Triplicane Pond and Parthasarthy temple Gopuram
|• Body||Chennai Corporation|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Chennai Central|
|Civic agency||Chennai Corporation|
Triplicane, also known as Thiruvallikeni, is one of the oldest neighbourhoods of Chennai, India. It is situated on the Bay of Bengal coast and about 0.5 km (0.31 mi) from Fort St George. The average elevation of the neighbourhood is 14 metres above sea level.
Along with Mylapore and the surrounding regions, Triplicane is historically much older than the city of Chennai itself, with a mention in records as early as the Pallava period. Primarily a residential region, it is home to some of the tourist attractions of the city, such as the Marina Beach, Parthasarathy Temple and Triplicane Big Mosque, and several commercial establishments. Triplicane is equally famous for its rich traditional culture, which is prominent in and around the streets (known as "mada veedhi" in Tamil) of Parthasarthy Temple.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Location
- 4 Geography
- 5 Neighbourhood
- 6 Housing
- 7 Roads
- 8 Education
- 9 Culture
- 10 Politics
- 11 Public transport
- 12 Famous personalities
- 13 References
The name Triplicane is the anglicized version of Thiruvallikeni, which derives from Thiru-Alli-Keni (Sacred Lily Pond, in Tamil), denoting the pond in front of the Parthasarathy temple, which was amidst a big Tulasi forest. The place is also referred as Brindaranyam in Brahmanda Purana, owing to the presence of the tulasi (brinda) plants in the area. It is also referred to as 'Brindaranya kshetra' and 'Southern Brindavana'.
The early records of the town are rooted to epic rather than history. Thiruvallikeni finds various mentions in Nalayira Divya prabandham in the hymns of Thirumangai Alvar, Peyalwar and Thirumazhisai Piran - hymn 2416 in Nanmukan Thiruvanthathi forming part of the divine 4000 divya prabhandam. 8th century poet Thirumangai Alvar described Thiruvallikeni as a densely canopied forest with peacocks and koels, where the sun's rays cannot penetrate. Peyalwar describes Thiruvallikeni as a place having a beach, where white waves bring precious gems like red corals and white pearls to the shore that which lights up the area with beautiful colours.
The evidence from stone inscriptions indicates that Parthasarathy temple was built in the 8th century by a Pallava King. The temple was later expanded by the Pallavas, Cholas, Vijayanagara rulers. It has been recorded that a rivulet, Kaivareni, ran across Triplicane and Mylapore. The legend has it that the rivulet connected two water bodies: the temple tank of Parthasarathy temple and a sacred well, Mani Kairavani, in the flower garden of Adi Kesava Perumal temple of Mylapore. It is believed that Peyalvar, one of the 12 alvars, was born on a lily flower in this well and that he sailed through the rivulet to worship Lord Krishna in the Parthasarathy temple. To commemorate this, the idol of Peyalwar in Mylapore is brought, as a procession, to Parthasarathy temple every year in the month of September. Peyalwar temple was built in the 13th century.
In the 1600s, Triplicane was a separate village. After about a century, British found Triplicane to be a good area for settlement and a large number of people moved there. In 1668, Triplicane was annexed to the Madras City. In addition, the presence of the Nawab of Arcot increased the economic prosperity of the area, and many Muslims settled in Triplicane. From that time, Triplicane grew in importance, second only to George Town. In 1795, the Wallajah Mosque was built. During this period, Chepauk Palace and Amir Mahal were also built. In the early 20th century, Triplicane became one of the major residential areas of Madras. In 1841, Ice House was built to store the ice bars imported from America through ships. Ice bars were imported to provide the English a temporary relief from the blistering heat. This building was renamed Vivekananda house after Swami Vivekananda stayed in the building for a brief while. In the mid-19th century, numerous educational institutions were formed in the area. Hindu Higher Secondary School was started in 1853 and Presidency College in 1864-65. In 1870, the college was moved to its present location on Beach Road. In 1884, Marina Beach prominade was built. In 1896, Sri Parthasarathy Swami Sabha (SPSS), the oldest sabha in chennai, was founded and operated from the Hindu High School on Big Street
The building which currently serves as the Triplicane police station was built around 1891 to guard Madrasapatnam. This building is the City's oldest police station. Triplicane High Road is one of the roads that had a tram line running through it during the British reign.
