|Native to||Mexico; USA|
|26,000 (2010 census)|
Official language in
trc – Copala
trq – San Martín Itunyoso
trs – Chicahuaxtla
The Triqui //, or Trique, languages are Oto-Manguean languages of Mexico spoken by the Trique people of the state of Oaxaca and elsewhere (due to recent population movements). They belong to the Mixtecan branch together with the Mixtec languages and Cuicatec.
Ethnologue lists three major varieties:
- Triqui de Copala spoken by 15,000 people (1990 census) in San Juan Copala, Oaxaca (and recently due to migrations in the San Quintín valley, Baja California).
- Triqui de San Andrés Chicahuaxtla spoken by 6,000 people in San Andrés Chicahuaxtla, Oaxaca.
- Triqui de San Martín Itunyoso spoken by 2,000 people (1983 survey) in San Martín Itunyoso, Oaxaca.
Mexico's federal agency for its indigenous languages, Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (INALI), identifies four varieties of Trique in its Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales published in early 2008. The variants listed by INALI are:
|Variant (name in Spanish)||Autonym||Localities|
|Triqui de San Juan Copala||xnánj nu' a||Oaxaca: Santiago Juxtlahuaca|
|Triqui de La Media||sná'ánj nì'||Oaxaca: San Martín Itunyoso|
|Triqui de La Alta||nánj nï'ïn||Oaxaca: Putla Villa de Guerrero|
|Triqui de La Baja||tnanj ni'inj||Oaxaca: Constancia del Rosario, Putla Villa de Guerrero|
Phonology and orthography
Tones in Triqui languages are typically written with superscript numbers, so that chraa5 'river' indicates the syllable chraa with the highest (5) tone, while cha3na1 'woman' has the middle (3) tone on the first syllable and the lowest (1) tone on the second syllable.
Of the Triqui languages, the Copala dialect has undergone the most vowel loss, with many non-final syllables losing their vowels. The result of this, as in many other Oto-Manguean languages, is a complex set of consonant clusters. So, for instance, the word si5kuj5 'cow' in Itunyoso Triqui corresponds to skuj5 in Copala Triqui.
Triqui has been written in a number of different orthographies, depending on the intended audience. Linguists typically write the language with all tones fully marked and all phonemes represented. However, in works intended for native speakers of Triqui, a practical orthography is often used with a somewhat simpler representation.
The following Copala Triqui example is written in both the linguistic and the practical orthographies:
|Gloss||wh||3rd person||to||speak||2nd person||interrogative|
'Whom are you speaking to?' (¿Con quién estas hablando?)
The tonal phonology of other Triqui languages is more complex than Copala Triqui. The tone system of Itunyoso Triqui has nine tones. The tone system of Chicahuaxtla Triqui has at least 10 tones  but may have as many as 16.
Morphology and syntax
Triqui morphology is fairly limited. Verbs take a /k-/ prefix (spelled c- or qu-) to show completive aspect:
A'mii32 zo'1. 'You are speaking'.
C-a'mii32 zo'1. 'You spoke'.
The same /k-/ prefix plus a tonal change shows the potential aspect:
C-a'mii2 zo'1. 'You will speak.'
The tonal changes associated with the potential aspect are complex, but always involve lowering the tone of the root. (Hollenbach 1984.)
There are also complex phonological processes that are triggered by the presence of root-final clitic pronouns. These pronouns (especially the 1st and 2nd person singular) may change the shape of the stem or alter its tone.
Copala Triqui is a has Verb-Subject-Object (VSO) word order, as in the following example:
'Maria put the tortilla in the tenate.'
Copala Triqui has an accusative marker maa3 or man3 which is obligatory for animate pronominal objects, but is optional in other circumstances, as in the following example:
'Maria saw the tortilla.'
'Maria saw you.'
This use of the accusative before some objects and not others is what is called differential object marking.
The following example (repeated from above) shows a Copala Triqui question:
|wh||3rd person||to||speak||2nd person||interrogative|
'Who are you speaking to?' (¿Con quién estas hablando?)
Copala Triqui syntax is described in Hollenbach (1992).
Triqui is also interesting for having toggle processes. Under the scope of negation, a completive aspect prefix signifies the negative potential. A potential aspect prefix in the same context signifies the negative completive.
As a language sub-family, Triqui is interesting for having a large tonal inventory, complex morphophonology, and interesting syntactic phenomena (much of which has yet to be described).
