Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

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Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
Mangrove Pit Viper.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Genus: Trimeresurus
Species: T. purpureomaculatus
Binomial name
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
(Gray, 1832)
  • Trigonocephalus
    Gray, 1832
  • Trimesurus purpureus Gray, 1842
  • Trimesurus carinatus Gray, 1842
  • C[ryptelytrops]. carinatus
    Cope, 1860
  • [Trimesurus] porphyraceus
    Blyth, 1861
  • Trimeresurus purpureus
    Günther, 1864
  • T[rimeresurus]. carinatus
    Theobald, 1868
  • Crotalus Trimeres[urus]. carinatus – Higgins, 1873
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
    Boulenger, 1890
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus
    – Boulenger, 1896
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
    M.A. Smith, 1943
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus
    – M.A. Smith, 1943[2]
  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus
    – Malhotra & Thorpe, 2004
  • Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) purpureomaculatus – David et al.[3]
Common names: mangrove pit viper,[4] mangrove viper,[5] shore pit viper,[6] more.

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus is a venomous pit viper species native to India, Bangladesh and Southeast Asia. Two subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.[7]


Males grow to a total length of 66.5 centimetres (26.2 in), females 90 centimetres (35 in). The maximum tail lengths are then 12.5 centimetres (4.9 in) and 14 centimetres (5.5 in) respectively.[8]

Small individual from Singapore

Scales in 25-27 longitudinal rows at midbody; 11-13 upper labials, the first partially or completely united with the nasal; supraocular very narrow, sometimes broken into small scales, 12-15 scales between them; head scales small, subequal, tuberculate or granular; temporal scales keeled.[8]

Body color highly variable: above olive, grayish, to dark purplish brown; below whitish, greenish or brown, uniform or spotted with brown; a light line on scale row one bordering ventrals present or absent; head olive, heavily suffused with brown.[8]

Ventrals: males 160-179, females 168-183; subcaudals: males 74-76, females 56-63, paired; hemipenes without spines.[8]

Common names[edit]

Mangrove pit viper,[4] mangrove viper,[5] shore pit viper, purple-spotted pit viper,[6] shore pitviper.[9]

Geographic range[edit]

Found in India (Assam, Andaman Islands), Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra and Java). The type locality is listed as "Singapore".[2]


Subspecies[7] Taxon author[7] Common name[4] Geographic range[2]
T. p. andersoni Theobald, 1868 Nicobar mangrove pit viper The Andaman Islands.
T. p. purpureomaculatus (Gray, 1832) Mangrove pit viper India (Assam), Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Java.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Vogel, G.; Grismer, L. & Chan-Ard, T. (2012). "Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012: e.T192188A2052944. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T192188A2052944.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b c McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ The Reptile Database.
  4. ^ a b c Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  5. ^ a b U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  6. ^ a b Brown JH. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.
  7. ^ a b c "Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 1 January 2008.
  8. ^ a b c d Leviton AE, Wogan GOU, Koo MS, Zug GR, Lucas RS, Vindum JV. 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar, Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407-462.
  9. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. Geitje Books. Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.

Further reading[edit]

  • Gray, J.E. 1831. Illustrations of Indian Zoology: chiefly selected from the collection of Major General Hardwicke. Vol. 1, London (1830-1835).
  • Gumprecht, A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32.
  • Pope, C.H., & Pope, S.H. 1933. A study of the green pit-vipers of southeastern Asia and Malaysia, commonly identified as Trimeresurus gramineus (Shaw), with description of a new species from Peninsular India. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. (620): 1-12.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III.—Serpentes. Secretary of State for India. (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xii + 583 pp. (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus, pp. 520–521.)
  • Whitaker, R. 1978. Birth Record of the Andaman Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75 (1): 233.

External links[edit]