Tricarbon monosulfide

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Tricarbon monosulfide (C3S) or tricarbon sulfur[1] is a reactive molecular substance found in space. Tricarbon monosulfide is a heterocumulene or thiocumulene, consisting of a straight chain of three carbon atoms and a terminal sulfur atom.[2]

Properties[edit]

The dipole moment of tricarbon monosulfide is 3.704 Debye. The bond-lengths are 1.275 Å, for terminal C=C bond, 1.292 Å for internal bond, and 1.535 Å for the C=S bond. The similar bond lengths between the carbon atoms indicate they each have a double bond nature.[2] The rotational constants for 12C12C12C32S are B0=2890.38000 MHz and D0=0.00022416.[3]

There is a characteristic infrared absorption band at 2047.5 cm−1 due to stretching of a C=C bond.[1]

Formation[edit]

Along with the related dicarbon monosulfide (CCS), tricarbon monosulfide was made by a glow discharge though carbon disulfide vapour in helium. Microwave emission lines from rotational transitions matched up with previously unknown molecular lines from the Taurus Molecular Cloud 1.[4][3] Maximal concentrations occurred with a carbon disulfide pressure of 0.02 torr.

In molecular clouds the formation mechanism is speculated to be CCS + CH → CCCS + H.[5]

On dust grains in space the formation mechanism is theorised to be: CCC + H2S → C3•HSH → CCCS + H2 when irradiated with visible or UV light. THis reaction has been reproduced in a solid argon matrix.[1]

Natural occurrence[edit]

Tricarbon monosulfide has been detected in molecular clouds in space, such as Taurus Molecular Cloud 1[2] and Orion KL.[6] The ratio of tricarbon monoxide to tricarbon monosulfide reflects the ratio of sulfur to oxygen in the cloud. The ratio of concentration of sulfur to oxygen analogues follows the same pattern.[2] The clouds can be cold and dark, or warm.[6] CCCS has also been found in the stellar envelope of carbon rich AGB stars, including in IRC+10216.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Roehr, Nathan P.; Szczepanski, Jan; Fu, Yi; Polfer, Nicolas C.; Vala, Martin (26 November 2014). "Reaction of the C3(X1Σg+) carbon cluster with H2S(X1A1), hydrogen sulfide: Photon-induced formation of C3S, tricarbon sulfur". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 141 (20): 204310. Bibcode:2014JChPh.141t4310R. doi:10.1063/1.4901891. ISSN 0021-9606. PMID 25429945.
  2. ^ a b c d Etim, E. E.; Onudibia, M. E.; Asuquo, J. E.; Ukafia, O. P.; Andrew, C.; Ushie, O. A. (April 2017). "Interstellar C3S: Different Dipole Moment, Different Column Density, Same Astronomical Source" (PDF). FUW Trends in Science & Technology Journal. 2 (1B): 574–577.
  3. ^ a b Yamamoto, Satoshi; Saito, Shuji; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Kaifu, Norio; Suzuki, Hiriko; Ohishi, Masatoshi (15 June 1987). "Laboratory detection of a new carbon-chain molecule C3S and its astronomical identification". Astrophysical Journal. 317 (2): L119–L121. Bibcode:1987ApJ...317L.119Y. doi:10.1086/184924.
  4. ^ Saito, Shuji; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hiriko; Kaifu, Norio (15 June 1987). "Laboratory detection and astronomical identification of a new free radical, CCS 3Sigma-". Astrophysical Journal. 317: L115–L118. Bibcode:1987ApJ...317L.115S. doi:10.1086/184923.
  5. ^ Sakai, Nami; Ikeda, Masafumi; Morita, Masaru; Sakai, Takeshi; Takano, Shuro; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi (10 July 2007). "Production Pathways of CCS and CCCS Inferred from Their 13C Isotopic Species". The Astrophysical Journal. 663 (2): 1174–1179. Bibcode:2007ApJ...663.1174S. doi:10.1086/518595.
  6. ^ a b Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Pardo, J. R.; Goicoechea, J. R. (17 August 2010). "A line confusion limited millimeter survey of Orion KL I. Sulfur carbon chains". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 517: A96. arXiv:1004.2711. Bibcode:2010A&A...517A..96T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913501.
  7. ^ Bell, M. B.; Avery, L. W.; Feldman, P. A. (1993). "C3S and C5S in IRC +10216". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 417: L37. Bibcode:1993ApJ...417L..37B. doi:10.1086/187088.