||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (March 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Città di Treviglio|
Basilica of San Martino.
|Province / Metropolitan city||Bergamo (BG)|
|Frazioni||Battaglie, Castel Cerreto, Geromina, Pezzoli|
|• Mayor||Juri Imeri|
|• Total||32.22 km2 (12.44 sq mi)|
|Elevation||125 m (410 ft)|
|Population (31 December 2015)|
|• Density||930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||Saint Martin|
|Saint day||last day of February|
Treviglio (Italian: [treˈviʎʎio] ( listen), Eastern Lombard: Treì) is a town and comune in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy, northern Italy. It lies 20 kilometres (12 miles) south of the capital city, in the lower territory called "Gera d'Adda" , marked by the Adda and the Serio rivers.
The town is divided in five main quarters: Old town, West zone, North zone, the recent built East zone and the PIP (Industrial Zone). On the northern side lies four frazioni: Geromina, Castel Cerreto, Battaglie and Pezzoli. Once the village of Castel Rozzone also was a frazione of Treviglio.
The coat of arms is composed by a crenellated tower, representing the city with its ghibelline past, flanked by two golden lions, representing the free and valorous citizens, topped by an eagle, symbol of the privileges obtained by the Holy Roman Empire, laying a pig, as symbol of the prosperity achieved.
The area where Treviglio lies was firstly inhabitated by Celtic tribes, in particular Insubres. During the conquest of the Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina) by the romans was constructed a castra to guard an important trading crossway and the near villages, then also a roman settlement was founded and grew through trade and local productions. After the arrival of the Lombards the territory was included in the Fara Gera D'Adda (Fara was the administrative division in the Lombard system). After the fall of the Kingdom of the Lombards became part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Treviglio was founded in the Early Middle Ages as fortified town unifying the three pre-existing settlement: Cusarola (Celtic), Pisignano (Roman) and Portoli (Lombard). The original town was divided in three districts, called portae (lat. gates), each pointing one of the original settlements. Porta Torre to Cusarola, Porta Zeduro (originally Zelute) to Portoli and Porta Filagno to Pisignano. The first official document citing the new town dates back to November 964 d.c. Around the year 1000 Treviglio housed the inhabitants of Oriano, a commune near Brescia, which had been destroyed in the course of the struggle between Arduin of Ivrea and Henry II for the Imperial crown. During the wars that had taken place in Northern Italy the city grew harboring refugees in the new fourth district, Porta Nova (originally Porta Oriano). The Rozzoni family, at that time powerful, tried in vain a coup d'état, and so was temporarily exiled in its property near Treviglio, Castel Rozzone, that nowadays is a village independent from Treviglio.
The statute, of which a copy dating 1392 is currently housed in the city's museum defined a government held by 60 consuls, initially twenty for each of the original ethnic groups and after fifteen for each discrict, who remained in charge for six months. This statute also required that no noble could be allowed to live within the city walls, therefore to be a consul, in order to narrow involvements in power struggles.
In 1395 Treviglio gained autonomy from the Empire, which it held as a "Separate Land of the Duchy of Milan" excepting several brief Venetian occupations (in 1431-1433, 1448–1453, and 1499–1509). These occupations are mentioned in the The Betrothed, a renowned Italian novel. In the course of the last invasion in 1509, the city was burnt down by the departing Venetian troops. The French king Louis XII witnessed the event and claim to vindicate it in the subsequent Battle of Agnadello.
On 28 February 1522 General Odet de Foix Viscount of Lautrec, leading the French army through northern Italy to the south, came to punish the town for the insolence shown denying supplies to the French troops and resisting them. The chronicles tell the general refused the surrender of the city and the appeals of mercy of the pastor and of the Duke of Milan, then the inhabitants took refuge in the churches and when the French troops entered the town a fresco of Our Lady in front of which the inhabitants were praying started to cry. Warned of the event the general did check the building and the walls to verify the veracity of the miracle and, finally persuaded, deposed helmet and sword at the feet of the fresco and left the city. Helmet and sword are still preserved in the Sanctuary, built with donations of the Treviglio's families only, and in which was transferred the miracolous fresco on which were added crowns forged with the jewels of the virgins of Treviglio. The event is celebrated every year with a revival, an historical parade and a novena (nine days of prayers).
