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Trichogramma are minute polyphagous wasps that are endoparasitoids of insect eggs. Trichogramma is one of around 80 genera from the family Trichogrammatidae, with over 200 species worldwide.
Although there are several groups of egg parasitoids commonly employed for biological control throughout the world, Trichogramma have been the most extensively studied. There have been more than a thousand papers published on Trichogramma and they are the most used biological control agents in the world. Trichogramma are unique to the size limit of how small an insect be which would be determined by how smaller neurons they can fit in their central nervous system, yet exhibit a complex behavior to sustain their life. Trichogramma have less than 10,000 neurons which is hundred times smaller than its most closest insct size.
To locate host eggs, adult females use chemical and visual signals, such as egg shape and colour. After she finds a suitable egg, an experienced female will attempt to determine if the egg has previously been parasitized using using her ovipositor and antennal drumming (tapping on the egg surface). Females also use antennal drumming to determine the size and quality of the target egg, which determines the number of eggs the female will insert. A single female can parasitize one to ten host eggs a day.
Trichogramma are small and very uniform in structure which causes difficulty in identifying the separate species. As females are all relatively similar, taxonomists rely upon examination of males to tell the different species apart using features of their antennae and genitalia.
The first description of a Trichogramma species was in North America in 1871 by Charles V. Riley. He described the tiny wasps that emerged from eggs of the Viceroy butterfly as Trichogramma minutum. In taxonomy, original specimens are very important as they are the basis of reference for subsequent descriptions of species. The original specimens, however, were lost. Riley also described a second species in 1879 as Trichogramma pretiosum, but these specimens were also lost. To correct these errors, entomologists returned to the areas where Riley originally found the species and obtained neotype specimens of T. minutum and T. pretiosum. These specimens are now preserved properly in the United States National Museum. Currently the number of Trichogramma species is over 200 but as of 1960 only some 40 species of Trichogramma had been described.
Trichogramma have been used for control of lepidopteran pests for many years. They can be considered the Drosophila of the parasitoid world as they have been used for inundative releases and much of our understanding today comes from experiments with these wasps.
Entomologists in the early 1900s began to rear Trichogramma for biological control. Trichogramma minutum is one of the most commonly found species in Europe and was first mass reared in 1926 on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella.
Nine species of Trichogramma are produced commercially in insectaries around the world with 30 countries releasing them. Trichogramma are used for control on numerous crops and plants, these include cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, sugar beets, orchards and forests. Some of the pests that are controlled include Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), Lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), and European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).
Trichogramma species vary in their host specificity. This can lead to non-target hosts being parasitized. This can cause problems by reducing the amount of parasitism of the target host, and depending on the rate of parasitism, non-target effects could be significant on non-target host populations.
Trichogramma pretiosum is the most widely distributed Trichogramma species in North America. It has been the focus of many research studies and has been able to be reared on 18 genera of Lepidoptera. It is a more generalized parasitoid, able to parasitise a range of different species.
Trichogramma carverae are mainly used for light brown apple moth and codling moth control and is predominately used in orchards. In Australia T. carverae is used for biological control of light brown apple moth in vineyards. Though Australia has its own native Trichogramma species there has not been much work undertaken to commercially use them for biological control within Australia.
Light brown apple moth is common throughout Australia and is polyphagous on more than 80 native and introduced species. The larvae are the stage that causes the most damage, especially to grape berries which provides sites for bunch rot to occur. Losses in the crops can amount up to $2000/ha in one season. It is very predominant in areas like the Yarra Valley. Insecticide use is not a preferred method by most growers who prefer a more natural mean of controlling pests. As a result, Trichogramma were considered a good candidate for biological control as the larvae are difficult to control with insecticide and light brown apple moths are relatively vulnerable to egg parasitism with their eggs being laid in masses of 20-50 on the upper surfaces of basal leaves in grapevines.
- Trichogramma aomoriense
- Trichogramma atopovirilia
- Trichogramma brassicae
- Trichogramma brevicapillum
- Trichogramma carverae
- Trichogramma chilonis
- Trichogramma deion
- Trichogramma dendrolimi
- Trichogramma evanescens
- Trichogramma exiguum
- Trichogramma falx
- Trichogramma fuentesi
- Trichogramma funiculatum
- Trichogramma japonicum
- Trichogramma maori
- Trichogramma minutum
- Trichogramma nubilale
- Trichogramma papilonis
- Trichogramma platneri
- Trichogramma pretiosum
- Trichogramma siddiqi
- Trichogramma thalense
- Trichogramma valentinei
- Trichogramma yawarae
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- Macademia Nut Plantation, Trichogramma
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- Davies, AP; Pufke, US; Zalucki, MP (2011). "Spatio-temporal variation in Helicoverpa egg parasitism by Trichogramma in a tropical Bt-transgenic cotton landscape". Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13: 247–258. doi:10.1111/j.1461-9563.2010.00512.x.
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