Triple accreditation (or Triple Crown accreditation) is the accreditation awarded to 76 business schools worldwide as of July 2016 (up from 74 in May 2016) by the three largest and most influential business school accreditation associations:
- AACSB - The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (based in Tampa, Florida, with an Asia office in Singapore)
- AMBA - The Association of MBAs (based in London)
- EQUIS - EFMD Quality Improvement System (based in Brussels)
Of the 13,670 schools offering business degree programs worldwide, only 70+ have triple accreditation as of April 2016.
The diagram on the right shows the 54 triple-accredited schools outside of North America as of March 2012. Another two triple-accredited schools used to be found in Canada, bringing the worldwide total to 56 in 2012. For AACSB, the diagram interpretation is as follows: 53 schools are accredited only by AACSB; a further 7 are accredited by AACSB and AMBA; another 23 are accredited by AACSB and EQUIS; and 54 are accredited by all three accrediting bodies (outside of North America).
A major reason for the small number of triple-accredited institutions in the world is the requirement of the Association of MBAs that AMBA-accredited business schools should only admit MBA applicants with at least three years of full-time post-graduation work experience. Some analysts claim that most top US business schools cannot meet this criterion as they sometimes (though rarely) admit applicants with only a bachelor's degree and little or no work experience. They claim that it is why triple-crown accreditation is pursued primarily by European institutions. However, it is not the case when some (former) triple accredited institutes, City University of Hong Kong for example, only require applicants having "relevant work experience is desirable (though not specifically required)".
- 1 Differences in accreditation
- 2 Schools
- 2.1 Argentina
- 2.2 Australia
- 2.3 Austria
- 2.4 Belgium
- 2.5 Brazil
- 2.6 Canada
- 2.7 Chile
- 2.8 China
- 2.9 Colombia
- 2.10 Denmark
- 2.11 Egypt
- 2.12 Finland
- 2.13 France
- 2.14 Germany
- 2.15 India
- 2.16 Ireland
- 2.17 Italy
- 2.18 Mexico
- 2.19 The Netherlands
- 2.20 New Zealand
- 2.21 Norway
- 2.22 Peru
- 2.23 Poland
- 2.24 Portugal
- 2.25 Slovenia
- 2.26 South Africa
- 2.27 Spain
- 2.28 Sweden
- 2.29 Switzerland
- 2.30 UK
- 2.31 Venezuela
- 3 Top schools without triple accreditation
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Differences in accreditation
- Scope of accreditation
- AACSB has the broadest scope, as it accredits management and accounting programs at the entire university (e.g. management programs at the business school and the school of engineering) and grants university-wide accreditation.
- AMBA has the most focused scope as it accredits only the business school's portfolios of MBA programs (full-time, part-time, executive, distance-learning), MBM programs (including MSc International Management) and DBA (also known as DMgt in China).
- EQUIS's scope ranks in the middle, as it accredits the business school but not the university and not specific portfolios of programs.
- Duration of the accreditation process
- AACSB: 2–7 years
- AMBA: 9–18 months
- EQUIS: 2–3 years
- AACSB: full re-accreditation every 5 or 10 years (the 10-year accreditation is being phased out)
- AMBA: full re-accreditation every 3 or 5 years (1-year accreditation is a possible outcome of reaccreditation in exceptional circumstances)
- EQUIS: full re-accreditation every 3 or 5 years
- School audit team
- AACSB's peer review team includes deans and business school administrators.
- AMBA's assessment team includes deans, associate deans, program directors and one AMBA representative.
- EQUIS's team includes three deans and one corporate representative.
- Evaluation report content
- AACSB's report reflects compliance with the AACSB standards
- AMBA's report includes compliance with criteria, conditions and recommendations
- EQUIS's report reflects compliance with the EQUIS standards
- Criteria/Standards size
- AACSB: 77 pages for Business Accreditation; 36 pages for Accounting Accreditation
- AMBA: 24 pages (9 pages for MBA; 9 pages for MBM; 6 pages for DBA)
- EQUIS: 71 pages
- Quantitative vs Qualitative
- AACSB has more quantitative criteria (checklists)
- AMBA has more qualitative criteria
- EQUIS is in the middle (between AACSB and AMBA)
- AACSB conducts the evaluation against the school's own mission, so AACSB has no internationalization requirement unless internationalization is part of the school's mission.
- AMBA has internationalization criteria for research, curriculum and student enrolment. However, these are reviewed in a regional context for less internationalized regions (e.g. Latin America and Russia).
- EQUIS has strict requirements on internationalization.
- Faculty numbers
- AACSB: prescribed faculty ratios (AQ/PQ ratio)
- AMBA: no prescribed faculty-to-students ratio
- EQUIS: prescribed minimum numbers of faculty
- Visiting faculty
- AACSB disapproves of heavy use of visiting faculty.
- AMBA allows the visiting faculty model, as long as the visiting faculty are managed by the core faculty (and as long as the quality and course content is monitored).
- EQUIS disapproves of heavy use of visiting faculty.
- AACSB requires research in line with the mission of the school.
- AMBA requires research and publications in international refereed journals or proof of impactful research at national level.
- EQUIS requires research with an international dimension.
- Program-specific criteria
- AACSB has no program-specific standards since it evaluates the entire university.
- AMBA has program-specific criteria such as:
- at least 3 years of full-time work experience for all admitted MBA students;
- at least 500 contact hours (scheduled class hours) for a full-time MBA curriculum and a minimum of 120 contact hours for a distance-learning MBA;
- at least 20 students enrolled in an MBA program;
- EQUIS has some program-specific standards in the context of the evaluation of the entire business school.
