Survivor (franchise)

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A recreation of the logo for the first U.S. Survivor season, Survivor: Borneo.
Also known as Expedition Robinson
Genre Entertainment
Reality Competition
Created by Charlie Parsons
Developed by Planet 24
Country of origin United Kingdom
Distributor Castaway Television Productions Ltd
Original network Sveriges Television (SVT)
First shown in Sweden
Original release 13 September 1997 (1997-09-13) – present
External links

Survivor is a reality competition television franchise produced in many countries throughout the world.

The show features a group of contestants who are marooned in an isolated location, where they must provide food, water, fire, and shelter for themselves. The contestants compete in challenges for rewards and immunity from elimination. The contestants are progressively eliminated from the game as they are voted out by their fellow contestants until only one remains and is awarded the grand prize and is named the "Sole Survivor."

The format for Survivor was created in 1992 by the British television producer Charlie Parsons for a United Kingdom TV production company called Planet 24, but the Swedish version, which debuted in 1997, was the first Survivor series to actually make it to television.


Survivor, through its seasons and various international versions, has maintained the basic premise of the game despite several new rules and gameplay twists introduced in later seasons. In the game, the contestants, known as castaways, are split into tribes and assigned separate camps at the filming's location, typically a tropical setting. As a tribe, the castaways must survive the elements, construct shelter, build fire, look for water, and scrounge for food and other necessities for the entire length of the game, which is generally 39 days in the American version, but has ranged from 20 days (as in the French special seasons) to 134 days (as in some seasons of the Turkish edition). In the first half of the game, the tribes face off in challenges, some for rewards of food, shelter, or luxury items, while others are for immunity, preventing the winning tribe from having to go to the next Tribal Council. At Tribal Council, the tribes discuss the events of the last few days with the host asking questions, and then vote out one of their own players, eliminating them from the game.

In the second half of the game, the tribes are merged into a single tribe, and challenges are played at an individual level for individual rewards and immunity. At subsequent Tribal Councils, those eliminated start to form the jury, who sit in on all subsequent Tribal Councils but otherwise do not participate. When only two or three castaways remain, those castaways attend the Final Tribal Council, where the jury is given the opportunity to ask them questions. After this, the jury members then vote to decide which of the remaining castaways should be declared the Sole Survivor and be awarded the grand prize.

Episodes typically cover the events that occurred over two to three days since the start of the game or previous Tribal Council, including Challenges and events that occur at the tribes' camps. Each episode typically ends with the Tribal Council and subsequent elimination of the voted-out player.

The following description of the show is based primarily on the U.S. version of Survivor, though the general format applies to all international versions.

Castaways and tribes[edit]

The tribe camp near the end of Survivor: Borneo. Tribes must build themselves basic shelters from natural resources and through reward items earned during the competition.

Players for each season are selected through applicants and casting calls, down-selecting to between sixteen and twenty players and additional alternates. U.S. version host Jeff Probst noted that while sixteen castaways assists in spliting the tribes with respect to age and sex, they have used eighteen and twenty to provide them "wiggle room" in case of player injury or if one should want to quit the game.[1] These players undergo physical and psychological evaluation to make sure they are physically and mentally fit for the survival endurance and will not likely quit during the filming period, replacing those that are questionable with the alternates. In one case, Fiji, on the day before filming was to start after they had dismissed their alternates, one of the castaways opted out of the competition, forcing production to start with nineteen players and adapting the activities of the first few days to accommodate the odd number of players.[2]

Tribes may be predetermined by production before filming starts. Often this is done to equalize the sexes and age ranges within both tribes. Other seasons have had the tribes separated by age, gender, or race. In other cases, the tribes may be created by the castaways through schoolyard picks. Most often, only two tribes are featured, but some seasons have begun with three or four tribes. Once assigned a tribe, each castaway is given a buff in their tribe color to aid the viewers in identifying tribal allocation. Tribes are then subsequently given names, often inspired by the local region and culture, and directions to their camps.

At their camps, tribes are expected to build a shelter against the elements from the local trees and other resources. Tribes are typically given minimal resources, such as a machete, water canteens, cooking pots, and staples of rice and grains, though this will vary from season to season. Sometimes, tribes will be provided with a water well near the camp, but require the water to be boiled to make it potable, necessitating the need for the tribe to build a fire. The tribes are encouraged to forage off the land for food, including fruits, wild animals, and fish.

Tribe swaps[edit]

In some seasons, tribe swaps will occur where one or more players will shift from one tribe to another. These new tribal designations are often determined by random draw or schoolyard pick. When these occur, those players that shift tribes are given new buffs for their new tribe and return to that tribe's camp, with any personal possessions from their former camp moved with them. In seasons with more than two tribes, tribe swaps will often reduce the number of tribes to two. In Survivor: Cambodia, a tribe swap increased the number of tribes from two to three; a second tribe swap later in the season reduced the number of tribes back to two.

Tribes that have lost too many members may be absorbed by the other remaining tribes, as seen with the Ulong tribe in Survivor: Palau and the Matsing tribe of Survivor: Philippines; in the former case, the lone remaining Ulong member joined the opposing Koror tribe and the tribes were treated as if they were merged, whereas in the later case the two remaining Matsing members were randomly assigned to the two remaining tribes. Alternatively, in Survivor: All-Stars, the tribe that placed third in a designated challenge was disbanded, with the members reallocated to the other two tribes by schoolyard pick.

The Merge[edit]

At a point in/or around the middle of the game, the remaining tribes are merged into one. All of the players then live in a single camp, and are given new buffs and instructed to select a new tribe name and paint a tribe flag. The merge is often signified with a feast. Though the merge often occurs when approximately 10 to 12 players remain, the tribes have been merged with as many as 13 players (as in Survivor: Cambodia) and as few as eight (as in Survivor: Thailand). Merge colors are different, but black has been used by far the most at 12 times, followed by green six times, red, yellow, orange, and blue three times each, purple twice and magenta once.


Tribes compete frequently in both mental and physical challenges to win rewards or immunity, such as this race to pull cannons during the first episode of Survivor: Pearl Islands.

During both pre- and post-merge parts of the game, the castaways compete in a series of challenges. Tribes are alerted to these upcoming challenges by a message, often in rhyme, delivered to camp by the production team at a basket or box on a nearby tree; this message has come to be called "treemail", playing off the word "e-mail". The message typically hints at what the challenge might be. The message may also provide props to demonstrate this, practice equipment for the players, or a sampling of the reward. Challenges can last from a few minutes to a couple of hours. The longest Survivor challenge was 11 hours and 55 minutes in the final immunity challenge in Survivor: Palau.

Tribal challenges[edit]

Prior to the merge, tribes compete against each other in challenges. These most often are multi-segment obstacle courses that include both physical and mental elements with the tribe that finishes first declared the winner; commonly, these start with tribe members collecting puzzles pieces that are then used to solve a puzzle by other tribe members. Other challenges may be based on winning a number of rounds of head-to-head competitions. Challenges are normally held with equal numbers of all tribes participating and in some cases equal splits of gender. Tribes with more players will be asked to sit out as many players as needed to balance the numbers, with the stipulation that those players cannot sit out in back-to-back reward and immunity challenges.[3] When one tribe has more than twice the other tribe members, then players in the larger tribe cannot participate in back-to-back challenges. Tribes are given time to strategically decide who should sit out and who will perform the various duties on a challenge.

Individual challenges[edit]

After the merge, challenges are generally performed on an individual basis. These include similar obstacle courses as for team challenges, but will often also include endurance challenges, having players maintain the balance under precarious situations for as long as possible, with the last player remaining winning the challenge. In some cases, during post-merge challenges, the individuals will be split into separate teams, with only the winning team eligible for reward or immunity .

Types of challenges[edit]

Challenges can be played for rewards, immunity, or both. Rewards include food, survival equipment like flint, tarps, or fishing gear, luxury items, and short getaways from camp. Before the merge, the entire winning tribe will enjoy these rewards. Post-merge, only one player may win the reward but will be given the opportunity to select one or more other players to bring along with them on it. Individual challenge rewards may also include an advantage that can be used at the subsequent immunity challenge, such as advancing directly into the final round of the challenge without having to participate in the first round.

Immunity challenges provide the winning tribe or team with immunity from Tribal Council. Immunity is usually represented in a form of an idol prior to the merge, and a necklace afterwards. Prior to the merge, tribes with immunity do not attend Tribal Council, allowing them to stay intact. In seasons featuring more than two tribes, immunity will be available for all but the last place finishers, forcing this one tribe to Tribal Council. With individual immunity, those castaways still attend Tribal Council with the rest of the merged tribe, but, unless they assign immunity to someone else, are ineligible to be voted for. Winning immunity is only good for one Tribal Council; at the next immunity challenge, the tribe or castaway will be asked to give up the idol or necklace, making immunity "up for grabs". There have been a few cases in which individual immunity challenges have taken place prior to the merge whereupon usually, one castaway in each tribe will be given immunity, after which both tribes will attend Tribal Council, one after the other. This is used to quickly dwindle the number of remaining castaways.