The French sold Treviglio, after long years of war, to the Spaniards, formally still under the aegis of the Holy Roman Empire. During this domination the town knew, as the all region, an initial period of prosperity and a gradual decline, aggravated in the XVII century by plague epidemics.
Under the Spanish period Treviglio was formed in fief and auctioned off to meet the debts of the Duchy. The inhabitants fiercely opposed the measure and, after losing the lawsuit against the Senate of Milan, self-taxed themselves to reclaim the fief and its independence.
After the French revolution, Treviglio became part of the Transpadane Republic in 1796, the following year of the Cisalpine Republic and in 1805 of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. During these years the religious buildings were looted and was drafted a detailed cadastral map of the town.
As sign of the frequent French occupations the local dialect preserves words and sounds, like almost all the dialects of Lombardy.
After the Congress of Vienna the town was included in the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, then temporarily attached to the Kingdom of Sardinia during the first Italian independence war and finally the town joined the Kingdom of Italy in 1860.
Treviglio received the honorary title of city with a presidential decree on January 8, 1960, after a promise of King Victor Emanuel II in 1860, due the historical involvement in the achievement of the Italian independence.
- Palazzo Municipale (Town Hall), finished in 1300. It was restored in 1582 and received another floor in 1873. It has an elegant portico.
- Basilica of San Martino, built in 1008 over the pre-Romanesque church of the Assunta. In 1482 it was remade in Lombard-Gothic style. The current façade, in the Baroque style, is from 1740. The interior has works by Gian Paolo Cavagna, Camillo Procaccini and other, but its most notable feature is the polyptych of Madonna with Saints by Bernardo Zenale and Bernardino Butinone (1485), considered one of the masterworks of 15th century Lombard art. The bell tower (a former civic tower) dates to the early 11th century. The bell tower is open and accessible every weekend.
- Sanctuary of Madonna delle Lacrime (1619). Named after Our Lady of Tears who saved, with his prodigious tears, the city from destruction by the French troops, led by General Odet de Foix, on 28 February 1522.
- Silva Palace
- Galliari Palace
- Gothic House
- Semenza House
- Baccherra House
- Square's House
- Bar Milano, sited in piazza Manara (Piazza means square), is the city's historical cafe. Founded in 1896, still it retains the original furniture of the century and a counter in Art Nouveau style.
- Church of San Carlo (17th century).
- Relief of the Gatta ("Kitty") in the Piazza Manara, is a trophy of the medieval feud between Treviglio and the near town of Caravaggio, now remembered only by the annual bowling tournament.
- TNT (Teatro Nuovo Treviglio, New Theater of Treviglio) in Piazza Garibaldi, the modern, high-tech, theater is underground. On surface lies a structure with shops on the ground floor and above a terrace with restaurant and shops.
- The Filodrammatici (Old Theater).
- Ariston Multisala Cinema.
The old city is composed primarily by courtyards, part of them open to the public twice a year, and there are street in which arise garden houses.
Many were also the sacred shrines, which were a real place of worship and boasting ancient traditions.
On festive occasions the bell tower and squares are projected with images and animations.
Agriculture and trade were prominent in the economy of Treviglio from its beginning to today. Until the 20th century there was a flourishing craft sector producing furniture and silk, then the swift industrial development and the relocation of those productions made way to the mechanic (in particular the SDF and Bianchi), electrics and chemical industry, still active.
The flow of capital necessary for the establishment of new local enterprises promoted the growth of the local bank, BCC (Credit Union), and the insurances agencies.
