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Temporal range: late Miocene–present
Spectacled Bear Tennoji 2.jpg
A spectacled bear in Tennōji Zoo, Osaka.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Family: Ursidae
Subfamily: Tremarctinae


The Tremarctinae or short-faced bears comprise the subfamily of Ursidae containing one living representative, the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) of South America, and several extinct species from four genera: the Florida spectacled bear (Tremarctos floridanus), the North American short-faced bears of genera Plionarctos (P. edensis and P. harroldorum) and Arctodus (A. pristinus and A. simus), and the South American giant short-faced bears of Arctotherium (including A. latidens, A. brasilense,[1][2] A. angustidens, A. vetustum, A. bonariense, A. tarijense, and A. wingei).[3]

Tremarctinae was assigned to Ursidae by P. R. Bjork in 1970 [4] and is one of three recognized subfamilies of Ursidae (as of 2008).[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Spectacled Bear". Bearbook. Craighead Environmental Research Center. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  2. ^ "Spectacled Bear" (SHTML). The Bear Planet. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  3. ^ a b Krause, J.; Unger, T.; Noçon, A.; Malaspinas, A.; Kolokotronis, S.; Stiller, M.; Soibelzon, L.; Spriggs, H.; Dear, P. H.; Briggs, A. W.; Bray, S. C. E.; O'Brien, S. J.; Rabeder, G.; Matheus, P.; Cooper, A.; Slatkin, M.; Pääbo, S.; Hofreiter, M. (2008-07-28). "Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary". BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 220. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-220. PMC 2518930. PMID 18662376.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  4. ^ Bjork, Philip R. (1970). "The Carnivora of the Hagerman Local Fauna (Late Pliocene) of Southwestern Idaho". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (American Philosophical Society) 60 (7): 3–54. doi:10.2307/1006119. JSTOR 1006119. 

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