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Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE.
|IPA||[jadanà θóʊɴ bá]|
|Lao||ໄຕແກ້ວ (tài kɛ̂ːu) / ໄຕລັດ (tài lāt)|
|Khmer||ព្រះរតនត្រ័យ (preah roattanak-tray), ព្រះត្រៃរ័ត្ន (preah tray-roat)|
|Sinhalese||තෙරුවන් (theruwan) or තුරුණුවන් (thurunawan)|
|Sanskrit||त्रिरत्न (triratna), रत्नत्रय (ratna-traya)|
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The Triratna symbol is composed of:
The Triratna can be found on frieze sculptures at Sanchi as the symbol crowning a flag standard (2nd century BCE), as a symbol of the Buddha installed on the Buddha's throne (2nd century BCE), as the crowning decorative symbol on the later gates at the stupa in Sanchi (2nd century CE), or, very often on the Buddha footprint (starting from the 1st century CE).
The triratna symbol is also called nandipada, or "bull's hoof", by Hindus.
A number of examples of the triratna symbol appear on historical coins of Buddhist kingdoms in the Indian subcontinent. For example, the triratna appears on the first century BCE coins of the Kuninda Kingdom in the northern Punjab. It also surmounts the depictions of stupas, on some the coins of Abdagases I of the Indo-Kingdom of the first century CE and on the coins of the Kushan Empire, such as those coined by Vima Kadphises, also of the first century.
Examples of Triratna
- Refuge : An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha. Thanissaro Bhikkhu : Third edition, revised, 2001
- "ガンダーラ美術の見方" (The art of Gandhara), Yamada Kihito, ISBN 4-89806-106-0