Trimeresurus insularis

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Trimeresurus insularis
Trimeresurus insularis.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Genus: Trimeresurus
T. insularis
Binomial name
Trimeresurus insularis
Kramer, 1977
  • Trimeresurus albolabris insularis Kramer, 1977[2]
  • Cryptelytrops insularis
    – Malhotra & Thorpe, 2004
  • Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) insularis – David et al., 2011[3]

Trimeresurus insularis (Indonesian pit viper, Lesser Sunda Islands pit viper, Sunda white-lipped pit viper) is a venomous pit viper species found in eastern Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.[1][3]


The scalation includes 21 rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 156–164/156–167 ventral scales in males/females, 70–75/54–59 subcaudal scales in males/females, and 7–12 supralabial scales.[4] Their color patterns are often found to be green or a blue-green color with specific populations even containing yellow variants as well.[5]

Geographic range[edit]

It is found in East Timor and in Indonesia on eastern Java, Adonara, Alor, Bali, Flores, Komodo, Lombok, Padar, Rinca, Romang, Roti, Sumba, Sumbawa, Timor, and Wetar.[1][3] The type locality given is "Soe, Timor".[2][3] They are arboreal[3][6] and can be found in dry monsoon forests at elevations up to 1,200 m (3,900 ft) above sea level.[1][6]


  1. ^ a b c d Reilly, S.; Auliya, M.; Iskandar, D.; Vogel, G.; Lilley, R. (2021). "Trimeresurus insularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T178038A1525328. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-3.RLTS.T178038A1525328.en. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ a b c d e Trimeresurus insularis at the Reptile Database. Accessed 27 April 2021.
  4. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. GeitjeBooks. Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.
  5. ^ Jones, Brenda Kathryn; Saviola, Anthony J.; Reilly, Sean B.; Stubbs, Alexander L.; Arida, Evy; Iskandar, Djoko T.; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Yates, John R.; Mackessy, Stephen P. (2019-05-03). "Venom composition in a phenotypically variable pit viper (Trimeresurus insularis) across the Lesser Sunda Archipelago". Journal of Proteome Research. 18 (5): 2206–2220. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00077. PMID 30958009.
  6. ^ a b McAllister, Chris T.; Bursey, Charles R.; Hartdegen, Ruston (January 2019). "Polydelphis anoura Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea: Ascaridae) from the White-lipped Island Pitviper, Trimeresurus insularis (Ophidia: Viperidae), from Wetar Island, Indonesia". Comparative Parasitology. 86 (1): 61–64. doi:10.1654/1525-2647-86.1.61. S2CID 92142125.

Further reading[edit]

  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Rev. suisse Zool. 84 (3): 721–761. (Trimeresurus albolabris insularis, p. 755.)