In 1904, Triplicane Urban Co-Operative Society (TUCS) was started. The consumer cooperative society predates even the first Cooperative Credit Societies Act of 1904, which officially ushered in the cooperative movement into India. It runs a super market, self-service department stores, sells automobile fuel and cooking gas, and operates more than 200 rations shops for the Public Distribution System.
In 1916, Star Theatre was built on Triplicane High Road. This age old theatre has been set for demolition in March 2012.
On 26 December 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami hit Triplicane.
Triplicane lies on the banks of the Buckingham Canal which bisects the neighbourhood along the north-south direction. The neighbourhood is bordered by Marina Beach on the east on the shore of the Bay of Bengal, Chepauk on the north, Royapettah on the west and northwest, Mylapore on the southwest, and Santhome on the south.
The neighbourhood is classified as a tropical dry forest bio-zone. Being a coastal city, Chennai had many sand ridges. During the 16th century, the sea level rose and inundated lands within the settlements. When the sea withdrew, lagoons and ridges were left behind. One such ridge ran from the mouth of River Cooum to the present site of the Presidency College. On the rear side was a huge depression, where the college grounds have been built now. The ridge is the present Marina beach. Further south, a U-shaped ridge ran along Besant Road and Lloyds Road enclosing the Ice House. Parthasarathy Temple is just by the northern area of this ridge. Mount Road, now Anna Salai, ran along a tank bund and was at a high level. To the east of it, the land fell gradually, where Triplicane High Road and the Luz were formed.
Triplicane is succeptable to strong (vi) earthquakes, with occurrences at 5 to 6 Richter. On average, it receives one tremor every 50 years. However, the impact may be low. The neighbourhood is prone to periods of extreme droughts. The risk of flooding is medium-high, and chances of cyclones are low.
With an area of around 5 sq km, Triplicane is home to over 100,000 people, in addition to a floating population of 50,000 to 70,000. Average population density of the neighbourhood is 21,329 per square kilometre. Being an old neighbourhood of the city, it is congested with narrow lanes and streets.
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (September 2012)
Known as 'Bachelor's Paradise', Triplicane is home to about 200 boarding houses (locally known as mansions) out of the 700 odd ones in the city, many of them with about 30 to 60 rooms. Soon after independence, boarding houses began to appear in the area to cater to the needs of the individual migrants from various parts of the country. The first four boarding houses, known locally as mansions, were built in the 1950s by farmers from the southern parts of Tamil Nadu after successive droughts had threatened their livelihood. They gave out rooms on rent to traders who came to the city from other parts of the state. These are owned today by their progeny, without much change in their structures. Famous people who have at one time or another lived in the bachelor pads of Triplicane include political figures Periyar, Annadurai and Karunanidhi.
Availability of low-cost rentals and different affordable cuisines in the area is said to be the reason behind the constant patronage to these mansions for decades. Recently, these boarding houses have started attracting a more gentrified crowd.
The main roads of Triplicane include Beach Road (Kamarajar Salai), Pycrofts Road (Bharathi Salai), Triplicane High Road, and Besant Road. Pycrofts Road, also known as Bharathi Salai, is known for its numerous book shops, including pavement shops selling old and used books. Zam Bazaar is one of the oldest bazaar in the city and was set up in the pre-Independence era. The western end of the market is bordered by an old monument known as the Amir Mahal, the palace of the Nawab of Arcot two centuries ago. The building is currently being renovated by the government.