As of 2012, the Natividad Medical Center of Salinas, California was training medical interpreters bilingual in one of the Oaxacan languages (including Trique, Mixteco, or Zapotec), as well as in Spanish. In March 2014, Natividad Medical Foundation launched Indigenous Interpreting+, "a community and medical interpreting business specializing in indigenous languages from Mexico and Central and South America," including Trique, Mixteco, Zapotec, and Chatino.
- INALI (2012) México: Lenguas indígenas nacionales
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Trique". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- The proposal to group Mixtec, Trique and Cuicatec into a single family (none more closely related to one than to the other) was made by Longacre (1957) with convincing evidence.
- The catalogue is the result of a project completed by INALI in 2007 in fulfillment of its obligations under Mexican federal law to document and enumerate the indigenous languages of Mexico. The catalogue was published in the federal government's official gazette, the Diario Oficial de la Federación (DOF).
- Table data source: see "triqui" , online extract reproduced from Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (2008), p.5 [third section/Tercera Sección].
- Hollenbach, Barbara. The Phonology and Morphology of Tone and Laryngeals in Copala Trique. Ph.D Thesis, University of Arizona. 1984
- Hollenbach, Barbara. Vocabulario breve del triqui de San Juan Copala. 2005
- DiCanio, Christian. The Phonetics and Phonology of San Martín Itunyoso Trique. Ph.D Thesis, University of California, Berkeley. 2008. Available here
- Good, Claude. Diccionario Triqui, volume 20 of Serie de Vocabularios Indigenas. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Mexico. 1979.
- Longacre, Robert E. Proto-Mixtecan. In Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics, volume 5. Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics, Bloomington. 1957
- Melissa Flores (2012-01-23). "Salinas hospital to train indigenous-language interpreters". HealthyCal.org. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Natividad Medical Foundation Announces Indigenous Interpreting+ Community and Medical Interpreting Business". Market Wired. 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- Claudio Torrens (1011-05-28). "Some NY immigrants cite lack of Spanish as barrier". UTSanDiego.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10. Check date values in:
- Broadwell, George A., Kosuke Matsukawa, Edgar Martín del Campo, Ruth Scipione and Susan Perdomo. 2009. The Origin of the Sun and Moon: A Copala Triqui Legend. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
- DiCanio, Christian. 2008. The Phonetics and Phonology of San Martín Itunyoso Trique. Ph.D. dissertation: University of California, Berkeley.
- Good, Claude. 1979. Diccionario Triqui, volume 20 of Serie de Vocabularios Indigenas. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Mexico.
- Hollenbach, Barbara. 1977. El origen del sol y de la luna – cuatro versiones en el trique de Copala, Tlalocan 7:123-70.
- Hollenbach, Barbara. 1984. The phonology and morphology of tone and laryngeals in Copala Trique. Ph.D. thesis, University of Arizona.
- Hollenbach, Barbara, 1988. Three Trique myths of San Juan Copala. Mexico City: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Hollenbach, Barbara. 1992. A syntactic sketch of Copala Trique. in C. Henry Bradley & Barbara E. Hollenbach, eds. Studies in the syntax of Mixtecan languages, vol. 4, pp. 173–431. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Hollenbach, Barbara. 2005. Vocabulario breve del triqui de San Juan Copala. (Available at )
- Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas [INALI] (14 January 2008). "Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas" (PDF online reproduction). Diario Oficial de la Federación (in Spanish) (México, D.F.: Imprenta del Gobierno Federal, SEGOB) 652 (9): 22–78 (first section),1–96 (second section),1–112 (third section). OCLC 46461036.
- Longacre, Robert E. 1957. Proto-Mixtecan. International Journal of American Linguistics 23(4).
- Matsukawa, Kosuke. 2007. Preliminary Tone Analysis of Possessed Nouns in Chicahuaxtla Trique. UTA Working Papers in Linguistics 2006-2007, pp. 31–49. Arlington: University of Texas at Arlington.
- Matsukawa, Kosuke. 2008. Reconstruction of Proto-Trique Phonemes. U. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 14(1):269-281. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
- Matsukawa, Kosuke. 2010. Tone Alternation Patterns for Potential Aspect in Chicahuaxtla Triqui. Proceedings of the Conference on Indigenous Languages of Latin America IV. Austin: AILLA, University of Texas at Austin.
- Matsukawa, Kosuke. 2012. Phonetics and Phonology of Chicahuaxtla Triqui Tones. Ph.D. dissertation, University at Albany, State University of New York.
- Online dictionary of Copala Triqui
- Triqui language picture dictionary
- Triqui resources from Hollenbach
- Triqui resources from SIL
- Triqui resources native-languages.org