Though a wide variety of challenges have been used across the Survivor's broadcast, several challenges are frequently reused:

  • A food eating challenge, involving food items that may be local delicacies but are considered gross or revolting by the castaways.
  • A trivia or "know your tribe" quiz, where castaways who provide correct answers are allowed to knock other castaways out of the challenge and prevent them from winning.
  • A "Survivor Auction", used in place of a reward challenge, in which the players are given a sum of money to use to bid on food items (both known and unknown at the time of bidding), other momentary luxuries like a bath, or advantages in the game, such as a clue to a hidden immunity idol or an advantage in the upcoming immunity challenge.
  • A "loved ones" challenge, where a spouse, parent, sibling, adult child or friend of each castaway has been flown out to the location to participate in the challenge with or for their castaway. The winner typically gets to spend more time with their loved one, either on a brief trip or back at camp.
  • A "second chance" challenge, where elements of previous challenges are reused in a single course.
  • The final immunity challenge is often a long-lasting endurance challenge, giving the remaining castaways time to make bargains and last-minute deals to get into the final Tribal Council.

Tribal Council[edit]

Tribal Council is a specially built stage located near the tribe camps; tribes sit across a fire pit from the host, while the jury members, if present, sit off to the side. A small voting alcove adjoins the structure. Events at Tribal Council are presented as the finale of each episode.

The first time any player attends Tribal Council, its members are each given a torch and told to light it from the fire pit, with the statement that "fire represents your life in this game". After the tribe is seated, the host will call in the jury (if in the Jury phase), reminding them they are there to watch but not speak. The host will then proceed to ask the tribe questions regarding camp life and events he witnessed at the challenges over the last few days. During this process, internal strife within the tribe may be brought to light, and castaways in precarious situations may reveal information or bargain with others to keep themselves in the game. Though only a few minutes of these proceedings are shown to the viewing audience, some Tribal Councils have gone on for hours.

Subsequently, the host will ask the tribe member with the immunity necklace if they want to keep it or transfer it to someone else; whoever wears it after this possible exchange cannot be voted for. The host then asks each castaway to make their vote in the alcove. The castaway is given an opportunity to speak to a camera in a message directed to the person they are voting off and to the viewers before placing the vote in an urn. When all votes are made, the host collects the urn, tallies the votes and starts reading the votes one by one. When enough votes have been read to eliminate one player, all remaining votes are kept secret (although in almost all cases, it is assumed that any leftover votes are to the eliminated player), and that player is asked to bring the host their torch, who then snuffs it out. The player is then told "the tribe has spoken" (or in rare cases, a variation thereof) and is instructed to leave the Tribal Council area. The remainder of the tribe is then allowed to return to camp with their torches, though in some seasons, if they have not earned or made fire yet, they have been required to douse their torches before leaving; in All-Stars seasons, any tribe that have not earned or made fire yet have been asked to leave their torches at Tribal Council. The host ends every Tribal Council with "Grab your torches, head back to camp. Good Night."

The eliminated player is given the opportunity to speak to a camera about their feelings of being eliminated before they are secluded with other eliminated castaways until the end of filming. Those players that will become jury members are sequestered until the end of the final Tribal Council and are generally not allowed to discuss their voting or issues with the remaining contestants, other jury members, or the final players, in order to prevent any possible cooperation or collusion from subgroups within the jury.

Ties may occur. Normally, a second vote is held, with only the tied players eligible to be voted for. If this second vote does not break the stalemate, a tiebreaker is used, the nature of which has changed throughout the seasons. In Survivor: The Australian Outback and Survivor: Africa, ties were resolved by eliminating the player with the higher number of previous votes cast against them. If the players had the same number of previous votes cast against them, as seen in Africa, the tie was resolved by a sudden-death challenge (in this case a trivia quiz about nature), with the loser eliminated. In subsequent seasons, the non-tied voters are given several minutes to deliberate and must come to a unanimous agreement about which tied castaway to eliminate. If they are successful, their chosen castaway is eliminated; if not, all non-immune deliberators draw concealed rocks from a bag and the castaway who draws the odd-colored rock is eliminated. This is done to punish the deliberators for not resolving the tie, and to encourage castaways to change their votes to avoid a tie. The rock draw tiebreaker has occurred three times: in Survivor: Marquesas, Survivor: Blood vs. Water and in Survivor: Millennials vs. Gen X. In the case of Survivor: Marquesas, the rock draw occurred with four players remaining, and the tied castaways were both involved in the deliberation and eligible for the rock draw; host Jeff Probst later revealed that this was a mistake and that this tiebreaker should only be used when six or more players are involved.[4] Following Survivor: Marquesas, all tiebreakers with four players remaining have been resolved by a fire making duel, in which the first tied castaway to build a small fire high enough to burn through a rope remained in the game. The fire making tiebreaker was also used in Survivor: Palau at a Tribal Council where the losing tribe had only two members remaining.

Final Tribal Council[edit]

The Final Tribal Council occurs when there are only two—or, in later seasons, three—players left in the game. The change to three finalists was made so that the endgame would present more of a challenge to the castaway who wins the final immunity challenge: while that person has clinched their spot at the Final Tribal Council, they are not able to decide alone which of the other remaining castaways they will compete against for the jury's votes.[5]

At the Final Tribal Council, each remaining castaway is given time to make a statement to the jury. Then each jury member, in turn, addresses them, asking each a question or commenting on their behaviour in the game in an effort to sway the other jury members; the castaways are free to respond to these as they see fit. The remaining castaways may be given time for a concluding speech. After this, the host has each jury member, in turn, go to vote in the alcove, this time for the person that they feel should be named the Sole Survivor. As with regular elimination votes, the jurors are given an opportunity to speak to the camera to explain their vote. The host then collects the urn, and in most seasons, leaves the votes unread until a live finale months later, at the conclusion of the season's broadcast, where the Sole Survivor is announced.

Though no tied final vote has occurred in the American version, it has been a theoretical possibility in several seasons. At the finale of Survivor: Micronesia, the only season to date with two finalists and an even-numbered jury (with eight jurors), host Jeff Probst reportedly had a white envelope that was involved in the tiebreaker, but the exact nature of this tiebreaker has not been made known.[6] This contingency plan was also in place for three-way ties involving three finalists and nine jurors. In the case of a tie between two of three finalists, Probst has revealed that the first ballot would be read on-location, and the jurors would re-vote between the two remaining finalists; the resolving ballot would then be held until the live finale, and the reveal would proceed as normal.[7] In the finale of Survivor: Game Changers, Jeff Probst revealed that in the event of a tie vote in the final 3, the person who finishes third will cast the deciding vote.

In the French series, ties between two finalists are resolved by crowning them co-winners, as seen in their third and seventh seasons.

Evacuation and quitting[edit]

Some players have been eliminated from the game by other means than being voted out. Castaways who suffer severe injuries or exhaustion are evaluated by the medical team which is always on call. The medical team may provide treatment and give the player the option to continue in the game, warning them of the health risks involved. However, if the medical doctor determines that the player is at risk of permanent injury or death and needs to be removed from the game for their own health, they will be removed and taken to a nearby hospital. In Survivor: Cambodia, the producers were notified that one of the remaining castaways' children had been hospitalized, and the castaway was pulled from the game to return home and be with their family. Survivor: Kaoh Rong has had the most evacuations to date, with three.

Occasionally, castaways who are not in need of medical treatment have decided to quit the game, without waiting to be voted out, due to physical or emotional exhaustion—either by making an announcement at a Tribal Council, in which case they are let out of the game without any vote, or by being recovered from camp after making their intentions clear to producers and being interviewed by the host. When a player leaves the game without being voted off, the other tribes are notified of the departed player's removal, and the next Tribal Council may be cancelled. After the players merge into one tribe, any who have been removed from the game by medical evacuation are still eligible to participate as jury members once the medical examiners deem them healthy enough to do so. Those that have quit the game voluntarily may also still be eligible for the jury and, if their reasons for leaving are considered sufficient, they may also still be allowed to make a farewell speech to the camera.

Hidden immunity idols[edit]

Hidden immunity idols are pocket-sized ornaments—typically necklaces—made to fit the theme of the season, that are hidden around the tribes' camps or other locations that the castaways have access to. When played at Tribal Council, the hidden immunity idol makes the castaway who plays it immune from elimination at that Tribal Council. Idols are typically usable until the Tribal Council with five players remaining, and do not need to be declared to other castaways when found. The idol, once found by a player, cannot be stolen from them, but other castaways can look through their possessions to see if they have it. Idols can, however, be transferred to other players at any point, or be played on another player at Tribal Council. Once an idol "leaves the game", either by being played or by the holder leaving the game with their idol, a replacement idol may be hidden.