The famous colleges in the locality are Queen Mary's College, Presidency College and Madras University on the Beach Road. The popular schools in this area include Hindu Senior Secondary School, the Kellett higher secondary school, NKT, Rex, Hindu High School, Lady Wellington school, etc. Some of these schools are very old and even dating back to the British Era, like the latter two schools.
Libraries in this area include Kasthuri Srinivasan Library on Besant Road, one on Peyalwar Koil street, Muhammadan Public Library and one on Big street. The Kasturi Srinivasan library is more than 50 years old.
Triplicane has a rich culture. The culture associated with Parthasarathy temple and its mada veethis is a traditional and an age old one. Triplicane also has a sizeable Muslim population in Chepauk and Big street areas on the other side of pycrofts road, and triplicane high road and Zam bazaar, where there is Islamic religion based culture.
This paragraph possibly contains unsourced predictions, speculative material, or accounts of events that might not occur. Information must be verifiable and based on reliable published sources. (February 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Rooted in tradition, Triplicane is also known for its fine artistic taste in music, dance and arts. An annual community even known as the Thiruvallikeni Thiruvizha (literally Triplicane Festival) is celebrated in January. Other festivals include Triplicane Music Festival and Marghazhi (winter) festival. Triplicane is known for some of the traditionally famous cuisines of Chennai, with age-old restaurants, such as the Rathna Cafe, being based here.
Triplicane, similar to few other areas in the city such as Mylapore and West Mambalam, is known for its traditional row houses, known as agraharams. Typically, these can be seen where an entire street is occupied by Brahmins, particularly surrounding a temple. The architecture is distinctive with Madras terraces, country tile roofing, Burma teak rafters and lime plastering. The longish homes consisted of the mudhal kattu (receiving quarters), irandaam kattu (living quarters), moondram kattu (kitchen and backyard) and so on. Most houses had an open to sky space in the centre called the mitham, large platforms lining the outside of the house called the thinnai and a private well in the backyard. The floors were often coated with red oxide and sometimes the roofs had glass tiles to let in light. The agraharam quadrangle seen in Triplicane is around the Parthasarathy Temple and its tank.
About 50 families continue to live in the agraharams in Triplicane. However, many of these houses are being replaced with modern multi-storied apartments, resulting in a reduction in their numbers.
Places of worship
Although Parthasarathy Temple remains the most important temple of Triplicane, there exists indeed several other temples in the neighbourhood, including Ellai Amman Temple and nearby Sundaramurthy vinayaka temple, Kulathangarai Anjeneya Temple (on the steps on the Parthasarathy temple tank), Anjeneya Temple on Tank Street, Tula Singa Perumal Temple, Ahobila Mutt Temple on Car Street, Kaama Kala Kameshwari Temple on Hanumantha Rayan street, Muthu Vinayakar Temple on Muthu Kallathy Street, Anjeneya Temple on Besant Road, Ettampadai Murugan Temple, Raghavendra Temple and Mutt on T.P Koil Street, Temples on Raja Hanumantha Lala Lane, Udupi Sri Krishna Temple and Mutt, Peyalwar Temple built on the 13th century. and Thiruveteeswarar Temple. The thevaram has a reference of Thiruvateeswarar temple, which suggests its existence since the 7th century.
Mutts in the region include Uttradi Mutt on Singrachari Street, Ahobila Mutt and Temple on Car Street, Vanamamalai Mutt on East Tank Square Street, Raghavendra Mutt and Temple on T. P. Koil Street, Vysaraja Mutt, Yadugiri Yathiraja Mutt, and few others situated around Parthasarathy Temple or mada veethis.
The Wallajah Mosque, also known as the Big Mosque, is one of the famous historical mosques in the city. Built in 1795 in remembrance of Nawab Wallajah, the mosque was constructed with grey granite, without the use of wood or steel.
