Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

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Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
Mangrove Pit Viper.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Genus: Trimeresurus
T. purpureomaculatus
Binomial name
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
(Gray, 1832)
  • Trigonocephalus
    Gray, 1832
  • Trimesurus purpureus Gray, 1842
  • Trimesurus carinatus Gray, 1842
  • C[ryptelytrops]. carinatus
    Cope, 1860
  • [Trimesurus] porphyraceus
    Blyth, 1861
  • Trimeresurus purpureus
    Günther, 1864
  • T[rimeresurus]. carinatus
    Theobald, 1868
  • Crotalus Trimeres[urus]. carinatus – Higgins, 1873
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
    Boulenger, 1890
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus
    – Boulenger, 1896
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
    M.A. Smith, 1943
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus
    – M.A. Smith, 1943[2]
  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus
    – Malhotra & Thorpe, 2004
  • Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) purpureomaculatus – David et al.[3]

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus is a venomous pit viper species native to India, Bangladesh and Southeast Asia. Common names include: mangrove pit viper,[4] mangrove viper,[5] and shore pit viper.[6]


Males grow to a total length of 66.5 centimetres (26.2 in), females 90 centimetres (35 in). The maximum tail lengths are then 12.5 centimetres (4.9 in) and 14 centimetres (5.5 in) respectively.[7]

Small individual from Singapore

Scales in 25-27 longitudinal rows at midbody; 11-13 upper labials, the first partially or completely united with the nasal; supraocular very narrow, sometimes broken into small scales, 12-15 scales between them; head scales small, subequal, tuberculate or granular; temporal scales keeled.[7]

Body color highly variable: above olive, grayish, to dark purplish brown; below whitish, greenish or brown, uniform or spotted with brown; a light line on scale row one bordering ventrals present or absent; head olive, heavily suffused with brown.[7]

Ventrals: males 160-179, females 168-183; subcaudals: males 74-76, females 56-63, paired; hemipenes without spines.[7]

Common names[edit]

Mangrove pit viper,[4] mangrove viper,[5] shore pit viper, purple-spotted pit viper,[6] shore pitviper.[8]

Geographic range[edit]

Found in Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra and Java). The type locality is listed as "Singapore".[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Vogel, G.; Grismer, L. & Chan-Ard, T. (2012). "Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012: e.T192188A2052944. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T192188A2052944.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ The Reptile Database.
  4. ^ a b Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  5. ^ a b U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  6. ^ a b Brown JH. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.
  7. ^ a b c d Leviton AE, Wogan GOU, Koo MS, Zug GR, Lucas RS, Vindum JV. 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar, Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407-462.
  8. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. Geitje Books. Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.

Further reading[edit]

  • Gray, J.E. 1831. Illustrations of Indian Zoology: chiefly selected from the collection of Major General Hardwicke. Vol. 1, London (1830-1835).
  • Gumprecht, A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32.
  • Pope, C.H., & Pope, S.H. 1933. A study of the green pit-vipers of southeastern Asia and Malaysia, commonly identified as Trimeresurus gramineus (Shaw), with description of a new species from Peninsular India. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. (620): 1-12.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III.—Serpentes. Secretary of State for India. (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xii + 583 pp. (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus, pp. 520–521.)
  • Whitaker, R. 1978. Birth Record of the Andaman Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75 (1): 233.

External links[edit]