First seen in Survivor: Guatemala, several seasons have used different iterations of the idol:

  • An idol that can be played before the votes are cast, thus preventing all other players from voting against the player who cast it (As seen in Guatemala)
  • An idol that can be played after the votes are read, thus negating all votes against the player who cast it and eliminating the castaway with the next-highest vote total (As seen in Panama and Cook Islands. Also seen in Cagayan and Kaôh Rōng as the "Super Idol")
  • An idol that can be played after the votes are cast but before they are read, thus negating all votes against the player who cast it and eliminating the castaway with the next-highest vote total (As seen in all seasons from Fiji onward)

The third type of idol is seen as a "happy medium" relative to the two previous versions,[8] and forces both the voters and the idol holder to make a more complicated strategic decision: the voters may have to vote without knowing whether the person they are voting for has a hidden immunity idol or without knowing whether that person will choose to play it, and the person with the idol must decide whether to play it without knowing whether enough votes have been cast to vote them out of the game. This type of idol may be "wasted" if a player uses it and does not receive the highest number of votes, and other times idol holders may choose not to use the idol, intending to save it to use at a later time, but will be eliminated with their idol unplayed. Though this third idol continues to be used, two seasons have used the two latter forms of idols concurrently: in Cagayan, clues were given to the third type of idol, but an idol with the second power was hidden with no clues; this idol could not be transferred.[9] In Kaôh Rōng, all hidden idols were of the third type, but two idols could be combined into a single idol of the second type, referred to as a "super idol".[10]

Strategically, castaways have used the idol as a bargaining chip to align other players with them and swing pending votes in a specific direction; as a result, some players have been inspired to create fake hidden immunity idols, either leaving them the spot that the original idol was found, or carrying them around as a bluff to attempt to alter people's voting strategies in advance of Tribal Council. If a fake idol is played at Tribal Council, the host notes that it is not the real idol and throws it in the fire. In the U.S. version of the show, the producers have encouraged players to make fake idols by providing decorative materials—such as beads, string, and paint—through props within the game.[11] In Cambodia, all idols were deliberately made to look different from each other to further encourage castaways to make fake idols.[12]

To help castaways find the idol, a series of clues are given to them in succession in a number of different ways. A clue may be given to the winner of a reward challenge, hidden among the reward prizes, announced by the host to all remaining castaways, or provided to a castaway who has been sent to Exile Island or temporarily sent to live with the other tribe. Castaways are under no obligation to share the idol clues with other players. Clues continue to be provided even after a player has secretly found the idol. Each successive clue includes all the previous clues given for that location. Only once a new idol is hidden are new clues provided to the players. In later seasons, players have been very aware that hidden idols may be in play from the start of the game and some have started to look for them near apparent landmarks before any clues have been provided. One castaway, Russell Hantz, was able to find two idols during Survivor: Samoa without the aid of clues. In light of this so-called "Russell factor," producers subsequently began hiding the idols in more difficult-to-find locations,[13] and, in a subsequent season, clues contained visual rebuses rather than text.[14]

Exile Island[edit]

Exile Island is a remote location away from the tribal camps, where one or two castaways are sent to live in isolation from the rest of their tribe. Exile Island was first introduced in Survivor: Palau when a single contestant was made to stay alone on a beach for a day as a result of being the first to drop out of an Immunity Challenge. This twist would not be used regularly until Survivor: Panama; it was also used in Cook Islands, Fiji, Micronesia, Gabon, Tocantins, and San Juan del Sur.

A selected player is exiled to a location (typically a small island) apart from the main tribe camps. Typically, the castaway is exiled after the reward challenge, leaving the challenge location for Exile Island, and usually returns immediately before the following immunity challenge. The exiled castaway is chosen as a result of the reward challenge: in the tribal phase, a member of the losing tribe is exiled (usually exiled by the winning tribe), while in the individual phase, the reward challenge winner holds the sole right to choose. Unless stated otherwise, players who win the right to decide who goes to Exile Island may also choose to go themselves. In Micronesia, Tocantins, and San Juan del Sur, one person from each tribe was sent to Exile Island. In several seasons with Exile Island, there are tribe swaps with an uneven number of castaways remaining, as in Panama, Fiji, Gabon; the leftover contestant will be treated as "tribeless" and exiled immediately after formation. In this case, the contestant is immune until following the next Tribal Council, joining the tribe that loses the next immunity challenge.

Once selected, the exiled contestant is immediately sent there. They are given minimal survival tools, typically a water canteen, a machete, a pot, and a limited amount of shelter. The two main disadvantages of being on Exile Island are the lack of food and water, which can weaken a player and make them less effective in challenges, and the isolation from other contestants, which can cause a player to become out of the loop and weaken their position in their tribe. Contestants are often sent to Exile Island for one or both of these strategic reasons.

In certain seasons, exiled castaways receive a consolation prize: in all seasons with Exile Island, the exiled castaway receives a clue to the hidden immunity idol, which may or may not be located on the island. On Survivor: Gabon, the exiled castaway was given the option to give up their idol clue for "instant comfort," and in Survivor: Tocantins, the exiled castaway had the right to change tribes. Occasionally, the exiled castaway is instructed to return after the next Tribal Council, earning them automatic immunity.

Other exile twists[edit]

Two seasons of the U.S. version have used different variations on the Exile twists. In China, tribes who win reward challenges earned the right to "kidnap" a member of the losing tribe, and that person would have to stay with them until the next immunity challenge. The kidnapped person would be given a clue to the hidden immunity idol which he or she must give to one member of the winning tribe. In Samoa, a reverse version of the kidnapping rule was used, called "spy expedition" (also known as "observing"). The winning tribe would have to send one of their own to accompany the other tribe until the immunity challenge. Both of these twists were retired after the merge. In Kaôh Rōng, the three tribes were shuffled into two tribes with 13 players remaining; the leftover castaway Julia Solowski was exiled to the now-defunct third camp and joined the tribe that lost the next immunity challenge the day after their Tribal Council. In "Game Changers", the tribes switched with 15 players where Debbie was exiled for not being put on a tribe. Unlike other visits to Exile Island, Debbie was sent to a luxury yacht.

Redemption Island[edit]

Redemption Island is a twist used in Survivor: Redemption Island, Survivor: South Pacific and Survivor: Blood vs. Water, in which voted out contestants remain in the game, exiled from the other castaways, competing in challenges for a chance to return to the game. It was first used in several international editions, including the Swedish version, the Israeli version as "The Island of the Dead", Philippine version's second season as "Isla Purgatoryo" (Purgatory Island), the Serbian version's second season as "Ghost Island" and the Romanian version's first season as "Exile Island".

After being voted out, contestants are exiled to Redemption Island, where they will fend for themselves like the castaways in the game proper until the next person is voted out. The day following Tribal Council, there is a duel in which the winner remains on the island and the losers are eliminated for good; upon elimination, the duel losers must remove their buff and throw it into a small fire pit. There are two places where the winner of the duel returns to the game: at the merge, where Redemption Island is cleared and reset; and when there are four players remaining in the main game, at which point Redemption Island is retired.

Double elimination cycles, or any other disruption of the game's pattern, leads to three or four duelists instead of two. In Survivor: Redemption Island only the loser of the duel was eliminated, resulting in four players competing in the final duel due to two double elimination cycles, with two Tribal Councils and no duels in between. For Survivor: South Pacific, the rules were changed so only the winner remained in the game while all others were eliminated. In Survivor: Blood vs. Water, there were three competitors at every duel, with only one player eliminated at each duel except for ones in which a sole winner returned to the main game.

Redemption Island in Blood vs. Water featured additional alterations to fit with the game's primary twist of featuring pairs of loved ones. Prior to any duel, the castaways with loved ones on Redemption Island are given the choice to replace their loved one on Redemption Island, with their loved one returning to the main game and taking their place in the tribe. In addition, the first-place winner of the duel must give a clue to a hidden immunity idol to any castaway in the main game.

Other seasons have featured alternate twists in which voted out players can return to the game. In 2003, Survivor: Pearl Islands featured the Outcast twist, in which the six eliminated castaways competed as the Outcast tribe against the two remaining tribes; as the Outcast tribe won the challenge, they earned the right to vote two of their own back into the game, while the other two tribes had to vote players out; following this, the tribes merged. In the seventh season of the Israeli version, voted out players remained in the game as "zombies", challenging their former tribemates to stay in the game and vote in their stead at Tribal Council; similar to Redemption Island, zombies returned to the game at the merge and near the end of the game.


The Sole Survivor receives a cash prize of $1,000,000 prior to taxes and sometimes also receives a car provided by the show's sponsor. Every player receives a prize for participating on Survivor depending on how long he or she lasts in the game. In most seasons, the runner-up receives $100,000, and third place wins $85,000. All other players receive money on a sliding scale, though specific amounts have rarely been made public. Sonja Christopher, the first player voted off of Survivor: Borneo, received $2,500.[15] In Survivor: Fiji, the first season with tied runners-up, the two runners-up received US$100,000 each, and Yau-Man Chan received US$60,000 for his fourth-place finish.[16] All players also receive an additional $10,000 for their appearance on the reunion show.[17]

Most seasons between The Australian Outback and Fiji have featured a late-season reward challenge where the winner receives a car. This reward was infamous for what was later dubbed the "car curse,"[18] referring to the fact that no player who ever won the car went on to win the game during his or her original season.

Other additional prizes are given out post-game, usually at the live reunion that immediately follows the coronation of the winner.

