Tripuri nationalism is an ideology that supports self-determination by the Tripuri people. The conflict is in essence ethnic, the Tibeto-Burman "tribals" indigenous to the region formed the clear majority of population in the princely state of Tippera, which joined the Republic of India in 1949 as the state of Tripura. Since then, the Tripuri people have been reduced to a 30% minority due to Bengali immigration.
The issue has led to a number of armed uprisings and terrorist activity. There was a rebellion in 1950, trying to prevent Tripuri's accession to the Republic of India, and armed conflict continued to erupt in the 1980s to 2000s. Since 1989, the armed rebellion was mostly led by the National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) and the All Tripura Tiger Force ATTF). The Bengali side retaliated by forming militias of their own, such as the United Bengali Liberation Tiger Front (UBLTF), which destroyed a number of tribal villages in 2000.
The NLFT is classified by the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism as one of the ten most active terrorist groups in the world, and has been accused of forcefully converting people to Christianity.
Militant activity peaked in 2000 with 514 terrorism-related fatalities in that year. As of 2012, the uprising has largely been brought under control by the authorities through security actions and negotiated surrenders.
Tripuri political organizations and militant groups include:
- All Tripura Tiger Force
- Indigenous Nationalist Party of Tripura
- Indigenous People's Front of Tripura
- National Liberation Front of Tripura
- National Socialist Party of Tripura
- Tripura Janganotantrik Morcha
- Tripura National Volunteers
- Tripura Peoples Democratic Front
- Tripura Tribal National Conference
- Tripura Tribal National Council
- Tripura Tribal Students' Federation
- Tripura Upajati Juba Samiti
- Tripura Upjati Karmachari Samiti
- Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
- Tripura rebellion
- Naga nationalism
- Tamil nationalism
- Insurgency in North-East India
- Assam conflict
- Bhattacharyya, Harihar (1989). "The Emergence of Tripuri Nationalism, 1948-50". South Asia Research. 9 (1): 54–71. doi:10.1177/026272808900900104.
- Peace Processes and Peace Accords, p. 204, at Google Books
- "National Liberation Front of Tripura". South Asia Terrorism Portal.
- "All Tripura Tiger Force". South Asia Terrorism Portal.
- "Constitution of The National Liberation Front Of Tripura". South Asia Terrorism Portal.
- "India: Tripura Terror Assessment For Year 2013 – Analysis". Eurasia Review. December 11, 2012.