Trikonasana or Utthita Trikonasana (Sanskrit: उत्थित त्रिकोणासन; IAST: utthita trikoṇāsana), [Extended] Triangle Pose is a standing asana in modern yoga as exercise. Variations include Baddha Trikonasana (bound triangle pose) and Parivrtta Trikonasana (revolved triangle pose).
Etymology and origins
Trikonasana is performed in two parts, facing left, and then facing right. The practitioner begins standing with the feet one leg-length apart, knees unbent, turns the right foot completely to the outside and the left foot less than 45 degrees to the inside, keeping the heels in line with the hips. The arms are spread out to the sides, parallel to the ground, palms facing down; the trunk is extended as far as is comfortable to the right, while the arms remain parallel to the floor. Once the trunk is fully extended to the right, the right arm is dropped so that the right hand reaches the shin (or a block or on the floor) to the front (left side) of the right foot, with the palm down if flexed. The left arm is extended vertically, and the spine and trunk are gently twisted counterclockwise (i.e., upwards to the left, since they're roughly parallel to the floor), using the extended arms as a lever, while the spine remains parallel to the ground. The arms are stretched away from one another, and the head is often turned to gaze at the left thumb, slightly intensifying the spinal twist. Returning to standing, the bend is then repeated to the left.
Different schools of yoga have slightly different views about what trikonasana is and how it should be performed. A 2001 article on the asana in Yoga Journal with instructions given by teachers from five modern yoga traditions (Iyengar Yoga, Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, Kripalu Yoga, Sivananda Yoga and Bikram Yoga) showed differing opinions with respect to the body positioning. This article does not make a distinction between trikonasana (triangle pose) and utthita trikonasana (extended triangle pose).
- Baddha Trikonasana (bound triangle pose)
- Baddha Parivritta Trikonasana (bound revolved triangle pose)
- Parivritta Trikonasana (revolved triangle pose)
- Supta Trikonasana (reclining triangle pose)
Twentieth century advocates of some schools of yoga, such as B. K. S. Iyengar, made claims for the effects of yoga on specific organs, without adducing any evidence. Iyengar claimed that Trikonasana tones the leg muscles, ends stiffness in legs and hips, remedies backache and sprains of the neck, develops the chest and strengthens the ankles.
- Swami Muktibodhananda Saraswati (14 December 2006). Energy: The Spark of Life & Universal Goddess, A Book About Yoga and Personal Growth for Men and Women. Trafford Publishing. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-1-4120-6930-4.
- Saraswati, Swami Satyananda (2004). A Systematic Course in the Ancient Tantric Techniques of Yoga and Kriya. Nesma Books India. pp. 343–345. ISBN 978-81-85787-08-4.
- "Parivritta Trikonasana - AshtangaYoga.info". Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Sinha, S. C. (1 June 1996). Dictionary of Philosophy. Anmol Publications. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-7041-293-9.
- Mallinson 2017, p. 90.
- "Trikonasana". Yoga Journal: 78–87. 2001.
- "Baddha Trikonasana". Yoga Journal. December 2007: 112. Cite journal requires
- "Baddha Parivritta Trikonasana / Flickr - Photo Sharing!". Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Iyengar, B. K. S. (2000). Aṣṭadaḷa yogamālā: collected works. Allied Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 978-81-7764-046-5.
- Newcombe 2019, pp. 203-227, Chapter "Yoga as Therapy".
- Jain 2015, pp. 82–83.
- Iyengar 1979, p. 64.
- Iyengar, B. K. S. (1979) . Light on Yoga: Yoga Dipika. Unwin Paperbacks. ISBN 978-1855381667.
- Jain, Andrea (2015). Selling Yoga : from Counterculture to Pop culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-939024-3. OCLC 878953765.
- Mallinson, James; Singleton, Mark (2017). Roots of Yoga. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-241-25304-5. OCLC 928480104.
- Newcombe, Suzanne (2019). Yoga in Britain: Stretching Spirituality and Educating Yogis. Bristol, England: Equinox Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78179-661-0.