3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||360.41 g·mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Triptolide is a diterpenoid epoxide which is produced by the thunder god vine, Tripterygium wilfordii. It has in vitro and in vivo activities against mouse models of polycystic kidney disease and pancreatic cancer, but its physical properties and severe toxicity limit its therapeutic potential.
Mechanism of action
Several putative target proteins of triptolide have been reported, including polycystin-2, ADAM10, DCTPP1, TAB1, and XPB. Multiple triptolide-resistant mutations exist in XPB (ERCC3) and its partner protein GTF2H4. However, no triptolide-resistant mutations were found in polycystin-2, ADAM10, DCTPP1 and TAB1. Cys342 of XPB was identified as the residue that undergoes covalent modification by the 12,13-epoxide group of triptolide, and the XPB-C342T mutant rendered the T7115 cell line nearly completely resistant to triptolide. The level of resistance conferred by the C342T mutation is about 100-fold higher than the most triptolide-resistant mutants previously identified. Together, these results validate XPB as a target responsible for the antiproliferative activity of triptolide.
Minnelide is a more water-soluble synthetic analog of triptolide which is converted to triptolide in vivo. In a preclinical mouse model of pancreatic cancer, it was "even more effective than gemcitabine". A Phase 1 clinical trial was planned for 2012.[needs update]
Glutriptolide 2, a glucose conjugate of triptolide with better solubility and lower toxicity, did not inhibit XPB activity in vitro, but exhibited tumor control in vivo, which is likely due to sustained stepwise release of active triptolide within cancer cells.
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- Chugh, Rohit (2012). "A Preclinical Evaluation of Minnelide as a Therapeutic Agent Against Pancreatic Cancer". Science Translational Medicine. 4 (156): 156ra139. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3004334. PMC . PMID 23076356. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
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- "Study of Minnelide in Patients With Advanced GI Tumors". Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- S. J. Leuenroth, D. Okuhara, J. D. Shotwell, G. S. Markowitz, Z. Yu, S. Somlo, C. M. Crews, Triptolide is a traditional Chinese medicine-derived inhibitor of polycystic kidney disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007, 104, 4389-4394;
- R. Soundararajan, R. Sayat, G. S. Robertson, P. A. Marignani,Triptolide: An inhibitor of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther 2009, 8, 2054-2062;
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- Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. Li, X. Feng, S. Ding, W.Zheng, J. Li, P. Shen,TAB1: A Target of Triptolide in Macrophages. Chem. Biol. 2014, 21, 246 – 256.
- Q. L. He, D. V. Titov, J. Li, M. Tan, Z. Ye, Y. Zhao, D. Romo, and J. O. Liu. Covalent Modification of a Cysteine Residue in the XPB Subunit of the General Transcription Factor TFIIH Through Single Epoxide Cleavage of the Transcription Inhibitor Triptolide. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 1859 –1863
- D. V. Titov, B. Gilman, Q. L.He, S. Bhat,W. K. Low, Y. Dang,M.Smeaton, A. L. Demain, P. S. Miller, J. F. Kugel, J. A. Goodrich,J. O. Liu, XPB, a subunit of TFIIH, is a target of the natural product triptolide. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2011, 7, 182 – 188.
- Y. Smurnyy, M. Cai, H. Wu, E. McWhinnie, J. A. Tallarico, Y.Yang, Y. Feng, DNA sequencing and CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing for target validation in mammalian cells. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2014, 10, 623 – 625
- Thunder God Vine Drug Zaps Pancreatic Cancer. GenEng. 2012
- He, Qing-Li; Minn, Il; Wang, Qiaoling; Xu, Peng; Head, Sarah A; Datan, Emmanuel; Yu, Biao; Pomper, Martin G; Liu, Jun O (2016). "Targeted Delivery and Sustained Antitumor Activity of Triptolide through Glucose Conjugation". Angewandte Chemie. 128 (39): 12214. doi:10.1002/ange.201606121.