|Cultural origins||Early 1990s, Bristol, United Kingdom|
Trip hop (sometimes called "downtempo") is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom, especially Bristol. It has been described as "a fusion of hip hop and electronica until neither genre is recognizable," and may incorporate a variety of styles, including funk, dub, soul, psychedelia, R&B, and house, as well as other forms of electronic music. Trip hop can be highly experimental.
Deriving from later idioms of acid house, the term was first used by the British music media to describe the more experimental variant of breakbeat emerging from the Bristol Sound scene in the early 1990s, which contained influences of soul, funk and jazz. It was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack, Tricky, and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, and has been described as "Europe's alternative choice in the second half of the '90s."
According to Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, the term "trip-hop" was coined in 1989, though it first appeared in print in June 1994; Andy Pemberton, a music journalist writing for Mixmag, used it to describe Mo Wax Records Artist (U.K.) RPM and (American) DJ Shadow's "In/Flux" single.
In Bristol, once one of the most important ports in the Atlantic slave-trade and as of 2012[update] among Britain's most racially diverse cities, hip hop began to seep into the consciousness of a subculture already well-schooled in Jamaican forms of music. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems. Like the pioneering Bronx crews of DJs Kool Herc, Afrika Bambataa and Grandmaster Flash, the soundsystems provided party music for public spaces, often in the economically deprived council estates from which some of their members originated. Bristol's soundsystem DJs, drawing heavily on Jamaican dub music, typically used a laid-back, slow and heavy drum beat ("down tempo").
Bristol's Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a local spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristol's signature sound of trip hop, often termed "the Bristol Sound". The Wild Bunch and its associates included at various times in its existence the MC Adrian "Tricky Kid" Thaws, the graffiti artist and lyricist Robert "3D" Del Naja, producer Jonny Dollar and the DJs Nellee Hooper, Andrew "Mushroom" Vowles and Grant "Daddy G" Marshall. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, the golden era of the soundsystem began to end. The Wild Bunch signed a record deal and evolved into Massive Attack, a core collective of 3D, Mushroom and Daddy G, with significant contributions from Tricky Kid (soon shortened to Tricky) Dollar and Hooper on production duties, along with a rotating cast of other vocalists.
Another influence came from Gary Clail's Tackhead soundsystem. Clail often worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart. The latter experimented with his band Mark Stewart & the Maffia, which consisted of New York session musicians Skip McDonald, Doug Wimbish, and Keith LeBlanc, who had been a part of the house band for the Sugarhill Records record label. Produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hiphop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what later became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released "Angel", one of the first examples of the genre crossing over to pop, a hybrid that dominated the charts toward the end of the 1990s.
In the 1990s, Janet Jackson brought trip hop into the American charts with the song "If" (1993). Several songs on her "Janet." (1993) and "The Velvet Rope" (1997) used this genre of music, Songs like Got 'Til It's Gone (1997) and You.
Early to mid-1990s: Trip hop's mainstream breakthrough
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Massive Attack's first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK. Blue Lines was seen widely as the first major manifestation of a uniquely British hip hop movement, but the album's hit single "Unfinished Sympathy" and several other tracks, while their rhythms were largely sample-based, were not seen as hip hop songs in any conventional sense. Produced by Dollar, Shara Nelson (an R&B singer) featured on the orchestral "Unfinished", and Jamaican dance hall star Horace Andy provided vocals on several other tracks, as he would throughout Massive Attack's career. Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. Although Tricky stayed on in a lesser role, and Hooper again produced, the fertile dance music scene of the early 1990s had informed the record, and it was seen as an even more significant shift away from the Wild Bunch era.
The term trip hop was coined that year, but not in reference to anything on the Massive Attack albums. In the June 1994 issue of UK magazine Mixmag, music journalist Andy Pemberton used it to describe the hip hop instrumental "In/Flux", a 1993 single by San Francisco's DJ Shadow, and other similar tracks released on the Mo' Wax label and being played in London clubs at the time. "In/Flux", with its mixed up bpms, spoken word samples, strings, melodies, bizarre noises, prominent bass, and slow beats, gave the listener the impression they were on a musical trip, according to Pemberton. Soon, however, Massive Attack's dubby, jazzy, psychedelic, electronic textures, rooted in hip hop sampling technique but taking flight into many styles, were described by journalists as the template of the eponymous genre.
In 1993, Icelandic musician Björk released Debut, produced by Wild Bunch member Nellee Hooper. The album, although rooted in four-on-the-floor house music, contained elements of trip hop and is credited as one of the first albums to introduce electronic dance music into mainstream pop. She had been in contact with London's underground electronic music scene and was romantically involved with trip hop musician Tricky. Björk embraced trip hop even more with her 1995 album Post by collaborating with Tricky and Howie B. Homogenic, her 1997 album, has been described as a pinnacle of trip hop music.