During to the economic crisis a lot of local enterprises closed down or were acquired by larger companies and their production transferred in Eastern Europe or Asia. The local bank undertook an expansion effort that weakened it. The local government relies on develop services and boost tourism and trade.
The town offers different attractions to visitors from the villages and towns around, in particular the theatres, the cinema and the old town that shows artisan food shops, cafes and fashion shops very appreciated.
Culture and Instruction
Treviglio has a central library, located in an adapted cloister, and four peripherical ones with more than 75.000 books, of which 10.000 ancient books, the library system is integreted in the Sistema Bibliotecario Integrato della Bassa Pianura Bergamasca that group 31 comunes in the management. From the 2010 is also available a medialibrary in freemium mode.
The town host two historical museum, two picture gallery, one scientific museum and two tiny natural protected areas.
The cultural activities are led by several historical and scientific associations.
There are two local newspapers, Il popolo cattolico (tr.The Catholic people) and Il Giornale di Treviglio (tr.The Treviglio's Journal), and an old music radio, Radio Zeta.
There are at least 3 linguistic centers, 7 kindergartens, 10 elementary schools, 4 lower superior schools and 13 higher superior schools, including lyceums and technical schools, offering 23 different courses of study.
Treviglio has a large public sport center, a public swimming pool with multiple pools a tennis center, several fields for football, basketball and volleyball and gyms (both public and private).
The town is represented by four football societies, three of basketball, five of volleyball, one of athletics and one of rugby. Each association has achieved remarkable results in the regional context and, concerning basketball and athletics, also beyond.
There are also schools of climbing, biking, BMX, motorcycle, equitation, diving, water polo, swimming, pilates, martial arts, artistic gymnastics and modern and classic dance.
Treviglio was among the first Italian cities featured with railways stations. An old building to the south of Treviglio Ovest was the station building of the former station, in service between the late 1850s and 1878.
The town has two railway stations. Treviglio railway station (also known as Treviglio Centrale) is on the Milan–Venice railway, the Treviglio-Cremona railway and the Treviglio–Bergamo railway, on this last lies also the second station (called West Station). From the 2009, the Central Station is used also as terminus for the lines S5 and S6 of the suburban train service of Milan.
Treviglio can be reached by car with State Roads N. 11 (Milano-Brescia) and N. 42 (from Bergamo, to Lodi and Crema), directly with the highway A35 (called BreBeMi, by the initials of the main cities connected through: Brescia, Bergamo and Milan) and also the Provincial Road 128, Provincial Road 129, Provincial Road 136, Provincial Road 141, Provincial Road 142 and State Road 472, linking the town with Lodi.
- Bernardino Butinone (Treviglio, about 1450 – about 1510)
- Bernardo Zenale (Treviglio, 1463/1468 – Milan, 1526)
- Giovan Battista Dell'Era, artist (Treviglio, 1765 – Florence, 7 January 1799)
- Andrea Verga, neurologist, professor and politician, discoverer of the Cavum Vergae and among the first studying cannabinoids effetcs (Treviglio, 30 May 1811 – Milan, 21 November 1895)
- Pier Luigi Della Torre, surgeon, professor and co-founder of the Civic Museum "Teresa ed Ernesto Della Torre" (Sannazzaro de' Burgondi, June 16, 1887 – Treviglio, 20 August 1963)
- Piero Mentasti, partisan and politician (Treviglio, 15 May 1897 – Venice, 24 September 1958)
- Trento Longaretti, artist (Treviglio, 27 September 1916)
- Ildebrando Santagiuliana, writer and historian
- Tullio Santagiuliana, writer and historian
- Ermanno Olmi, film director, his family moved in Treviglio when he was an infant (Bergamo, 24 July 1931)
- Giuseppe Merisi, catholic bishop (Treviglio, 25 September 1938)
- Giacinto Facchetti, former Internazionale and Italian Footballer (Treviglio, 18 July 1942 – Milan, 4 September 2006)
- Battista Mombrini, engraver, sculptor and painter (Treviglio, 10 January 1944)
- Edoardo Ronchi, politician, university professor and former minister (Treviglio, 31 May 1950)
- Cesare Bornaghi, former olympic shooter of clay pigeon
- Simone Albergoni, motorcyclist Enduro
- Vittorio Carioli, former footballer of A Series
- Domenico Casati, former footballer of A Series
- Roberto Corti, former footballer of A Series
- Giuseppe Erba, former footballer of A Series
- Orlando Rozzoni, former footballer of A Series
- Claudio Vertova, former footballer of A Series
- Emanuele Merisi, former Olympic swimmer, won a bronze medal at the Atlanta Olympic Games of 1996; one gold, three silvers and four bronzes at the European Championship and three golds and one bronze at the Mediterranean Games.