Variations in the format[edit]

Aside from the U .S. version, other franchises introduced variations and twists for the game. Most of these twists and variations are used in other franchises as well:

Expeditie Robinson Belgium/Netherlands
  • During the 2005 season the tribes were initially divided up by age into "Old" and "Young", with the old contestants being forty and older and the young contestants being under the age of thirty. This twist was later used during Survivor: Nicaragua and Robinsonekspedisjonen 2009.
  • During the pre-merge portion of the 2006 season two former contestants returned to the game to lead the tribes. As the leader, they were allowed to give individual immunity to any member of their tribe when they went to tribal council. Neither of these two contestants was eligible to win and both left shortly before the merge. A similar twist occurred in Survivor South Africa: Champions, except with sporting champions in the place of former contestants.
  • When there were only three contestants left during the 2006 season all of the contestants that had lost on "Losers Island" voted to eliminate one of the finalists.
  • The 2007 season began with one hundred contestants. Because many of these contestants weren't on the show for more than a couple of episodes many of their surnames are unknown.
  • When it came time to reveal the winner of the 2008 season it was revealed that the jury vote was tied at 3-3. This led to seventy four former contestants voting for a winner.
  • During the 2009 season the two tribes were initially composed of only women while a smaller tribe of men were hidden on a secluded beach. The men eventually entered the main competition in episode four. A similar twist was later used during Robinson 2011.
  • The 2014 run saw the introduction of a 3-way tribe contest: Heaven, Earth and Hell. Hell being placed in the middle of the mangrove bush. During the first episodes, the losing tribe would vote off a member and relocate to Hell.
  • The 2015 season started with an individual format. It started with 17 players, but the challenges had to be played in two even teams. So, before the first three challenges, one person was sent to a separate island and the rest of them created two teams. So the challenges were played with two teams of eight, seven and six. After that, only 11 players were left on the island. They had to make one group of seven and one group of four, which would join the three people sent to Tayak. From that point, it was Kamp Noord versus Kamp Zuid again.
Koh-Lanta (France)
  • In every season of Koh-Lanta, just before the tribe merge, an ambassador is chosen in each tribe. Through season 8, they had the power to give one more vote to any contestant for the first Tribal Council of the merged tribe. In season 9 and later seasons (including the two All-Stars seasons), they were able to directly eliminate a contestant. However, if none of the ambassadors agrees to vote for/eliminate one contestant, they must draw one pearl from a bag. The one who gets the black pearl loses and either gets a vote or is directly eliminated depending on the season.
  • During season 3 (Bocas del Toro), the oldest man and woman had the option to choose the composition of their respective tribes, as long as gender parity was respected.
  • During season 4 (Panama), the two tribes were divided by gender. However, after 8 days, the tribes were mixed. A variation was used during season 10 (Vietnam), where the tribes were divided by gender except that one person per tribe was of the opposite gender.
  • During season 5 (Pacific) and season 6 (Vanuatu), the tribes were divided by age: older or younger than 31 years old.
  • During season 7 (Palawan) and season 8 (Caramoan), there was a challenge before the tribes' composition was decided: the best man and woman got the privilege to decide on the composition of their tribes, while the last man and woman were directly eliminated. The latter rule was also applied in season 9 (Palau) and in the first All-Stars season.
  • During the second All-Stars season, seven previous contestants were part of one tribe, while the other tribe was composed of famous French sportsmen.
  • In season 11 (Raja Ampat), two new rules were introduced: the hidden immunity idol, known from its appearance in the US version, and a new rule called the "vote noir" (black vote). After a contestant gets voted out at the Tribal Council, he or she can vote one more time against one of the remaining contestants of his or her tribe before quitting the game. This vote is counted at the tribe's next Tribal Council.
  • The third All-Stars season featured sixteen former contestants who, despite their performances, hasn't previously become the Sole Survivor.
  • In season 12 (Malaysia), four contestants out of the starting 20 won't initially be part of either of the two starting tribes. Instead, they will be on a version of "Exile Island", and will need to prove themselves in order to be integrated into one of the two tribes. Also, for the first time in the history of the program, two contestants will be eliminated at once in a single Tribal Council.
  • Due to an accidental death during the first day of shooting season 13, those in charge of producing the show decided to cancel the 2013 season. Following a fierce discussion of these events in the media regarding the medical conditions, the show's doctor took his own life. However, this didn't stop the show entirely, coming back in 2014 with a fourth all-stars season.
Robinson Ekspeditionen Denmark
  • Because it was originally thought that the fifth season of Robinson would be the last to air in Denmark, Robinson Ekspeditionen 2002 was the first ever "All-Stars" version of Survivor to be broadcast worldwide. Since then there have been several All-Stars versions including ones in America, Belgium/Netherlands, France, Israel, and Sweden.
  • During the 2005 season the contestants were divided up into tribes based on where they were from within Denmark.
  • During the 2006 season all of the contestants were well known Danish athletes.
  • In keeping with the theme of the season, during the 2006 season all of the contestants were eliminated through duels rather than voting.
  • During the 2007 season the tribes were composed of past contestants from Robinson Ekspeditionen and contestants of another show known as Paradise Hotel.
  • During the 2008 season the tribes were composed of fans of Robinson Ekspeditionen and former contestants from Paradise Hotel.
  • During the 2009 season the tribes were initially divided into "Smart" and "Dumb" based on the results of an IQ test the contestants took prior to the start of the competition.
  • During the 2010 season the contestants took part in a challenge that would ultimately divide them into "Masters" and "Slaves" within their own tribes (one tribe was composed of male masters and female slaves while the other was composed of female masters and male slaves).
Robinsonid (Estonia), Robinsoni (Latvia), Robinzonai (Lithuania)
  • Because a representative from each participating country was necessary for the finale, the last remaining member of each tribe was immune from all remaining eliminations.
  • In all seasons of Baltic Robinson the jury would vote for who they didn't want to win as opposed to who they did. These votes would be added along with those given to the losers of the plank (in all seasons) and those of the public (in the first two seasons) or of the finalists (in season 3).
Survivor Israel
  • Introduced the "Double-Power Challenge" in Survivor 10: The Caribbean. The double-power challenge is an individual challenge, which is played after the Immunity challenge. Every person going to Tribal Council had to compete, and the winner of the challenge won an additional power at Tribal Council.
  • Introduced the "Veto Armlet" in Survivor 10: Pearl Islands. Aside from the Immunity Challenge, where the winner of the challenge wins the immunity, the Israel version introduced the Armlet Veto, wherein the winner of the Veto Challenge gets the armlet. The Veto Armlets purpose is to cancel the vote of a castaway.
Robinsonekspedisjonen Norway
  • In November 2011 it was announced that the 2012 season of Robinsonekspedisjonen will be known as "Robinson: Vinter" (Robinson: Winter) and it will be the first ever season of Robinson or Survivor to ever take place in a cold climate as it will be filmed in Norway.
Survivor Philippines
  • Introduced the "Cursed and White Pearls", both roughly the size of a standard billiard ball. During the merge stage, the person voted out, before having his/her torch snuffed out, will receive either one or both of the Pearls and give each Pearl to one of the remaining castaways. The castaway who receives the Cursed Pearl gets one vote in the following Tribal Council. In case the Cursed Pearl is lost, the holder would then receive two votes. In-show, the Cursed Pearl is called the "Black Pearl" (though in the first season, its actual color is really silver). On the other hand, the White Pearl will have one vote subtracted from the count in the receiver's favor in the next Tribal Council, should at least one such vote comes up. This was introduced in the first season of Survivor Philippines.
  • Introduced the "Blood Pearl" in Survivor Philippines: Palau. The Blood Pearl served the same purpose as the Cursed Pearl, only, the holder would receive two votes in the next Tribal Council. In case the Blood Pearl is lost, three votes would be counted against the holder.
  • Introduced the Isla Purgatorio, which is called the Redemption Island in US version.
  • Introduced the "doubles format" in Survivor Philippines: Celebrity Doubles Showdown, wherein castaways are grouped as couples with preexisting relationships. In this format, the couple is treated as one castaway, wherein both members get immunity after winning Immunity Challenges, both win the reward from the Reward Challenges, and both are voted out in the Tribal Council.
  • Also in Survivor Philippines: Celebrity Doubles Showdown, the "Temptation Reward" was introduced. The winning tribe in a Reward Challenge would choose one or two of their own to be the only one/s partaking in the Temptation Reward. After being shown the Temptation Reward, the chosen one/s were then also presented with the consequence that comes upon accepting the Temptation Reward. Declining from the Temptation Reward is also an option if those chosen would deem accepting it be too harmful to their life in the game.
Expedition Robinson Sweden
The title card for Expedition Robinson's 15th season, Robinson: Revanschen.
  • During the 1998 and 1999 seasons, during the pre-merge portion of the competition when a tribe lost an immunity challenge the opposing tribe would vote to eliminate one of their members.
  • In the 1998 season a "Joker" joined the game midway through. Since then this twist has become very common among Survivor versions around the world, either as a twist or as a contingency plan.
  • During the 1999 season the contestants were initially divided into four tribes. This twist would later be used in the American version of Survivor during Survivor: Exile Island and Survivor: Cook Islands.
  • During the 1999 season the twist of "The Black Vote" was introduced. During the merge portion of the competition whenever someone was voted out before they left tribal council they would cast one more vote. This vote would then be carried over to the next tribal council and whoever received the vote, assuming they didn't have immunity, would have an extra vote against them.
  • During the 2002 season when a contestant was voted out they were sent to a secret island where they would take part in a duel with another eliminated contestant. The contestant who lost said duel would be eliminated for good while the winner remained on the island. The person still inhabiting the island when there were only three contestants left in the game would re-enter the competition. This twist would later be used in several different versions of the show and has recently been used on Survivor: Redemption Island and Survivor: South Pacific.
  • During the All-Stars version of Expedition Robinson the tribes were initially divided into two tribes, one composed of "Veterans" and the other of "Fans". This type of twist was also used in the American version of Survivor during Survivor: Micronesia.
  • During the 2004 season the twist known as "Team X" was introduced. Shortly after the competition began a new group of contestants entered the game and lived separately and secretly away from the other contestants until a certain point in the game. This twist has since also been used in Norway's 2009 season.
  • During the 2004 and 2005 seasons a former contestant entered the game. This twist has since been used in many different Survivor versions around the world.
  • During the 2005 season the tribes were initially divided up into a "Rich" tribe and a "Poor" tribe. This twist has since been used in the Danish, Norwegian, and American versions, most notably in Survivor: Fiji.
Twists with unknown origins
  • During the year 2002 several different versions of Survivor used the twist of gender-based tribes as the main twist for their seasons. Due to the fact that at the time the Baltic, Belgian/Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish seasons were all traveling together in order to conserve and pool their resources, there is no way to determine which production team came up with the idea of the twist (though it's unlikely to be the Baltic's or Norway's as neither edition has ever used this twist). The same twist was used a few months later in 2003 during Survivor: Amazon and a couple years later in 2004 during Survivor: Vanuatu.