1994 and 1995 saw trip hop near the peak of its popularity, with artists such as Howie B, Naked Funk and Earthling making significant contributions. Ninja Tune, the independent record label founded by the Coldcut duo, would significantly influence the trip-hop sound in London and beyond with breakthrough artists DJ Food, 9 Lazy 9, Up, Bustle & Out, Funki Porcini and The Herbaliser, among others. The period also marked the debut of two acts who, along with Massive Attack, would define the Bristol scene for years to come.
In 1994 Portishead, a trio comprising singer Beth Gibbons, Geoff Barrow, and Adrian Utley, released their debut album Dummy. Their background differed from Massive Attack in many ways: one of Portishead's primary influences was 1960s and 1970s film soundtrack LPs. Nevertheless, Portishead shared the scratchy, jazz-sample-based aesthetic of early Massive Attack (whom Barrow had briefly worked with during the recording of Blue Lines), and the sullen, fragile vocals of Gibbons also brought them wide acclaim. In 1995, Dummy was awarded the Mercury Music Prize as the best British album of the year, giving trip-hop as a genre its greatest exposure yet. Portishead's music, seen as cutting edge in its film-noir feel and stylish, yet emotional appropriations of past sounds, was also widely imitated, causing the band to recoil from the trip-hop label they had inadvertently helped popularize.
Tricky also released his debut solo album Maxinquaye in 1995, to great critical acclaim. The album was produced largely in collaboration with Mark Saunders. Tricky employed whispered, often abstract stream-of-consciousness murmuring, remote from the gangsta-rap braggadocio of the mid-1990s US hip hop scene. Even more unusually, however, many of the solo songs on Maxinquaye featured little of Tricky's own voice: his then-lover, Martina Topley-Bird, sang them, including her reimagining of Public Enemy's militant 1988 rap "Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos", while other songs were male-female duets dealing with sex and love in oblique ways, over beds of sometimes dissonant samples. Within a year Tricky had released two more full-length albums which were considered even more challenging, without finding the same popularity as his Bristol contemporaries Massive Attack and Portishead. Through his brief collaborations with Björk, however, he also exerted influence closer to the pop and alternative rock mainstream, and he developed a large cult fan-base.
The London-based band Archive began as trip hop, before developing into progressive rock, employing elements of both hip hop and orchestral music with the album Controlling Crowds (Part I–III and Part IV).
Although not as popular in the United States, bands like Portishead and Sneaker Pimps saw moderate air play on alternative-rock stations across the country.
After the initial success of trip hop in the mid-1990s, notable "post-trip-hop" artists include Bowery Electric, Esthero, Morcheeba, Sneaker Pimps, Anomie Belle, Alpha, Jaianto, Mudville and Cibo Matto and Lamb. These artists incorporated trip hop into other genres, including ambient, soul, IDM, industrial, dubstep, breakbeat, drum and bass, acid jazz, and new-age. The first printed use of the term "post-trip hop" was in an October 2002 article of The Independent, and was used to describe the band Second Person.
Trip hop has also influenced artists in other genres, including Gorillaz, Emancipator, Nine Inch Nails, Travis, Queens of the Stone Age, Allflaws, How to Destroy Angels, Beth Orton, The Flaming Lips, Bitter:Sweet, Beck, Deftones, Björk. Several tracks on Australian pop singer Kylie Minogue's 1997 album Impossible Princess also displayed a trip hop influence.
Various prominent artists and groups, such as Janet Jackson, Kylie Minogue, Madonna, Björk, and Radiohead, have also been influenced by the genre. Trip hop has spawned several subgenres, including Illbient, (dub-based trip hop which combines ambient and industrial hip hop).
Trip hop in the 2000s
Trip hop continued to influence notable artists in the 2000s. Norwegian avantgarde band Ulver incorporated trip hop in their ambient/electronic album Perdition City. Atmospheric rock band Antimatter included some trip hop elements in their first two albums. Australian composer Rob Dougan proposed a mix of trip hop beats, orchestral music and electronics. RJD2 began his career as a DJ, but in 2001, began releasing albums under El-P's Def Jux Label. Zero 7's album Simple Things, and in particular, its lead single "Destiny", was regarded highly by underground listeners and achieved significant popularity. In 2006, Gotye debuted his second studio album, Like Drawing Blood. The songs on the album featured down-tempo hip-hop beats and dub style bass reminiscent of trip hop. Hip hop groups Zion I and the Dub Pistols also displayed heavy trip hop influence. Norwegian singer and songwriter Kate Havnevik is a classically trained musician, but also incorporates trip hop into her work.