- Andrea Possenti, astrophysicist and scientific writer, director of the Cagliari Observatory (OAC) and discoverer of the first double pulsar (Treviglio, 9 July 1963)
- Alberto Rossini, called "Il lupo" (tr. "the Wolf"), basketball trainer and former player of A Series (Treviglio, 10 June 1969)
- Emanuele Lodi, Breve storia delle cose memorabili di Trevì, Milan 1647;
- I. Cantù, Bergamo e il suo territorio, Bergamo 1856;
- C. Cantù, Grande illustrazione del Lombardo-Veneto, Milan 1859;
- Carlo Casati, Treviglio di Ghiara d'Adda e suo territorio, Memorie storiche-statistiche, coi tipi della Perseveranza, Milan 1872;
- Marco Carminati, Il circondario di Treviglio e i suoi comuni, Treviglio 1892;
- Tullio e Ildebrando Santagiuliana, Storia di Treviglio, poligrafiche bolis of Bergamo, June 1965;
- M. Mochi Tullio Santagiuliana, Geradadda, Treviglio 1973;
- L. Cassani, E. Mandelli Tullio Santagiuliana, Il braccio di Treviglio, Calvenzano 1981;
- Marco Carminati, Il circondario di Treviglio e i suoi comuni. Cenni storici., Messaggi Tipography, Treviglio 1982;
- Paolo Furia, Il mio Santuario, Calvenzano 1982;
- Gianni Chiari, Le roggie Trevigliesi, edizioni CRAT, 1982;
- Tullio Santagiuliana, Briciole di storia di Geradadda antica, Calvenzano 1982;
- Piero Perego, Ildebrando Santagiuliana, Storia di Treviglio, edizioni Pro Loco - Treviglio, November 1987; edizione rinnovata dell'omonimo libro del 1965 e suddivisa in due volumi;
- Barbara e Giuseppe Oggionni, Le mura di Treviglio, Calvenzano 1991;
- Enrico de Pascale, Mariolina Olivari, Dizionario degli artisti di Caravaggio e Treviglio, Fiber Edizioni Bolis, Treviglio-Bergamo 1994;
- Le Terre del Lago Gerundo, edizioni Cassa Rurale, Treviglio, December 1996;
- Treviglio: alla riscoperta di un territorio, edizioni Cassa Rurale, Treviglio, February 1997;
- Istituto Professionale di Stato Zenale Buttinone, Conoscere la Gera d'Adda, edizioni Gera d'Adda, Ranica, 1999;
- Barbara Oggionni, Le rogge Moschetta e Vignola, Treviglio 2000;
- Barbara Oggionni, Treviglio, storia, arte, cultura, edizioni Pro Loco, Treviglio 2002;
- Barbara Oggionni, I borghi fortificati in Gera d'Adda: il triangolo di Treviglio - Caravaggio - Brignano in Territorio e fortificazioni. Confini e difese della Gera d'Adda, Bergamo 2003;
- La Gera d'Adda in Castra Bergomensia, province of Bergamo, 2004;
- Angelo Merletti, Marco Carminati e Barbara Oggionni Treviglio è terra e gente edizioni Grafica e arte, 2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Treviglio.|