Triethylenetetramine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Triethylenetetramine
Skeletal formula of triethylenetetramine
Ball and stick model of triethylenetetramine
Spacefill model of triethylenetetramine
Names
Other names
N,N'-Bis(2-aminoethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine; TETA; Trien; Trientine (INN); Syprine (brand name)
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
605448
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.591
EC Number 203-950-6
27008
KEGG
MeSH Trientine
RTECS number YE6650000
UNII
UN number 2259
Properties
C6H18N4
Molar mass 146.24 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Fishy, ammoniacal
Density 982 mg mL−1
Melting point −34.6 °C; −30.4 °F; 238.5 K
Boiling point 266.6 °C; 511.8 °F; 539.7 K
Miscible
log P 1.985
Vapor pressure <1 Pa (at 20 °C)
1.496
Thermochemistry
376 J K−1 mol−1 (at 60 °C)
Pharmacology
A16AX12 (WHO)
Hazards
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
H312, H314, H317, H412
P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310
Flash point 129 °C (264 °F; 402 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
  • 550 mg kg−1 (dermal, rabbit)
  • 2.5 g kg−1 (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Related amines
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☑Y verify (what is ☑Y‹See TfM›☒N ?)
Infobox references

Triethylenetetramine, abbreviated TETA and trien and also called trientine (INN), is an organic compound with the formula [CH2NHCH2CH2NH2]2. This oily liquid is colorless but, like many amines, assumes a yellowish color due to impurities resulting from air-oxidation. It is soluble in polar solvents. The branched isomer tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and piperazine derivatives may also be present in commercial samples of TETA.[1]

Production[edit]

TETA is prepared by heating ethylenediamine or ethanolamine/ammonia mixtures over an oxide catalyst. This process gives a variety of amines, especially etheylene amines which are separated by distillation and sublimation.[2][3]

Uses[edit]

The reactivity and uses of TETA are similar to those for the related polyamines ethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine. It is primarily used as a crosslinker ("hardener") in epoxy curing.[2]

The hydrochloride salt of TETA, referred to as trientine hydrochloride, is a chelating agent that is used to bind and remove copper in the body to treat Wilson's disease, particularly in those who are intolerant to penicillamine. Some recommend trientine as first-line treatment, but experience with penicillamine is more extensive.[4]

In the United States, Valeant Pharmaceuticals International raised the price of its Syprine brand of TETA from $625 to $21,267 for 100 pills over five years. The New York Times said that this "egregious" price increase caused public outrage. Teva Pharmaceuticals developed a generic, which patients and doctors expected to be cheaper, but when it was introduced in February, 2018, Teva's price was $18,375 for 100 pills. Aaron S. Kesselheim, who studies drug pricing at Harvard Medical School, said that drug companies price the product at what they think the market will bear.[5]

Coordination chemistry[edit]

TETA is a tetradentate ligand in coordination chemistry, where it is referred to as trien.[6] Octahedral complexes of the type M(trien)Cl3 can adopt several diastereomeric structures, most of which are chiral.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ethyleneamines" (PDF). Huntsman. 2007.
  2. ^ a b Eller, K.; Henkes, E.; Rossbacher, R.; Höke, H. (2005). "Amines, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_001.
  3. ^ Brydson, J. A. (1999). "Epoxide Resins". In J. A. Brydson. Plastics Materials (Seventh Edition). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann,. doi:10.1016/B978-075064132-6/50067-X.
  4. ^ Roberts, E. A.; Schilsky, M. L. (2003). "A practice guideline on Wilson disease" (pdf). Hepatology. 37 (6): 1475–1492. doi:10.1053/jhep.2003.50252. PMID 12774027.
  5. ^ Patients Eagerly Awaited a Generic Drug. Then They Saw the Price. By KATIE THOMAS. New York Times. FEB. 23, 2018
  6. ^ von Zelewsky, A. (1995). Stereochemistry of Coordination Compounds. Chichester: John Wiley. ISBN 047195599X.
  7. ^ Utsuno, S.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Yamatera, H. (1985). "Three Isomers of the Trans-Diammine-[N,N′-bis(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-Ethanediamine]-Cobalt(III) Complex Cation". Inorganic Syntheses. 23: 79–82. doi:10.1002/9780470132548.ch16.