In the late 2000s, French-born American singer-composer LiLi Roquelin infused trip hop sounds with her piano compositions, especially with her award-winning song "I Saw You".
Many producers who were not explicitly trip-hop artists also displayed its influence during the early 2000s. Daniel Nakamura, aka Dan The Automator, released two albums that were heavily inspired by trip hop. 2000 album Deltron 3030, was a concept album about a rapper, portrayed by Del Tha Funkee Homosapien, from the future. 2001 saw the release of his side project, Lovage. Music to Make Love to Your Old Lady By, with special guests Mike Patton, Prince Paul, Maseo, Damon Albarn, and Afrika Bambaataa. British producer Fatboy Slim's breakthrough album, Halfway Between the Gutter and The Stars, was his most commercially successful release. French musician and producer Kid Loco has produced and composed quite a few legendary trip hop albums since 1996 up till today.
Trip hop in the 2010s
Tricky produced IAMOMNI's self-titled album IAMOMNI, released on 31 August 2011.
Lana Del Rey released her second album, Born to Die in 2012, which contained a string of trip hop ballads, topped the charts in eleven countries, including Australia, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom; and has sold 3.4 million copies worldwide as of 2013 according to International Federation of the Phonographic Industry.
Tricky released his tenth studio album False Idols on 23 May 2013, followed by Adrian Thaws on 8 September 2014. His former group Massive Attack also released an EP titled Ritual Spirit on 28 January 2016, featuring vocal performances by himself, Young Fathers, Roots Manuva and Azekel.
British recording artist FKA twigs, often cited as a trip hop musician, was nominated for BBC's Sound of 2014 prize, and chosen by Spotify for their Spotlight on 2014 list. She has also been nominated for the 2014 Mercury Prize.
Award-winning recording artist LiLi Roquelin  released the Album Will You Hate the Rest Of the World or Will You Renew Your Life? in 2010, it includes violin melodies, shuffled trip hop beats, and analog tinged pianos. In 2012 she released another full-length album Beautiful Sun with trip hop influence, chill-out, and a Portishead edge.
Common musical aesthetics include a bass-heavy drumbeat, often emulating the slowed down breakbeat samples typical of hip hop in the 1990s, giving the genre a more psychedelic touch. Vocals in trip hop are often female and feature characteristics of various singing styles including R&B, jazz and rock. The female-dominant vocals of trip hop may be partially attributable to the influence of genres such as jazz and early R&B, in which female vocalists were more common. However, there are notable exceptions - Massive Attack & Groove Armada collaborates with vocalists of mixed genders, Tricky often features vocally in his own productions along with Martina Topley-Bird, and Chris Corner provided vocals for later albums with Sneaker Pimps.
Trip hop is also known for its melancholy sound. This may be partly due to the fact that several acts were inspired by post punk bands; Tricky and Massive Attack both covered and sampled songs of Siouxsie and the Banshees and The Cure. Tricky opened his second album Nearly God by a version of "Tattoo", a pre-trip-hop song of Siouxsie and the Banshees.
Trip hop tracks often incorporate Rhodes pianos, saxophones, trumpets, and flutes, and may employ unconventional instruments such as the theremin. Trip hop differs from hip hop in theme and overall tone. Instead of gangsta rap with its hard-hitting lyrics, trip hop offers a more aural atmospherics with instrumental hip hop, turntable scratching, and breakbeat rhythms. Regarded in some ways as a 1990s update of fusion, trip hop may be said to "transcend" the hardcore rap styles and lyrics with atmospheric overtones to create a more mellow tempo.
- Mitchell, Tony (2002). Global Noise: Rap and Hip Hop Outside the USA. Wesleyan University Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-8195-6502-4. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- Whiteley, Sheila; Bennett, Andy; Hawkins, Stan (2004). Music, Space And Place: Popular Music And Cultural Identity. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 84. ISBN 0-7546-5574-1. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- Reighley, Kurt B. (January 2000). "Peace Orchestra". CMJ New Music Monthly (77). ISSN 1074-6978.
- "Local Groove Does Good: The Story Of Trip-Hop's Rise From Bristol". npr.org.
- "Slant Magazine Music Review: DJ Shadow: Endtroducing...". Slantmagazine.com. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- Trip-Hop Electronic » Electronica » Trip-Hop. "Explore: Trip-Hop". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- James Hannaham. "Did Portishead kill trip hop?". salon.com.