Game rules[edit]

  • Conspiring to split winnings will result in immediate expulsion from the game.
  • Except for the occasional challenges which involve wrestling or limited combat, any physical violence between players will result in immediate expulsion from the game.
  • At Tribal Council, players are not permitted to vote for themselves, nor can they spoil their ballots or decline to cast a vote. Players must also show whom they voted for to the camera inside the voting booth.
  • Contestants must abide by U.S. law as well as local law. Breaking any of these laws will result in immediate removal from the game.
  • A regular hidden immunity idol can be played after the votes have been cast but before they are read.
  • A special hidden immunity idol can be played after the votes are read.
  • Hidden immunity idols cannot be stolen by another player.
  • If a contestant plays the hidden immunity idol, any votes cast for that contestant will not count, and the person with the next largest number of votes will be eliminated.
  • Contestants may not skip any tribal councils, nor can they refuse to participate in any immunity or reward challenge, unless the game offers them the opportunity to do so. This rule was allowed to be broken by Phillip Sheppard in Survivor: Caramoan and by Missy Payne in Survivor: San Juan del Sur (due to injury).
  • Tribe members may not raid or visit the campsite of another tribe unless they are doing so as part of an immunity challenge, reward challenge or tribal merger activity with the other tribe. They also may not visit the TV crew compound. Exceptions to this rule have been made, though, as a result of an accident (as seen in Survivor: Cook Islands) or challenge victories. In Survivor: Guatemala one tribe intentionally visited the other to invite them over to lounge in their lake pool.
  • If a contestant becomes seriously injured or sick, the player, fellow contestants, the host, or even the crew filming the players may call in a medical team for help. In some cases, the player can be treated at their camp, but the player may also be deemed unable to participate further by the medical team and then be taken from camp to a medical facility, and removed from the game. Often, the players may decide for themselves whether their health will allow them to continue.
  • Contestants deciding to quit the contest for any reason not health - or other-emergency-related may or may not be called back for the final jury, pending the producers' decision, and may or may not get their closing speech aired, if their reasons are sufficient enough. (This rule was added after the end of Survivor: Nicaragua.) If a player decides to quit prior to Redemption Island, they are allowed to keep their buff instead of throwing it in the fire pit upon exiting (as was the case in Survivor: Blood vs. Water).
  • Depending on which country the show takes place in, contestants may be barred from killing local wildlife.

Survivor series[edit]

The Survivor format has been adapted for numerous international versions of the show, some named after the original Expedition Robinson.


     Currently airing franchise
     Franchise with an upcoming season
     Franchise no longer aired
Region/Country Local title Networks Winners Grand Prize Hosts
Africa Survivor Africa M-Net Season 1, 2006: Tsholofelo Gasenelwe $100,000 Anthony Oseyemi
(Season 1)
Arab World Survivor
LBC Season 1, 2005: Hussein El-Abass SR1,000,000 Tareq Mounir
(Season 1)
Argentina Expedición Robinson Canal 13

Season 1, 2000: Sebastián Martino
Season 2, 2001: María Victoria Fernández

$100,000 Julián Weich
(Season 1–2)
Australia Australian Survivor Nine Network
(Season 1)
Network Ten
(Season 3-Present)
Season 1, 2002: Rob Dickson
Season 3, 2016: Kristie Bennett
Season 4, 2017: Current season
A$500,000 & Ford Escape
(Season 1)
(Season 3-present)
Lincoln Howes
(Season 1)
Jonathan LaPaglia
(Season 3-present)
Australian Celebrity Survivor Seven Network Season 2, 2006: Guy Leech A$100,000
(For charity)
Ian "Dicko" Dickson
Expedition Robinson ORF
Season 1, 2000: Melanie Lauer1 DEM100,000
Azerbaijan Extreme Azerbaijan
(Ekstrim Azərbaycan)
Space TV Season 1, 2011: Unknown Sports car Emin Əhmədov
(Season 1)
Baltics Robinsonid
TV3 Estonia
TV3 Latvia
TV3 Lithuania

Season 1, 2000: Zane Mukane
Season 2, 2001: Māris Šveiduks
Season 3, 2002: Rimas Valeikis

Mazda 626
(Season 1)

50,000 LT
(Season 2–3)
Emil Rutiku
(Season 1-3)

Pauls Timrots
(Season 1-3)
Vytautas Kernagis
(Season 1-3)
Džungļu zvaigznes
Season 1, 2004: Dagmāra Legante 10,000 Tenu Karks
Raimond Dombrovskis
Vytautas Kernagis
Expeditie Robinson VT4
(Season 1–5)

(Season 6–13)

(Season 1–5)

(Season 6–7)

(Season 6–13)

Season 1, 2000: Karin Lindenhovius
Season 2, 2001: Richard Mackowiak
Season 3, 2002: Derek Blok
Season 4, 2003: Jutta Borms
Season 5, 2004: Frank de Meulder
Season 6, 2005: Marnix Allegaert
Season 7, 2006: Olga Urashova
Season 8, 2007: Vinncent Arrendell
Season 9, 2008: Yin Oei Sian
Season 10, 2009: Marcel Vandezande
Season 11, 2010: Regina Romeijn
Season 12, 2011: Tanja Dexters
Season 13, 2012: Fatima Moreira de Melo

(Season 3 – present)
(Season 1–2)
(Season 1–9)
Désiré Naessens
(Season 1)
Roos Van Acker
(Season 2–5)
Lotte Verlackt
(Season 6–7)
Evi Hanssen
(Season 7–13)
Eddy Zoey
(Season 10–12)
Dennis Weening
(Season 13)
Expeditie Robinson:
Season 1, 2006: Ryan van Esch
Brazil No Limite Globo

Season 1, 2000: Elaine de Melo
Season 2, 2001: Léo Rassi
Season 3, 2001: Rodrigo Trigueiro
Season 4, 2009: Luciana de Araújo

R$ 500,000 Zeca Camargo
(Season 1–4)
Bulgaria Survivor BG
(Сървайвър БГ)

Season 1, 2006: Neli Ivanova
Season 2, 2007: Georgi Kostadinov
Season 3, 2008: Nikolay Martinov
Season 4, 2009:[19] Georgi Kehaiov
Season 5, 2014: Vanja Džaferović

250,000 BGN
(Season 1-4)
100,000 BGN
(Season 5)

(Season 1)
Vladimir Karamazov
(Season 2–5)
Evtim Miloshev
(Season 4 to Day 22)

People's Republic of China Into The Shangri-La
CCTV Season 1, 2001: Members of Sun Village A chance to
fulfill their dreams
Chile Expedición Robinson
(Celebrity Format)
Canal 13 Season 1, 2006: Marcela Roberts $50,000,000

Sergio Lagos
(Season 1)
Karla Constant
(Season 1)

Colombia Expedición Robinson Caracol TV

Season 1, 2001: Rolando Patarroyo
Season 2, 2002: Cristóbal Echevarría

(Season 1)

(Season 2)

Margarita Francisco
(Season 1–2)
La Isla
de los Famo S.O.S.

