Triangle of death (Italy)
The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte), the largest illegal waste dump in Europe, is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average. The rise in cancer-related mortality is caused by pollution from illegal waste disposal by outside and Italian government censored sources transported by the Camorra criminal organization.
An estimated 550,000 people live in this area. The annual death rate per 100,000 inhabitants from liver cancer is close to 34.5 for men and 20.8 for women, as compared to the national average of 14. The death rate for bladder cancer and cancer of the central nervous system is higher than in other European countries, although by a more modest increment. Campania, overall, has a lower-than-average cancer mortality rate than Italy.
The high death rate is due to illegal and improper hazardous waste disposal from various outside and Italian government censored sources and transported by various organized crime groups including the Camorra. 
The Lancet Oncology article noted:
Today, the difference between lawful management of waste and illegal manipulation with regard to their compliance with health regulations is very narrow, and the health risks are rising.— Alfredo Mazza, The Lancet Oncology, vol. 5, September 2004
The 5000 illegal or uncontrolled landfill sites in Italy drew particular criticism; Italy has already been warned twice for flouting the Hazardous Waste Directive and the Landfill Directive, and the EU has now referred Italy to the European Court of Justice for further action.— The Lancet Oncology, vol. 5, September 2004
Though some media outlets report France and Germany  as waste sources the EU remains silent as to the sources of the waste and specifically the nuclear waste in their criticisms and demands of Italy.
Epidemiological research by the World Health Organization
|Cancer death rate|
In the following table, the death rate for every more common cancer that appear in the triangle of death, is reported. These data are according to the study published by The Lancet Oncology.
In 2007, research conducted by the World Health Organization, Italian Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and Campania Region collected data on cancer and congenital abnormalities in 196 municipalities covering the period between 1994 and 2002 found abnormally high disease incidence. These abnormal patterns may correlate to areas where there are uncontrolled waste sites. However, this work also highlighted the difficulty in determining causality and in establishing a link between increased death and malformation rates and waste disposal.
A US Navy Seals study denied any real ill effects to on base personal while however advising their off base personal to drink bottled water citing polluted wells. The Us Navy Seals report denied any signs of nuclear waste dumping instead related the traces of Uranium to volcanic activity.
Local studies  and the Italian government
Illegal toxic waste dumping in Campania
The boss of the Casalesi clan, Gaetano Vassallo, admitted to systematically working for 20 years to bribe local politicians and officials to gain their acquiescence to dumping toxic waste. Giorgio Napolitano, President of Italian Republic, said in June 2008:
It is certain, not only to citizens but to the government as well, that the systematic transfer of toxic waste from industries in Northern Italy to Campania, was committed by the Camorra— Giorgio Napolitano, 4-06-2008.
Dangerous pollutants such as dioxins, are found in the area, particularly around Acerra, as well as illegal waste disposal, even in the business district of Montefibre. As early as 1987, a decree of the Ministry of Environment marked Acerra "at high risk of environmental crisis".
High levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected both in the soil and in the inhabitants of the region, though no obvious emitters are known. It is hypothesized that industrial slurry originating from Porto Marghera (industrial docklands near Venice) was disguised as compost and spread on fields in the Acerra countryside by the Casalesi clan, often with help from the landowners.
In one case, a company had its assets seized during a 2006 investigation in which it was alleged that the company had illegally disposed of waste from industries in the regions of Veneto and Tuscany in the territories of Bacoli, Giugliano and Qualiano. Approximately one million tonnes of toxic waste are said to have been disposed of, earning €27 million. The company was already the subject of a 2003 investigation. In another case, a tank full of toxic substances was found buried in an illegal dump, in Marigliano.
The illegal burning of waste, for example to recover copper from wiring, is known to release dioxins into the atmosphere of Earth. Such fires are easily hidden among legitimate incineration resulting from the more general waste disposal problem, and the illegal burning of hazardous materials was particularly noted during 2007 and 2008. Between January and March 2007, 30,000 kilograms of waste were burned on agricultural land, with a revenue of more than €118,000. The presence of fires in the north area of Naples led author Roberto Saviano to use "Land of fire" (terra dei fuochi) as chapter titles in his book Gomorrah.
Hazardous industrial waste disposal may happen in lawful landfills, too. In 2000, a Parliamentary Commission enquiry about waste discovered some 800,000 tonnes of mud in Pianura landfill, coming from ACNA of Cengio in Naples, and the Italian Procura della Repubblica found (through telephone wiretappings) some irregularities in the waste disposal into the landfill of Villaricca, managed by FIBA (a company of the Impregilo group).
Opposition to landfills
In 2008 the waste commissioner Guido Bertolaso, (the head of the civil protection department), planned to open a landfill but this was opposed by Chiaiano's residents, because of mistrust of the governing institutions and the awareness of the population of the rise in cancer death rate.
There was similar resistance in Pianosa to reopening a closed landfill proposed by government commissioner Giovanni De Gennaro. In 2007 and 2008 some of the protests turned violent, particularly in Naples and the suburbs of Quarto and Pozzuoli. It is alleged that there was collusion between local political interests and organised crime over building interests.
The incinerator of Acerra was also seen as potential source of pollution and stirred conflict and debate in the local area.
Pollution and agriculture exports
The agro-economy of the region has been adversely affected by the allegations. In March 2008, dioxin were found in buffalo milk from farms in Caserta. Countries such as South Korea and Japan identified this pollution and subsequently banned imports of buffalo milk from the region. While only 2.8% of farms in Campania were affected, the sale of dairy products from Campania collapsed in both domestic and global markets.
Literature and film
The issue was raised by Roberto Saviano in his book Gomorrah and in the film of the same name. It was also the subject of a documentary by Esmeralda Calabria and Andrea D'Ambrosio entitled Biùtiful cauntri.
- Environmental racism in Europe
- Naples waste management issue
- Gomorrah (book)
- Gomorrah (film)
- Biùtiful cauntri
- Radioactive waste dumping by the 'Ndrangheta
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- Senior K, Mazza A. Italian "Triangle of death" linked to waste crisis. Lancet Oncol. 2004 Sep;5(9):525-7. PMID 15384216
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- (English) Kathryn Senior and Alfredo Mazza, Italian “Triangle of death” linked to waste crisis, The Lancet Oncology, Volume 5, Issue 9, September 2004, Pages 525-527.
- (Italian) Translation by The Lancet Oncology from the site of Centro Nazionale di Epidemiologia, Sorveglianza e Promozione della Salute
- (English) Fabrizio Bianchi et al., Italian “Triangle of death”, The Lancet Oncology, Volume 12, Issue 5, December 2004, Page 710.
- (Italian) Trattamento dei rifiuti in Campania: impatto sulla salute umana, report by World Health Organization, Italian Health Institute, it:Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche e Regione Campania (Italia).
- Report: Terra bruciata, TV 9-3-2008, and how finished this story in: Come è andata a finire?.
- Repubblica Radio TV: Morire di diossina in Campania, del 28-12-2007: , , 
- La 7: Il cancro di Napoli, del 12-12-2007; Allarme cibo avvelenato, Exit del 18-12-2007; Il posto dei rifiuti, del 22-09-2007
- Tg1: interview to Roberto Saviano at 3-1-2008 (evening ediction at 8:00 p.m.)
- Sat 2000: interview to dott. Antonio Marfella, oncologist at "Formato famiglia, 20-12-2007