- "Trip hop – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Pemberton, Andy (June 1994). "Trip Hop". Mixmag.
- SPIN September 1987. Books.google.com. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Massive Attack - Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Pemberton, Andy (June 1994). "Trip Hop". Mixmag.
- "Debut Turns 20". StereoGum.com. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Bjork's 'Debut' Turns 20: Backtracking". Idolator.com. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Zercoe, Cole (21 November 2011). "Second Look: Bjork – Homogenic". Beats per Minute. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Tricky comeback makes for trip-hop trilogy". Guardian. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Top Songs of 1997". Q101 Chicago Alternative. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- Thomas, Stephen (21 November 1965). "Björk - Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Phares, Heather (13 June 1995). "Post - Björk : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Phares, Heather (22 September 1997). "Homogenic - Björk : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Liu, Marian (28 October 2008). "Anomie Belle brings politically conscious trip hop to the Tractor Sunday". The Seattle Times.
- "Trent Reznor's How to Destroy Angels Premiere First Track". Spinner. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Sputnik Music Review". Sputnikmusic. 27 February 2005. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- "Kylie Minogue – Impossible Princess (album review)". Sputnikmusic. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Since acknowledging her capabilities for sensuality on the album "Janet," Miss Jackson uses "The Velvet Rope" to explore her sexuality, including obsession, frustration and even coy allusions to sexual preference, layering her lyrics with fashionable trip-hop beats, overt sampling and trademark grooves. Elita Bradley (17 September 1998). "Ushering back Janet Jackson `Velvet Rope' singer due for another show; Pearl Jam also on tap". The Washington Times: M.2. ISSN 0732-8494.
- "Kylie Minogue: Impossible Princess – Music Review". Slant Magazine. 19 November 2003. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Thomas, Stephen (3 March 1998). "Ray of Light – Madonna". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Rob Sheffield (2 April 1998). "Ray Of Light Album Reviews". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Phares, Heather. "Debut – Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Phares, Heather (13 June 1995). "Post – Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Phares, Heather (22 September 1997). "Homogenic – Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- "Radiohead – OK Computer (album review)". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- "Biography". TripHop-Music.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- Tim DiGravina (12 June 2001). "Simple Things – Zero 7 : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- O'Brien, Jon. "Like Drawing Blood – Gotye : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Azpiri, Jon. "Zion I – Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Bush, John. "Dub Pistols – Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Kate Havnevik: Me EP Album Review and US Tour Dates". MuuMuse.
- "Roquelin breaks barriers of language and sound". Queens Chronicle.
- "Girls gone wild (for the love of music) at L.I.C. Bar". Queens Chronicle.
- Huey, Steve (23 May 2000). "Deltron 3030 – Deltron 3030 : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- M.F. DiBella (6 November 2001). "Lovage: Music to Make Love to Your Old Lady By – Lovage, Nathaniel Merriweather : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Bush, John (7 November 2000). "Halfway Between the Gutter and the Stars – Fatboy Slim : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Kid Loco
- Bush, John (9 February 2010). "Heligoland – Massive Attack : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "AllMusic Review". Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Cooper, Sean. "DJ Shadow – Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Phares, Heather (10 July 2012). ">> - Beak> : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Sheffield, Rob (30 January 2012). "Born To Die – Album Reviews – Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- "IFPI Digital Music Report 2013" (PDF). IFPI.org. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "BBC – BBC Music Sound Of, 2014 - FKA twigs". BBC.
- Tim Jonze. "Mercury prize 2014 ignores big stars in favour of FKA Twigs, Young Fathers and East India Youth". the Guardian.
- William Phoenix. "LiLi Roquelin goes for a Grammy". AXS.
- "Shoreworld: Third Cape May Singer-Songwriter Conference and Stokefest". The Aquarian Weekly.
- "Band of the Week: LiLi Roquelin". Cleveland Scene.
- "Shoreworld: Lili Roquelin – Beautiful Sun". The Aquarian Weekly.
- "moon-palace.de" Tricky web Site. Tricky covered "Tattoo" (a pre-trip-hop song of Siouxsie and the Banshees from 1983) for the opening track of his second album Nearly God in 1996
- "Inflightdata.com" Massive Attack sampled & covered "Metal Postcard" of Siouxsie and the Banshees in 1997 on the movie soundtrack The Jackal
- Tricky site "The Lovecats" by Cure, covered by Tricky
- 005332x. "inflightdata.com – massive attack discography – tune info + lyrics – man next door". inflightdata.com.
- "Siouxsie Sioux". RocknFolk.com. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- Andersen, Ragnhild Brøvig. "Groove in trip-hop music" (PDF). University of Oslo. Retrieved 19 December 2015.