Trilled affricate

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Trilled affricates, also known as post-trilled consonants, are consonants which begin as a stop and have a trill release. These consonants are reported to exist in some Northern Paman languages in Australia,[1] as well as in Austronesian languages such as Fijian and Malagasy.

Sound IPA Languages
Voiced prenasalized trilled bilabial affricate [mbʙ] Kele and Avava
Voiceless bilabially post-trilled dental consonant [t̪ʙ̥] Wari’
Voiced prenasalized trilled postalveolar affricate [ndr] Fijian and Avava
Voiceless alveolar trilled affricate [tʳ] Ngkoth
Voiced alveolar trilled affricate [dʳ] Nias

In Fijian, trilling is rare in these sounds, and they are frequently distinguished by being postalveolar.[2] In Malagasy, they may have a rhotic release, [ʈɽ̝̊ ɳʈɽ̝̊ ɖɽ̝ ɳɖɽ̝], be simple stops, [ʈ ɳʈ ɖ ɳɖ], or standard affricates, [ʈʂ ɳʈʂ ɖʐ ɳɖʐ].

Most post-trilled consonants are affricates: the stop and trill share the same place of articulation. However, there is a rare exception in a few neighboring Amazonian languages, where a voiceless bilabially post-trilled dental stop, [t̪͡ʙ̥] (occasionally written "tᵖ") is reported from Pirahã and from a few words in the Chapacuran languages Wari’ and Oro Win. This sound also appears as an allophone of the labialized voiceless alveolar stop /tʷ/ of Abkhaz and Ubykh, but in those languages it is more often realised by a doubly articulated stop [t͡p]. In the Chapacuran languages, [tʙ̥] is reported almost exclusively before rounded vowels such as [o] and [y].


  1. ^ Hale, Kenneth (1976). "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages." In: Languages of Cape York, ed. Peter Sutton. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  2. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.  p. 131