(Celebrity Format)

Season 1, 2004: María Cecilia Sánchez
Season 2, 2005: Leonel Álvarez
Season 3, 2006: Lucas Jaramillo
Season 4, 2007: José Javier Ramírez


Guillermo Prieto
(Season 1–4)
Katerine Porto
(Season 1)

Croatia Survivor HRT
(Season 1)
Season 1, 2005: Vazmenko Pervanu €100,000
(Season 1)

Antonija Blaće
(Season 2)
Milan Kalinić
(Season 2)
Andrija Milošević
(Season 2)
Marijana Batinić
(Season 2)
Survivor Croatia VIP RTL Televizija
(Season 2)
Season 2, 2012: Vladimir "Vlada" Vuksanović4 50,000
(Season 2)

Czech Republic Trosečník TV Prima Season 1, 2006: Ingrid Golasová 5,000,000 CZK Marek Vašut
(Season 1)
Robinsonův ostrov TV Nova Season 1, 2017: Marek Orlík

Season 2, 2017/2018: Upcoming Season

2,500,000 CZK Ondřej Novotný
(Season 1-Present)
Denmark Robinson

Season 1, 1998: Regina Pedersen
Season 2, 1999: Dan Marstrand
Season 3, 2000: Sonny Pedersen
Season 4, 2001: Malene Hasselblad
Season 5, 2002: Henrik Ørum
Season 6, 2003: Frank Quistgard
Season 7, 2004: Mette Frandsen
Season 8, 2005: Mogens Brandstrup
Season 9, 2006: Diego Tur
Season 10, 2007: Rikke Gøransson
Season 11, 2008: Daniela Hansen
Season 12, 2009: Villy Eenberg
Season 13, 2010: Søren Engelbret
Season 14, 2011: Hugo Kleister
Season 15, 2013: Jeppe Bruun Hansen
Season 16, 2014: Stina Von Edelstein
Season 17, 2015: Kenneth Mikkelsen
Season 18, 2016: Henrik Oltmann Andersen
Season 19, 2017: Upcoming Season

1,000,000 DKK (Season 5-9)

500,000 DKK (Season 10-Present)

250,000 DKK (Season 1-4)

Thomas Mygind
(Season 1–6)
Jakob Kjeldbjerg
(Season 7–Present)

Ecuador Expedición Robinson Teleamazonas Season 1, 2003: Tito Grefa $30,000
and a car
Marisa Sánchez
(Season 1)
Finland Suomen Robinson Nelonen

Season 1, 2004: Marjaana Valkeinen
Season 2, 2005: Mira Jantunen


Jarmo Mäkinen
(Season 1)
Arttu Harkki
(Season 2)

Selviytyjät Suomi
(Survivor Finland)
MTV3 Season 1, 2013: Jarkko Kortesoja €50,000

Heikki Paasonen
(Season 1)

France Koh-Lanta TF1

Season 1, 2001: Gilles Nicolet
Season 2, 2002: Amel Fatnassi
Season 3, 2003: Isabelle Seguin and Delphine Bano
Season 4, 2004: Philippe Bordier
Season 5, 2005: Clémence Castel
Season 6, 2006: François-David Cardonnel
Season 7, 2007: Jade Handi and Kevin Cuoco
Season 8, 2008: Christelle Gauzet
Season 9, 2009: Christina Chevry
Season 10, 2010: Philippe Duron
Season 11, 2011: Gérard Urdampilleta
Season 12, 2012: Ugo Lartiche
Season 13, 2013: Cancelled
Season 14, 2015: Marc Rambaud
Season 15, 2016: Wendy Gervois
Season 16, 2016: Benoît Assadi
Season 17, 2017: Frédéric Blancher
Season 18, 2017: Upcoming Season

saison 1 500 000 FF €100,000 Hubert Auriol
(Season 1)

Denis Brogniart
(Season 2 – Present)

Koh-Lanta: All-Stars

Season 1, 2009: Romuald Lafite
Season 2, 2010: Grégoire Delachaux
Season 3, 2012: Bertrand Bolle
Season 4, 2014: Laurent Maistret

Denis Brogniart
(Season 1–4)
Georgia უკანასკნელი

Ukanaskneli Gmiri
Rustavi 2 Season 1, 2007–2008: Tamar Chanturashvili
Germany Survivor RTL 2
(Season 1 - 2)

(Season 3)

Season 2, 2001: Alexander Kolo1
Season 3, 2007: Volker

(Season 2)

(Season 3)
Survivor GreeceCyprus
Mega TV
Season 1, 2003: Evaggelia Dermetzoglou

Season 2, 2004: Konstantinos Christodoulopoulos

€200,000 Grigoris Arnaoutoglou
Survivor: Greece vs. Turkey Season 3, 2006: Derya Durmuşlar3 €250,000 Konstantinos Markoulakis
Survivor: Patagonia Season 4, 2010: Vaggelis Gerasimou €100,000 Giannis Aivazis
Survivor: Diasimoi vs Machites
(with celebrities)
Greece Skai TV
Cyprus Sigma TV
Season 5, 2017: Giorgos 'Danos' Angelopoulos

Season 6, 2018: Upcoming season

Sakis Tanimanidis
Eleonora Meleti (Survivor Panorama)
Hungary Survivor – A sziget RTL Klub

Season 1, 2003: Tünde Molnár
Season 2, 2004: Dávid Hankó
Season 3, 2017: Upcoming season

10,000,000 Ft
and a car
András Stohl
(Season 1–2)

Istenes Bence
(Season 3)

India Survivor India – The Ultimate Battle Star Plus Season 1, 2012 : Raj Rani 1 crore Sameer Kochhar
Israel הישרדות
Hisardut (Hebrew: Survival)
Channel 10
(Seasons 1-6)
Channel 2'
(Reshet) (Season 7-)

Season 1, 2007-2008: Na'ama Kaesari
Season 2, 2008-2009: Erik Alper
Season 3, 2009: Shay Arel
Season 4, 2010: Natan Bashevkin
Season 5, 2011: Irit Rahamim Basis
Season 7, 2015-2016: Liron "Tiltil" Orfali
Season 8, 2017: Current Season

1,000,000 Guy Zu-Aretz
(Season 1 – Present)
הישרדות VIP
Hisardut VIP
(Hebrew: Survival VIP)
Season 6, 2012: Itay Segev
Italy Survivor Italia Italia 1 Season 1, 2001: Milica Miletic €200,000

Pietro Suber
(Season 1)
Benedetta Corbi
(Season 1)

L'Isola dei Famosi
The Island Of The Famous
Rai Due
(Season 1-9)

Canale 5
(Season 10-present)

Season 1, 2003: Walter Nudo
Season 2, 2004: Sergio Múñiz
Season 3, 2005: Lori Del Santo
Season 4, 2006: Luca Calvani
Season 5, 2007: Manuela Villa
Season 6, 2008: Vladimir Luxuria
Season 7, 2010: Daniele Battaglia
Season 8, 2011: Giorgia Palmas
Season 9, 2012: Antonella Elia
Season 10, 2015: Donatella
Season 11, 2016: Giacobbe Fragomeni
Season 12, 2017: Raz Degan


Simona Ventura
(Season 1–8)
Marco Mazzocchi
(Season 1–3)
Paolo Brosio
(Season 4)
(Season 5)
Filippo Magnini
(Season 6)
Rossano Rubicondi
(Season 7)
Daniele Battaglia
(Season 8)
Nicola Savino
(Season 9)
Vladimir Luxuria
(Season 9)
Alessia Marcuzzi
(Season 10-present)
Alberto 'Alvin' Bonato
(Season 10-present)

Japan Survivor

Season 1, 2002: Eri Minoshima
Season 2, 2002: Asami Kawamura
Season 3, 2003: Yasuhito Ebisawa
Season 4, 2003: Kōshin Gunji


(Season 1–4)
Munehiro Tokita
(Season 1–4)

Mexico La Isla, el reality Azteca 7

Season 1, 2012: María Reneé
Season 2, 2013: Cecilia Ponce
Season 3, 2014: Francisco Covarrubias
Season 4, 2015: Jorge Lyle
Season 5, 2016: Jorge Luis Vázquez
Season 6, 2017: Upcoming Season

$2,000,000 Alejandro Lukini
Netherlands Expeditie Robinson RTL 5

Season 14, 2013: Edith Bosch
Season 15, 2014: Kay Nambiar
Season 16, 2015: Amara Onwuka
Season 17, 2016: Bertie Steur
Season 18, 2017: Upcoming Season

(Season 14)
(Season 15)
(Season 16 - present)
Dennis Weening
Evi Hanssen
(Season 14)
Nicolette Kluijver
(Season 15 - present)
New Zealand Survivor New Zealand TVNZ 2 Season 1, 2017: Avi Duckor-Jones
NZ$100,000 Matt Chisholm
Norway Robinson-
(Season 1 - 14)

(Season 15-present)

Season 1, 1999: Christer Falch
Season 2, 2000: Therese Andersen
Season 3, 2001: Mia Martinsen
Season 4, 2002: Ann Karene Molvig
Season 5, 2003: Emil Orderud
Season 6, 2004: Jan Stian Gundersen
Season 7, 2007: Ann-Kristin Otnes
Season 8, 2008: Tom Andre Tveitan
Season 9, 2009: Lina Iversen
Season 10, 2010: Alita Dagmar Kristensen
Season 11, 2011: Lillan Ramøy
Season 12, 2012: Elisabeth Nielsen
Season 13, 2013: Bjørn Tore Bekkeli
Season 14, 2015: Maiken Sæther Olsen
Season 15, 2016: Thomas Larsen


Nils Ole Oftebro
(Season 1)
Christer Falch
(Season 2 – Present)

Pakistan Survivor Pakistan PTV
Season 1, 2006: Muhammad Ziad US$100,000
Philippines Survivor Philippines GMA

Season 1, 2008: John Carlo "JC" Tiuseco
Season 2, 2009: Amanda Coolley Van Cooll

₱3,000,000 (approximately €56,000 in 2017) Paolo Bediones
(Season 1–2)
Survivor Philippines: Celebrity Showdown

Season 3, 2010: Akihiro Sato
Season 4, 2011-2012: Albert "Betong" Sumaya Jr.

