On August 17, 2007, it was announced the album would be released on November 11, 2007. The album was then set to be released on December 18, 2007, before being pushed back to February 19, 2008. In November 2007, in an interview with HipHopDX, Rick Ross spoke about who would be featured on the album, saying: "Most definitely. I wanted to step everything up. Thats why I reached out to R. Kelly for the first single. I got Marsha [Ambrosious] from Floetry to come in and help get the females on my team. She did a lot of work with Michael Jackson. When I was working with her, I thought about that. We laughed, we chopped it up, we just had fun. We put together some real big records. This album is going to be much better than Port of Miami and possibly the best album of the year."
In March 2008, in an interview with AllHipHop, he spoke about where the album title came from, saying: "Trill is a term we been using down south. I’m sure you heard Bun B use it. Pimp C been saying that since forever. You know in the Texas/Florida panhandle, that’s what we say. And I just put my twist and my spin on it. I kind of took a little from Michael Jackson’s Thriller album and put that on mines and that's how we came up with Trilla. Shout out to Bun B. That's my uncle in the game."
On October 16, 2007, the album's lead single "Speedin'" featuring R. Kelly was released. On December 14, 2007, the music video was released for "Speedin'" featuring R. Kelly. On February 14, 2008, the album's second single "The Boss" featuring T-Pain was released. On February 21, 2008, the music video was released for "The Boss" featuring T-Pain. On March 25, 2008, the album's third single "Here I Am" featuring Nelly and Avery Storm was released. On May 23, 2008, the music video was released for "Here I Am" featuring Nelly and Avery Storm.
Upon its release, Trilla was met with generally mixed reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from critics, the album received an average score of 60, which indicates "mixed or average reviews ", based on 12 reviews. David Jeffries of AllMusic said, "The huge guest list is also a plus since Ross would have a hard time carrying this album on his own, but when surrounded by talent he pushes a little harder and comes up with a handful of rhymes that aren't tired or clichéd." Simon Vozick-Levinson of Entertainment Weekly stated, "Miami's Rick Ross generally gets by on his blustery baritone rather than on lyrical wizardry. Nothing wrong with that: As his second full-length reminds us, his imposing voice sounds pretty good over big-budget synths and even better over buttery soul strings and horns." Alexander J. Azizi of HipHopDX said, "Blending a somewhat diverse mix of hot producers who are all at the top of their game, and well chosen quality guest appearances is evidently a mold of success for The Boss. Top that off with a flow that seems to improve continuously and you've got Trilla. Although the album has its downsides with some unremarkable songs, the quality of the album musically and lyrically definitely makes up for it. If you dug Port Of Miami you will for sure be pleased with this album and the progress that Rick Ross has made."
Todd Gilchrist of IGN stated, "Overall, Trilla is not an album destined for longevity or critical acclaim, but there's no doubt that at least a few hits will be mined from its tracks, and Ross' star will continue to rise among the ranks of radio-ready gangsta rappers." Jordan Sargent of PopMatters said, "It’s all very calculated, and some would say empty, but albums that are good because the rappers do just enough not to ruin a great collection of beats and guests verses is not a foreign concept to us. Why Trilla especially is catching so much shit for it, I’m not sure. I mean, we all heard American Gangster, right?" Wilson McBee of Slant Magazine stated, "If Ross spouts myriad clunkers, his cadence is at least smooth and his voice cushiony, and so if it's possible to ignore the rapper and focus on the production, Trilla becomes an enjoyable listen." Evan McGarvey of Pitchfork Media said, "Trilla, Rick Ross's inexplicable second album, is every bit a fatty contemporary American disaster." Steve 'Flash' Juon of RapReviews stated, "I suspect as Ross continues to evolve as a lyricist there will be even more of a message in his music, but in the meantime the production and guest stars on Trilla make for an effective album that shows Ross has yet to tap into his full potential."
The album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 chart, with first-week sales of 198,000 copies in the United States.