gött P, Beck S, Machado JC, Carneiro F, Schmitt H, Blin N (May 1997). "Human trefoil peptides: genomic structure in 21q22.3 and coordinated expression". Eur J Hum Genet. 4 (6): 308–15. PMID 9043862. 
  4. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: TFF1 trefoil factor 1". 
  5. ^ Chatagnon A, Ballestar E, Esteller M, Dante R (2010). "A Role for Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 in the Modulation of the Estrogen Response of pS2/TFF1 Gene". PLoS ONE. 5 (3): e9665. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009665. PMC 2837351Freely accessible. PMID 20300195. 
  6. ^ Feng G, Zhang Y, Yuan H, Bai R, Zheng J, Zhang J, Song M (Jan 2014). "DNA methylation of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is associated with the tumorigenesis of gastric carcinoma.". J Mol Med Rep. 9 (1): 109–117. doi:10.3892/mmr.2013.1772. PMID 24190027. 

Further reading[edit]