Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus

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Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Trimeresurus
Species: T. mucrosquamatus
Binomial name
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus
(Cantor, 1839)
Protobothrops mucrosquamatus distribution.png
  • Trigonocephalus mucrosquamatus Cantor, 1839
  • Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus
    Günther, 1864
  • Crotalus Trimeres[urus]. mucrosquamatus – Higgins, 1873
  • Lachesis mucrosquamatus
    Boulenger, 1896
  • Trimersurus [sic] mucrosquamatus
    – Taub, 1964 (ex errore)
  • P[rotobothrops]. mucrosquamatus Hoge & Romano-Hoge, 1983
  • Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus
    Zhao & Adler, 1993[2]
  • Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
    – David et al., 2011[3]
Common names: Brown Spotted Pit Viper,[4] Pointed-Scaled Pit Viper,[5] more.
Chinese name: 龜殼花

Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to Asia. No subspecies are currently recognized.[6]


Males grow to a maximum total length of 112 cm (44 in) with a tail length of 19.5 cm (7.7 in). Females grow to a maximum total length of 116 cm (46 in) with a tail length of 20.5 cm (8.1 in).[7]

The hemipenes are spinose.[7]

Scalation: dorsal scales in 25 longitudinal rows at midbody; scales on upper surface of head, small, each scale keeled posteriorly; internasals 5-10 times size of adjacent scales, separated by 3-4 scales; supraoculars, long, narrow, undivided, 14-16 small interoculars in line between them; 2 scales on line between upper preocular and nasal scale; 9-11 upper labials, first upper labial separated from nasal by suture; 2-3 small scales between upper labials and subocular; 2-3 rows of temporal scales above upper labials smooth, above those scales keeled; ventrals 200-218; subcaudals 76-91, all paired.[7]

Color pattern: grayish or olive brown above, with dorsal series of large brown, black-edged spots or blotches, and a lateral series of smaller spots; head above brownish, below whitish; belly whitish but heavily powdered with light brown; tail brownish (possibly pink in life [fide M.A. Smith 1943:507]), with series of dark dorsal spots.[7]

Common names[edit]

Brown spotted pitviper,[4] pointed-scaled pit viper, habu,[5] Taiwan habu (タイワンハブ?), Chinese habu, Formosan pit viper.[8]

Geographic range[edit]

Found from northeastern India (Assam) and Bangladesh, to Myanmar, China (Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong and Sichuan), as well as in Taiwan. The type locality given is "Naga Hills" (India).[2] This snake is introduced to Okinawa, Japan.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Papenfuss, T.J. (2010). "Protobothrops mucrosquamatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  2. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ Protobothrops mucrosquamatus at the Reptile Database. Accessed 2 February 2017.
  4. ^ a b Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. Geitje Books. Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.
  5. ^ a b U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  6. ^ "Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 25 May 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c d Leviton AE, Wogan GOU, Koo MS, Zug GR, Lucas RS, Vindum JV. 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar, Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407-462.
  8. ^ Brown JH. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.

Further reading[edit]

  • Boulenger, G.A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Secretary of State for India in Council. (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xviii + 541 pp. (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, p. 428.)
  • Cantor, T.E. 1839. Spicilegium Serpentium Indicorum [parts 1 and 2]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Part VII 1839: 31-34, 49-55.
  • Kraus, Fred; Mink, Daniel G.; & Brown, Wesley M. 1996. Crotaline intergeneric relationships based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Copeia 1996 (4): 763-773.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III.—Serpentes. Secretary of State for India. (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xii + 583 pp. (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, pp. 507–508.)
  • Tu, M.-C. et al. 2000 Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of the Oriental Pit Vipers of the Genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperida Crotalinae): A Molecular Perspective. Zoological Science 17: 1147-1157.