Vaikunta Ekadesi Festival is very famous in this temple and huge crowds gather to visit the temple on this day. Vaikunta Ekadesi vrata is observed on Dhanur Masa Shukla Paksha Ekadasi or on the 11th day of bright fortnight during Dhanur Masam. This festival is celebrated with lot of devotion in many Vaishnavaite temples including Parthasarathy temple in South India. Vaikunta Dwara lies in the North side of the temple. Vaikunta Ekadesi is also observed as Mukkoti Ekadesi.
Unmindful of the chill, the streets of Triplicane would be milling with people as early as 2 am on Vaikunta Ekadesi. Women adorning the traditional nine yards or a silk sari would be seen hurrying towards the Parthasarathy Temple to find a place in the long winding queues that stretched infinitely even in those wee hours.
Jostling against each other people at a snail's space towards the shrine. It was obvious that they want to cross the Paramapadavaasal along with the presiding deity. More than one lakh devotees visit the temple who are helped by volunteers, temple authorities and police personnel, to move around the prakarams. Police would be stationed around the temple and atop watchtowers at the junction of the Mada Streets to maintain strict vigil.
Triplicane was also once the seat of Carnatic music. Many famous personalities in this industry visited or resided in triplicane. Triplicane was not only known for weekend visits by famous musicians, but also for resident legends such as G.N. Balasubramaniam and M.S. Subbulakshmi. The right atmosphere for music and dance permeated Triplicane. A proliferation of sabhas – Triplicane Arts Academy, Thiruvateeswarar Sabha, N.K.T. Muthu Sabha and Parthasarathy Swami Sabha – drew these heavyweights in the classical arts to the locality. Once musicians used to talk of how they had sung at the Hindu High School or heard GNB at some other Triplicane venue. Sadly, with time, that kind of talk died out. Legends M.S. Subbulakshmi and GNB lived in Triplicane once, and it was said that this was where vidwans would spend afternoons discussing music over hot rava pongal at the Krishna Iyer Hotel. The 1965s and 1970s saw music and dance pervade the area in various sabhas. From the concerts of M.S. and GNB to Manakkal Rangarajan; from the stage plays of M.G. Ramachandran and Sivaji Ganesan to actor Sivakumar’s debut play – this place has hosted leading artists of those days. You name them and they have been performed here. Thus Triplicane was the central locality where all the cultural happenings of the city took place, and all the famous personalities used to come down to perform.
Triplicane is a part of Chepauk-Triplicane assembly constituency which in turn a part of Chennai South constituency. The MLA Hostel is located on Wallajah Road. Rajaji Hall in the same campus, which was built between 1800 and 1802, used to have a role in state administration. At present, it houses the offices of the Tamil Nadu State Raffle.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2012)
Being situated in the central region of the city, Triplicane is well connected to various places in Chennai. The MTC has bus termini such as the Ice House and Triplicane (located at Pycrofts Road). The MRTS has a station Thiruvallikeni on the Chennai Beach–Velachery elevated rail corridor serving the neighbourhood. In addition, the neighbourhood is served by private auto rickshaws.
Triplicane is famous for the various personalities it has produced over the years. Mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, Writer Sujatha Rangarajan, and cricketers M.J. Gopalan, Krish Srikkanth and W.V. Raman all hailed from Triplicane. Nobel prize winner Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar did his schooling in the Hindu High School (1922–1925) in Triplicane. Subramanya Bharathy, a freedom fighter and poet, lived his last years in the house opposite the parthasarathy temple's western entrance; the house has since been bought and renovated by the Government of Tamil Nadu in 1993, and it was named Bharathiyar Illam (Home of Bharathiyar).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Triplicane.|
- "Triplicane". Chinci World Atlas. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Ramanujam, Srinivasa (15 September 2011). "Temple tales of Triplicane". The Times of India. Chennai: The Times Group. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Ramanathan, Saradha (21 May 2010). "Link recaptured". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Narasimhan, T. E. (31 March 2012). "Chennai central". Business Standard. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "The benign radiance of Gitacharyan". The Hindu, Online Edition, Chennai — Entertainment section. 21 May 2004. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- T. Padmaja (2002). Temples of Kr̥ṣṇa in South India: History, Art, and Traditions in Tamilnāḍu. Abhinav Publications. p. 129. ISBN 8170173981.