Richard Gutierrez
(Season 3–4)
Poland Wyprawa Robinson TVN Season 1, 2004: Katarzyna Drzyżdżyk 100,000 (approximately €24,000 in 2017) Hubert Urbański
(Season 1)
Wyspa Przetrwania Polsat Season 2, 2017: Upcoming Season Damian Michałowski
(Season 1)
Portugal Survivor TVI Season 1, 2001: Pedro Besugo Esc10,000,000
Romania Supraviețuitorul Pro TV Season 1, 2016: Lucian "Zapp" Lupu
100,000 Dragoș Bucurenci
(Season 1)
Russia Последний герой
Posledniy Geroy
Last Hero

Season 1, 2001: Sergey Odintsov
Season 2, 2002-2003: Veronika Norkina
Season 3, 2003: Vladimir Presnyakov, Jr
Season 4, 2003-2004: Yana Volkova
Season 5, 2004: Aleksey Matveyev
Season 6, 2005: Alexander "Conan" Alexeev
Season 7, 2008-2009: Vladimir Lysenko

3,000,000 RUB (approximately €49,000 in 2017)

Sergei Bodrov, Jr.
(Season 1)
Dmitry Pevtsov
(Season 2)
Nikolai Fomenko
(Season 3)
(Season 4)
Vladimir Menshov
(Season 5)
Kseniya Sobchak
(Season 7)

Scandinavia Robinson: VIP
(Celebrity Edition)
TV3 Denmark
TV3 Norway
TV3 Sweden
Season 1, 2005: Tilde Fröling2 SEK500,000 (approximately €52,000 in 2017)
to charity
Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
Serbia Survivor Srbija Serbia Prva(1-2)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAlternativna Televizija(1-2)
Bosnia and Herzegovina NTV Hayat(2)
Slovenia TV 3(2)
Republic of Macedonia Sitel(2)
Republic of Macedonia A1 Televizija(1)
Montenegro TV In (2)
Montenegro PRO TV (1)

Season 1, 2008-2009: Nemanja Pavlov
Season 2, 2009-2010: Aleksandar Krajišnik

Nissan Patrol
(Season 1)

(Season 1)

(Season 2)

Andrija Milošević
(Season 1 - 4)
Marijana Batinić
(Season 4)
Survivor Srbija: VIP Serbia Prva(3-4)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaOBN(3-4)
Croatia RTL (4)
Republic of Macedonia Sitel(3-4)
Montenegro TV In (3-4)
Season 3, 2010-2011: Andrej Maričić
Season 4, 2012: Vladimir "Vlada" Vuksanović4
Slovakia Ostrov Markíza Season 1, 2016: Filip Ferianec 100 000 € Marián Mitaš
(Season 1)
Slovenia Survivor TV 3 Season 1 : Survivor Srbija 2 season 100 000 € Ula Furlan
Suvivor Slovenija: Filipini POP TV Season 2, 2016: Alen Perklič
50 000 € Miran Stanovnik
(Season 1)
South Africa Survivor
South Africa

Season 1, 2006: Vanessa Marawa
Season 2, 2007: Lorette Mostert
Season 3, 2010: Perle "GiGi" van Schalkwyk
Season 4, 2011: Hykie Berg
Season 5, 2014: Graham Jenneker

R1,000,000 (approximately 71,000 in 2017)

Mark Bayly
(Season 1 - 2)
Nico Panagio
(Season 3 - 5)

Spain Supervivientes Telecinco

Season 1, 2000: Xavier Monjonell
Season 2, 2001: Alfredo "Freddy" Cortina


Juan Manuel López
(Season 1 - 2)
Paco Lobaton
(Season 2)

La Isla
de los Famo S.O.S.
Antena 3

Season 3, 2003: Daniela Cardone
Season 4, 2003: Felipe López
Season 5, 2004: Jose Antonio Canales Rivera
Season 6, 2005: Víctor Janeiro


Paula Vázquez
(Season 3 - 6)
Alonso Caparrós
(Season 3)
Nuria Roca
(Season 4 - 6)

Supervivientes Telecinco

Season 7, 2006: Carmen Russo
Season 8, 2007: Nilo Manrique
Season 9, 2008: Miriam Sánchez
Season 10, 2009: Maite Zúñiga
Season 11, 2010: María José Fernández
Season 12, 2011: Rosa Benito
Season 13, 2014: Abraham García
Season 14, 2015: Christopher Mateo
Season 15, 2016: Jorge Díaz
Season 16, 2017: José Luis Losa


Jesús Vázquez
(Season 7 - 11)
José Mª Íñigo
(Season 7)
Mario Picazo
(Season 8 - 10)
Eva González
(Season 11)
Jorge Javier

(Season 12 - 16)
Raquel Sánchez
(Season 12 - 14)
Lara Álvarez
(Season 14 - 16)

Sweden Expedition Robinson SVT
(Season 1 - 7)

(Season 8 - 9)

(Season 10 -
14, 16)

(Season 15)

Season 1, 1997: Martin Melin
Season 2, 1998: Alexandra Zazzi
Season 3, 1999: Jerker Dalman
Season 4, 2000: Mattias Dalerstedt
Season 5, 2001-2002: Jan Emanuel Johansson
Season 6, 2002: Antoni Matacz
Season 7, 2003-2004: Emma Andersson
Season 8, 2004: Jerry Forsberg
Season 9, 2005: Karolina Conrad
Season 10, 2009: Ellenor Pierre
Season 11, 2009-2010: Hans Brettschneider
Season 12, 2010: Erik Svedberg
Season 13, 2011: Mats Kemi
Season 14, 2012: Mariana "Mirre" Hammarling
Season 15, 2015: Dan Spinelli Scala & Jennifer Egelryd Season 16, 2018: Upcoming Season


Harald Treutiger
(Season 1 - 2)
Anders Lundin
(Season 3 - 7)
Robert Aschberg
(Season 8 - 9)
Linda Isacsson
(Season 10)
Paolo Roberto
(Season 11 - 14)
Anders Öfvergård
(Season 16)

Switzerland Expedition Robinson TV3

Season 1, 1999: Andreas Widmer
Season 2, 2000: Stefanie Ledermann

CHF100,000 Silvan Grütter
(Season 1 - 3)
Turkey Survivor: Büyük Macera Kanal D

Season 1, 2005: Uğur Pektaş


Ahmet Utlu[20]
Survivor: Greece vs. Turkey Show TV

Season 2, 2006: Derya Durmuşlar


Acun Ilıcalı

(Season 2-4)

Hanzade Ofluoğlu
(Season 4)

Survivor: Aslanlar vs. Kanaryalar

Season 3, 2007: Taner Özdeş

Survivor: Kızlar vs. Erkekler

Season 4, 2010: Merve Oflaz


Survivor: Ünlüler vs. Gönüllüler
(with Celebrities)
Show TV
(Season 5-6)

Star TV
(Season 7-8)

(Season 10-11)

Season 5, 2011: Derya Büyükuncu
Season 6, 2012: Nihat Altınkaya
Season 7, 2013: Hilmi Cem İntepe
Season 8, 2014: Turabi Çamkıran

Season 10, 2016: Çağan Atakan Arslan
Season 11, 2017: Ogeday Girişken


Acun Ilıcalı
Burcu Esmersoy
(Season 6)
Alp Kırşan
(Season 7-8, 10-11)

Survivor All Star

(with Celebrities)


Season 9, 2015: Turabi Çamkıran

Season 12, 2018: Upcoming Season


Acun Ilıcalı
Alp Kırşan

Ukraine Oстанній герой
Ostanniy Geroy
Last Hero

Season 1, 2011: Andrey Kovalski
Season 2, 2012: Alexei Diveyeff-Tserkovny

United Kingdom Survivor ITV

Season 1, 2001: Charlotte Hobrough
Season 2, 2002: Jonny Gibb


Mark Austin
(Season 1)
John Leslie
(Season 1)
Mark Nicholas
(Season 2)

United States Survivor CBS Season 1, 2000: Richard Hatch

Season 2, 2001: Tina Wesson
Season 3, 2001-2002: Ethan Zohn
Season 4, 2002: Vecepia Towery
Season 5, 2002: Brian Heidik
Season 6, 2003: Jenna Morasca
Season 7, 2003: Sandra Diaz-Twine
Season 8, 2004: Amber Brkich
Season 9, 2004: Chris Daugherty
Season 10, 2005: Tom Westman
Season 11, 2005: Danni Boatwright
Season 12, 2006: Aras Baskauskas
Season 13, 2006: Yul Kwon
Season 14, 2007: Earl Cole
Season 15, 2007: Todd Herzog
Season 16, 2008: Parvati Shallow
Season 17, 2008: Robert "Bob" Crowley
Season 18, 2009: James "J.T." Thomas Jr.
Season 19, 2009: Natalie White
Season 20, 2010: Sandra Diaz-Twine
Season 21, 2010: Jud "Fabio" Birza
Season 22, 2011: Rob Mariano
Season 23, 2011: Sophie Clarke
Season 24, 2012: Kim Spradlin
Season 25, 2012: Denise Stapley
Season 26, 2013: John Cochran
Season 27, 2013: Tyson Apostol
Season 28, 2014: Tony Vlachos
Season 29, 2014: Natalie Anderson
Season 30, 2015: Mike Holloway
Season 31, 2015: Jeremy Collins
Season 32, 2016: Michele Fitzgerald
Season 33, 2016: Adam Klein
Season 34, 2017: Sarah Lacina
Season 35, 2017: Upcoming Season

US$1,000,000 & a car (Seasons 1–12)
US$1,000,000 (Season 13 – present)
Jeff Probst
Venezuela Robinson
La Gran Aventura

Season 1, 2001: Gabriel Pérez
Season 2, 2002: Graciela Boza

100,000,000 VEB (approximately €43,000 in 2017)


^1 The German Survivor created their own version after airing a co-production of Austrian-German Survivor in season 1. Austria had not continued its own series nor co-produced an Austrian-German Survivor after season 1.
^2 Expedition Robinson 2005 (VIP) was a pan-regional version of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
^3 Survivor: Greece vs. Turkey is a co-production between the Greek and Turkish Survivor franchises. It was the third season of the popular show Survivor to air in Greece and the second season to air in Turkey. This was the first time that either country's franchise competed with another country and because of this the major twist this season was that the tribes were divided up by country of origin.
^4 Is a season co-produced by the Croatian and Serbian franchises. It was the second season of Survivor to air in Croatia and the fourth season to air in Serbia.

