Triple Concerto (Beethoven)
|by Ludwig van Beethoven|
|Dedication||Joseph Franz von Lobkowitz|
Ludwig van Beethoven's Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Piano in C major, Op. 56, commonly known as the Triple Concerto, was composed in 1803 and published in 1804 by Breitkopf & Härtel. The choice of the three solo instruments effectively makes this a concerto for piano trio, and it is the only concerto Beethoven ever completed for more than one solo instrument. A typical performance takes approximately thirty-seven minutes.
Beethoven's early biographer Anton Schindler claimed that the Triple Concerto was written for Beethoven's royal pupil, the Archduke Rudolf of Austria. The Archduke, who became an accomplished pianist and composer under Beethoven's tutelage, was only in his mid-teens at this time, and it seems plausible that Beethoven's strategy was to create a showy but relatively easy piano part that would be backed up by two more mature and skilled soloists. However, there is no record of Rudolf's ever performing the work.
The Triple Concerto was publicly premiered in 1808, at the summer Augarten concerts in Vienna. The violinist in the premiere was Carl August Seidler, and the cellist was Nikolaus Kraft, who was known for "technical mastery" and a "clear, rich tone".:162 The concerto was Beethoven's first work to use advanced cello techniques.:162
The concerto is divided into three movements:
The first movement is broadly scaled and cast in a moderate march tempo, and includes decorative solo passage-work and leisurely repetitions, variations, and extensions of assorted themes. A common feature is a dotted rhythm (short-long, short-long) that lends an air of graciousness and pomp that is not exactly "heroic," but would have conveyed a character of fashionable dignity to contemporary listeners—and perhaps a hint of the noble "chivalric" manner that was becoming a popular element of novels, plays, operas, and pictures. The jogging triplets that figure in much of the accompaniment also contribute to this effect. In this movement, as in the other two, the cello enters solo with the first subject. Unusual for a concerto of this scale, the first movement begins quietly, with a gradual crescendo into the exposition, with the main theme later introduced by the soloists. Also unusually, the exposition modulates to A minor instead of the expected G major. (Beethoven's friend Ferdinand Ries later did the same mediant transition in his sixth concerto.) This movement takes sixteen to nineteen minutes.
The slow movement, in A-flat major, is a large-scale introduction to the finale, which follows it without pause. The cello and violin share the melodic material of the movement between them while the piano provides a discreet accompaniment. This movement takes about five to six minutes.
There is no break between then second and third movements. Dramatic repeated notes launch into the third movement, a polonaise (also called "polacca"), an emblem of aristocratic fashion during the Napoleonic era, which is, thus, in keeping with the character of "polite entertainment" that characterizes this concerto as a whole. The bolero-like rhythm, also characteristic of the polonaise, can be heard in the central minor theme of the final movement. This movement takes about thirteen to fourteen minutes.
In addition to the violin, cello, and piano soloists, the concerto is scored for one flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani, and strings. The flute, oboes, trumpets, and timpani are tacet during the second movement.
Popular recordings of the Triple Concerto include the following:
- John Corigliano Sr., Leonard Rose, and Walter Hendl, under Bruno Walter, New York Philharmonic Orchestra, 1949
- David Oistrakh, Sviatoslav Knushevitsky, and Lev Oborin, under Sir Malcolm Sargent, Philharmonia Orchestra, 1958
- Jaime Laredo, Leslie Parnas, and Rudolf Serkin, under Alexander Schneider, Marlboro Festival Orchestra, 1962
- Yehudi Menuhin, Maurice Gendron, and Hephzibah Menuhin, under István Kertész, London Symphony Orchestra, 1964
- Isaac Stern, Leonard Rose, and Eugene Istomin, under Eugene Ormandy, Philadelphia Orchestra, 1964
- David Oistrakh, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Sviatoslav Richter, under Herbert von Karajan, Berlin Philharmonic, 1969
- Anne-Sophie Mutter, Yo-Yo Ma, and Mark Zeltser, under Herbert von Karajan, Berlin Philharmonic, 1979
- Trio Zingara, under Edward Heath, English Chamber Orchestra, 1988
- Itzhak Perlman, Yo-Yo Ma, and Daniel Barenboim, under Daniel Barenboim, Berlin Philharmonic, 1995
- Dong-Suk Kang, Maria Kliegel, and Jenő Jandó, under Béla Drahos, Nicolaus Esterházy Sinfonia, 1997
- Renaud Capuçon, Mischa Maisky, and Martha Argerich, under Alexandre Rabinovitch, Orchestra della Svizzera Italiana, 2003
- Thomas Zehetmair, Clemens Hagen, and Pierre-Laurent Aimard, under Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Chamber Orchestra of Europe, 2004
- Gordan Nikolitch, Tim Hugh, and Lars Vogt, under Bernard Haitink, London Symphony Orchestra, 2005
- Ilya Gringolts, Mario Brunello, and Alexander Lonquich, under Claudio Abbado, Simón Bolívar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela, 2006
- Anne-Sophie Mutter, Yo-Yo Ma, and Daniel Barenboim, West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, 2019
- Isabelle Faust, Jean-Guihen Queyras and Alexander Melnikov, under Pablo Heras-Casado, Freiburger Barockorchester, 2021
- Steinberg, Michael (1996), The Concerto: A Listener's Guide, Oxford University Press, p. 76.
- Lepuschitz, Rainer (2012). Ludwig van Beethoven / Tripelkonzert für Klavier, Violine, Violoncello und Orchester C-Dur op. 56 (in German). tonkuenstler.at. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- Vogler, Jan (15 August 2018). "Masterclass: Jan Vogler on Beethoven Cello Sonata op.69". The Strad. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- Watson, Angus (2012). Cello Sonata in A major, Op. 69. Beethoven's Chamber Music in Context. Boydell Press. pp. 161–166. ISBN 978-1-84-383716-9.