- K. V. Raman (7 May 2002). "Unique temple". The Hindu Metro Plus. Chennai. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- "verse 1074 by Thirumangai Alwar, in the 4000 divya prabhandam". dravidaveda.org/. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- "verse 2297 by peyalwar,". dravidaveda.org/. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- Lalithasai (18 December 2011). "Religious facets of Thirumayilai, Thiruvallikeni". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- Rina Kamath (2000). Chennai. Chennai: Orient Blackswan, 2000. p. 275. ISBN 9788125013785.
- Subodh Kapoor. The Indian Encyclopaedia, Volume 1. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002. p. 8250. ISBN 9788177552577.
- Narasiah, K. R. A. (2008). Madras : tracing the growth of the city since 1639. Chennai: Oxygen Books. p. 278. ISBN 9788183687898.
- N.Meera Raghavendra Rao (28 May 2001). "Abounds in Legends". The Hindu, Chennai. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- P.V.Jagadisa Ayyar (1982). South Indian Shrines. New Delhi - 16, Madras - 14: Asian Educational Services.
- V Subburaj (2006). Tourist Guide to Chennai Gateway of South India. Chennai: Gardners Books, Sura Books. ISBN 9788174780409.
- Usha Raja. "Mylai Aadhikesava Perumal temple". chennai online, 4 May 2009. Chennai Online Website. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Geetha Venkatraman (23 February 2012). "A slice of heritage". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Official website of Chennai District". Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Structure of Chennai
- "1751 A.D. to 1800 A.D." History of Chennai. ChennaiBest.com. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Muthiah, S. (2 February 2004). "Presidency's feeder". The Hindu. Chennai: The Hindu. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Muthiah, S. (21 August 2002). "The second longest beach?". The Hindu. Chennai: The Hindu. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Tercentenary Madras Staff (1939). Madras Tercentenary Celebration Committee Commemoration Volume. Indian Branch, Oxford Press. pp. 271–273.
- Aruna V. Iyer (18 October 2011). "Survivors of Time - Big name, but no fixed address". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Ajitha Karthikeyan (23 December 2009). "City's oldest police stn saved from the hammer". Times of india, Chennai. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- S.Muthaih (24 September 2007). "Once the City's lifeline". The Hindu, Metro Plus, Chennai. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Anusha Parthasarathy (23 November 2010). "Heaven on Earth". The Hindu, Metro Plus, Chennai. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Military Lorry collides with Tram Car". The Indian Express, Madras. 23 May 1945. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Introduction". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Balaji, R. (8 April 2004). "Triplicane Urban Co-op Society turns 100". Business Line. Chennai: The Hindu. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Sujatha, R.; Kolappan B. (6 March 2012). "It's curtains for Star theatre". The Hindu. Chennai: The Hindu. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "What Gandhiji said at Triplicane". The Indian Express, Madras. 20 December 1933. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- S.Muthaih (31 December 2009). "Gandhi and the Tamils". The Hindu, Metro Plus, Chennai. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- "Gandhi had a deep connection with Chennai". IBN Live website, Taken from The New Indian Express. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- MA Chidambaram Stadium, espncricinfo
- Swahilya and K. Lakshmi (29 July 2007). "A tale of two memorials". The Hindu, Chennai. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- S.Sasidharan (15 March 2012). "Rs 1.97 crore state share to MRTS". Deccan Chronicle, Chennai. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- N. Ramakrishnan (18 March 2002). "Part of MRTS-III may run on single stilts". The Hindu, Chennai. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Raja Simhan T. E (29 May 2000). "Chennai's MRTS: Not on fast track, yet". Business Line, The Hindu Group, Chennai. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- "Tsunami: Impact & Damage" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. p. 21. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Mithran, Ashoka (28 February 2009). "The Small lanes of Triplicane". Chennai Online. ChennaiOnline.com. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Anand, S. (11 March 2002). "Live Life. Mansion-Size". Outlook India. OutlookIndia.com. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Down memory lane: Triplicane revisited". Sify News. SifyNews.com. 16 August 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Ramesh, Niranjana (1 July 2011). "Rooms without a view". Live Mint. LiveMint.com. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Iyengar, Pushpa (8 March 2010). "Houses On The Beach". Outlook India. OutlookIndia.com. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Mithran, Ashoka (9 January 2009). "Good old Pycrofts road". Chennai Online. ChennaiOnline.com. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Frederick, Prince (23 April 2011). "The knowledge street". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Damani, Neha (9 January 2009). "Market value". India Today. IndiaToday.com. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Jona Gilon, Catherine (23 March 2008). "Bazaar Buzz". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Sewage floods Triplicane roads". Deccan Chronicle. Chennai. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Drainage issues plague Triplicane". IBN Live. Chennai: Express News Service. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Historic library at Triplicane reopens for readers". The Hindu, Chennai. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Golden jubilee celebrated", The Hindu, Downtown, Chennai, 20 March 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2012
- Parthasarathy, Anusha (24 April 2012). "Shattering the stillness of time". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Thiruvallikeni Thiruvizha: a community event". The Hindu. Chennai. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Soman, Sandhya (9 January 2007). "A trip down memory lane". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Madhavan, T. (25 December 2011). "Triplicane Music Festival". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Suresh, S. (7 January 2003). "Colourful tradition". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Shanmugham, Sujatha (18 August 2010). "Thali destinations". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Shetty, Deepika (30 October 2008). "Charming and cultured Chennai". The Straits Times. Asia One Travel. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Badrinath, Mallika (3 September 2008). "Off the menu". India Today. IndiaToday.in. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Sujatha, R. (29 April 2012). "Agraharam — time virtually stands still here". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Iyer, Aruna V. (7 October 2011). "Chennai's vanishing agraharams". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Big Mosque, Chennai
- Srinivasa Ramanujam (15 September 2011). "Temple tales of Triplicane". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Religious fervour marks Vaikunta Ekadasi in Chennai", Deccan Chronicle, Chennai, 6 January 2012. Retrieved on 3 April 2012
- "In City". The Indian Express, Madras. 12 March 1949. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- Lalithasai. "When the doors of Paramapadavaasal open...", The Hindu, Downtown, Chennai, 19 December 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2012
- M Bharat Kumar, K Vivek prasad. "Devotees throng temples for Vaikunta Ekadesi", News Today, 28 December 2009, Chennai. Retrieved 3 April 2012
- Gowri Ramnarayan. "When streets resonated with ragas", The Hindu, Metro Plus, Chennai, 24 December 2002. Retrieved on 3 April 2012
- Written by Prince Frederick, as told by Vikku Vinayakram. "Memories of Madras - ‘My heart beats for Triplicane'", The Hindu, Arts - History & Culture, 22 February 2011. Retrieved on 3 April 2012.
- Renuka Suryanarayan (1 December 2011). "Back in full force..." The Hindu, Chennai. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
- Groseclose, Barbara S. (1995). British sculpture and the Company Raj: church monuments and public statuary in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay to 1858. University of Delaware Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-87413-406-3.
- Chopra, Prabha (1999). Monuments of the Raj: British buildings in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Aryan Books International. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-81-7305-094-7.
- Hema Vijay. "The man who knows Ramanujan",Life & Style - Society, The Hindu, 26 June 2011. Retrieved on 3 April 2012.
- "Srinivasa Ramanujan". Article from The Institute of Mathematical Sciences official website. The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSC). Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "The street where Ramanujan lived". The Hindu. 24 December 2003. Retrieved 4 April 2012.