- Accreditation fees
- AACSB: 47,000 USD for initial business accreditation (or 63,500 USD for both business and accounting accreditation). In addition, an annual business accreditation fee is charged: 4,500 USD annually for a 5-year accreditation cycle or 2,500 USD annually for a 10-year accreditation cycle.
- AMBA: 22,000 GBP for initial accreditation or 15,000 GBP for re-accreditation.
- EQUIS: 52,800 EUR for a 5-year initial accreditation or re-accreditation and 46,200 EUR for a 3-year initial accreditation or re-accreditation.
- IAE Universidad Austral, Buenos Aires
- Adolfo Ibáñez University, Santiago
- School of Business, Hong Kong Baptist University
- Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai
- Lingnan (University) College, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou
- Sun Yat-sen Business School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou
- School of Economics and Management, Tongji University
- Zhejiang University
- Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Administración, Bogota
- American University in Cairo, Cairo.
- Audencia Nantes, Nantes
- EDHEC (École des hautes études commerciales du nord), Lille & Nice
- EMLYON Business School, Lyon
- Rennes School of Business, Rennes
- ESCP-Europe (École supérieure de commerce de Paris — Europe), Paris
- Grenoble School of Management, Grenoble
- HEC Paris (Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales), Paris
- IÉSEG School of Management (Lille, Paris)
- INSEAD (Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires), Fontainebleau & Singapore
- KEDGE Business School, Bordeaux and Marseille
- NEOMA Business School, Rouen and Reims
- Toulouse Business School, Toulouse
- Skema Business School, Sophia Antipolis, Lille, Paris, Raleigh (NC, USA), Souzhou (China), Belo Horizonte (Brasil)
- ESCP Europe, Berlin
- European School of Management and Technology, Berlin
- Mannheim Business School, Mannheim
- TUM School of Management, Munich
- University College Dublin, Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business/UCD Quinn School of Business, Dublin
- EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Guadalajara and Mexico City.
- Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, Mexico City.
- Maastricht University, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht
- Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam
- University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Business School, Amsterdam
- University of Auckland Business School, Auckland
- University of Waikato Faculty of Management, Hamilton
- Victoria University of Wellington, Victoria Business School, Wellington
- Kozminski University, Warsaw
- CATÓLICA-LISBON, School of Business & Economics, Lisbon
- Nova School of Business and Economics, Lisbon
- FELU - Faculty of Economics, Ljubljana
- University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business, Cape Town
- University of Stellenbosch Business School, Cape Town
- ESADE Business School and ESADE University Faculties, Barcelona
- ESCP Europe, Madrid
- IE Business School, Madrid
- IESE Barcelona
- IMD Lausanne
- Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow, Glasgow
- Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester
- Ashridge Business School, Berkhamsted
- Aston Business School, Aston University, Birmingham
- Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham
- Bradford University School of Management, University of Bradford, Bradford
- Cass Business School, City University London, London
- Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire
- Durham University Business School, Durham University, Durham
- University of Edinburgh Business School, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh
- ESCP Europe, London
- University of Exeter Business School, University of Exeter, Devon
- Henley Business School, University of Reading, Henley-on-Thames and Reading
- Imperial College Business School, London
- Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster University, Lancaster
- Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds
- London Business School, London
- Loughborough University School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Loughborough
- Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne
- Open University Business School
- University of Sheffield Management School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield
- Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow
- Warwick Business School, University of Warwick
- IESA, Caracas
Top schools without triple accreditation
Many of the world's top business schools are not triple-accredited, while several schools that appear low in the rankings have triple accreditation.
One reason for this is that some of the top business schools choose not to incur the financial cost of international accreditation and rely only on accreditation by their national accrediting body (usually the country's education ministry).
Another reason is that the top schools in some regions do not meet one or more of the detailed criteria of the accrediting institutions and choose not to amend their policy. Notable examples are all top US business schools: Harvard Business School, Wharton, Stanford GSB, Columbia Business School, Chicago Booth, Tuck School of Business, etc., which do not meet AMBA's mandatory three-year student-work-experience requirement for all MBA applicants.
A third reason is that the 509 schools that have obtained AACSB accreditation in the US and Canada (either via the standard accreditation process or via the granting of accreditation based on their reputation as top schools) do not look outside of North America for further validation, such as through European or British accreditation.
- "Triple accredited business schools (AACSB, AMBA, EQUIS)". MBA Today.
- The Economist. Oct 15th 2011. "Is time running out for business schools that aren’t quite elite?"
- AMBA. "MBA Accreditation Criteria 2016". p. 3.
- "Andreas Kaplan: European Management and European Business Schools: Insights from the History of Business Schools". European Management Journal. 32: 529–534. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2014.03.006.
- "MBA Admissions Requirements, City University of Hong Kong".
- AACSB Standards http://www.aacsb.edu/accreditation/standards.asp
- AMBA Criteria http://www.mbaworld.com/accreditationcriteria
- EQUIS Standards and Criteria http://www.efmd.org/accreditation-main/equis/equis-guides
- CarringtonCrisp report titled "Tomorrow's MBA", February 2014
- AMBA-accredited schools: http://www.ambaguide.com/find-an-accredited-programme/schools/
- AACSB-accredited schools: http://www.aacsb.edu/accreditation/accreditedmembers.asp
- EQUIS-accredited schools: http://www.efmd.org/accreditation-main/equis/accredited-schools