Current series[edit]

     Current season
Country Season name Launch date Finale date Days Survivors Grand prize
Australia Australian Survivor 30 July, 2017 ? 55 24 $500,000
Czech Republic Robinsonův ostrov 2017  ? ? ? 2,500,000 CZK
Denmark Robinson Ekspeditionen 28 August, 2017 ? 40 27 500,000 DKK
France Koh-Lanta 1 September, 2017 2017 41 20 €100,000
Greece Survivor Greece February, 2018 2018 ? 24 €100.000
Hungary Survivor – A sziget 28 August, 2017 2017 40  ? 20,000,000 Ft
Israel Survivor (Israel) 20 May, 2017 2017 46 17 ₪1,000,000
Netherlands Expeditie Robinson 7 September, 2017  ?  ? 19  ?
New Zealand Survivor NZ  ?  ? 40  ? $100,000
Poland Wyspa Przetrwania 8 September, 2017 2017 30 16 150,000
Spain Survivor Spain Spring 2018 2018 €200,000
Sweden Expedition Robinson Spring 2018 2018  ?  ? 500,000 SEK
Turkey Survivor Turkey 5 January, 2018 2018 150+  ? 500,000
United States Survivor: Heroes v. Healers v. Hustlers 27 September, 2017  ? 39 18 $1,000,000

Other media[edit]

Thrill ride[edit]

One of the more novel merchandising items has been the interactive Survivor: The Ride thrill ride at California's Great America in Santa Clara, California. The ride includes a rotating platform on which riders are divided into one of four "tribes." As the ride moves along an undulating track, riders can be sprayed by water guns hidden in oversized tribal masks while drums and other familiar Survivor musical accents play in the background. Other theming includes Survivor memorabilia throughout the queue line and other merchandise for sale in nearby gift shops.[21] The ride has since been rethemed as Tiki Twirl.

Online games[edit]

During the first Survivor seasons many online games based on forums were created. More specific Survivor online games appeared later.

In late 2013, a former contestant of the American version of the show, Erik Reichenbach, launched a Kickstarter campaign for a Survivor-styled online mobile app called "Islands of Chaos". The app pits players from all over the world in a battle of challenges and strategy to be the last one standing. If the campaign is successful, the plan is to release the game free of charge on a range of platforms including on Apple and Android devices.[22]

Parody Series[edit]

Beginning on July 8, 2007, a parody of Survivor called Total Drama Island appeared on the television network Cartoon Network. This animated show included 22 summer campers who signed up to stay at a 5-star resort, which actually turned out to be a cruddy summer camp on an island somewhere in Muskoka, Ontario. The host, Chris McLean, is modelled after Survivor host Jeff Probst. The campers are taken to the island on boats to meet their fellow competitors, being heartbroken at the sight of their wasted summer. The campers were separated into two teams: The "Screaming Gophers" and the "Killer Bass". Every three days there would be a challenge for the campers to face, from jumping off a 1,000-foot high cliff into a lake to survival skills. The losing team of each challenge would go to the Bonfire Ceremony the night of the challenge, and vote someone off the team, like Survivor. Each team member still in the game would receive a marshmallow, leaving one team member without one. The member who does not receive a marshmallow (the symbol of life on the island) would have to walk the Dock of Shame and board the Boat of Losers to leave the island, and "Never ever ever ever ever" return (which turned out to be a lie in the episode "No Pain, No Game"). After 12 members of the island were voted off, the teams were merged. Two competitors were brought back into the game for another chance at the grand prize, C$100,000. When only three members are left, there is a sudden-death challenge. The person who does not accept a dare is immediately taken off the island. For the final challenge, the 20 campers voted off the island are brought back to root for one of the two survivors. The winner receives a check for the C$100,000 and the final marshmallow. The show then ends with Chris thrown off the Dock of Shame. The show aired in 188 countries and also appeared on the channels of Cartoon Network and Jetix. The show became a critical and commercial success and it spun off into a series.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Probst, Jeff (2009-10-23). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Samoa': episode #6". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-10-23. 
  2. ^ "Jeff Probst Talks "Survivor: Fiji"". Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  3. ^ Probst, Jeff (2010-02-26). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Heroes vs Villains': Episode 3". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  4. ^ Ross, Dalton (2005-02-07). "The Host Has Spoken". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  5. ^ "Returning Shows". Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  6. ^ Rocchio, Christopher (2008-05-12). "Exclusive: Amanda Kimmel discusses 'Micronesia,' losing 'Survivor' twice". Reality TV World. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  7. ^ Holmes, Gordon (2012-05-07). "What if There’s a Tie at a ‘Survivor’ Final Tribal Council? Jeff Probst (Kinda) Explains". Retrieved 2016-04-26. 
  8. ^ "The Slug" - Jeff Probst Talks "Survivor: Fiji"
  9. ^ "Survivor: Cagayan Preview Special". CBS. February 12, 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Ross, Dalton (January 11, 2015). "Survivor host Jeff Probst reveals latest twist: a new 'super idol'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 11, 2015. 
  11. ^ Probst, Jeff (2009-04-03). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Tocantins' (episode 6)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  12. ^ Ross, Dalton (January 11, 2015). "Survivor exclusive: Immunity idols to be hidden at challenges this season". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 6, 2016. 
  13. ^ Probst, Jeff (2010-04-30). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains' episode 11". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  14. ^ Ross, Dalton (August 9, 2010). "'Survivor: Nicaragua': New cast and new twists revealed!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  15. ^ Senior Women Web
  16. ^ "He lost a million, won our hearts on 'Survivor'". Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  17. ^ Survivor's Lindsey Discusses Fame, Fortune, and the AIDS Benefit Reality News Online
  18. ^ Smith, Stephan (2006-12-09). "Car Curse In Cruise Control". CBS News. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  19. ^ "Bulgaria Survivor contestant dies". BBC News. 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2010-03-27. 
  20. ^ Semercioğlu, Cengiz (20 May 2005). "Ahmet Utlu bir kez bile denize girmedi". Hürriyet. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  21. ^ "Survivor: The Ride – LoveToKnow Themeparks". 
  22. ^ "Islands of Chaos: The Strategic Adventure Mobile App" Check |url= value (help). 

Further reading[edit]

United Kingdom Season #1 (2001)

  • Waddell, Dan. Survivor: Trust No One: The Official Inside Story of TV's Toughest Challenge. London: Carlton, [December,] 2001.

United Kingdom Season #2: Survivor: Panama (2002)

  • Waddell, Dan. Survivor: Panama. London: Carlton, [June,] 2002.

United States Season #1: Survivor: Pulau Tiga, Borneo (2000)

  • Boesch, Rudy, and Jeff Herman. The Book of Rudy: The Wit and Wisdom of Rudy Boesch. No location: Adams Media Corporation, 2001.
  • Burnett, Mark, with Martin Dugard. Survivor: The Ultimate Game: The Official Companion Book to the CBS Television Show. New York: TV Books, 2000.
  • Hatch, Richard. 101 Survival Secrets: How to Make $1,000,000, Lose 100 Pounds, and Just Plain Live Happily. New York: Lyons Press, 2000.
  • Lance, Peter. Stingray: Lethal Tactics of the Sole Survivor: The Inside Story of How the Castaways were Controlled on the Island and Beyond. Portland, Oregon: R.R. Donnelley, 2000.

United States Season #2: Survivor: The Australian Outback (2001)

  • Burnett, Mark. Dare to Succeed: How to Survive and Thrive in the Game of Life. No location: Hyperion, 2001.
  • Survivor II: The Field Guide: The Official Companion to the CBS Television Show. New York: TV Books, 2001.

United States Season #6: Survivor: Amazon (2003)

  • ChillOne, The. The Spoiler: Revealing the Secrets of Survivor. Lincoln, Nebraska: iUniverse, 2003.

United States Season #9: Survivor: Vanuatu -Islands of Fire (2004)

  • Burnett, Mark. Jump In!: Even If You Don't Know How to Swim. New York: Ballantine Books, 2005.

Various Seasons, esp. United States 1–6

  • Survivor Lessons, edited by Matthew J. Smith and Andrew F. Wood. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2004.
  • Wright, Christopher J. Tribal Warfare: Survivor and the Political Unconscious of Reality Television (Series: Critical Studies in Television). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.

External links[edit]