List of troglobites

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A troglobite is an animal that lives entirely in the dark parts of caves. (Not to be confused with troglodyte.) Roughly speaking, troglobites may be classed as troglofauna (the land-dwelling species) and stygofauna (the aquatic species).

Troglobites typically have evolutionary adaptations to cave life. Examples of such adaptations include slow metabolism, loss of sight, and loss of skin pigment. Conversely, as opposed to lost or reduced functions, many species have extreme sensory adaptations for sense of touch or other stimuli that do not depend on light. Such adaptations may take the form of long antennae or sensory hairs, and other types of sensors, particularly chemosensory and auditory organs. Troglobites commonly do not survive well outside caves and therefore cannot travel between separate cave systems. As a result many species are endemic to a single cave or system of caves.

Strictly speaking, in contrast to troglobites, creatures that shelter in caves but go out to feed, are trogloxenes. Examples of trogloxenes include both nocturnal species such as cave-dwelling bats, and diurnal animals such as cave swallows.

Mollusca[edit]

Velvet worms[edit]

Arthropoda[edit]

Arachnida[edit]

Myriapoda[edit]

Millipedes
Centipedes

Crustacea[edit]

Insecta[edit]

See Cave insects

Fish[edit]

Main article: Cavefish

Amphibians[edit]

Mammals[edit]

There are no known mammals that live exclusively in caves. Most bats sleep in caves during the day and hunt at night, but they are considered troglophiles or trogloxenes. However some fossorials which spend their whole lives underground might be considered subterranean fauna, although they are not true troglofauna as they do not live in caves.

Reptiles[edit]

Birds[edit]

There are no known birds that live exclusively in caves.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b United States Fish and Wildlife Service (April 9, 2003). "50 CFR Part 17. RIN 1018–AH01. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Kauai Cave Wolf Spider and Kauai Cave Amphipod" (PDF). Federal Register 68 (68): 17430–17470. 
  2. ^ Jeff Powell (August 29, 2006). "Alabama Cave Shrimp (Palaemonias alabamae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved October 10, 2010. 
  3. ^ K. A. Crandall & J. Cordeiro (2010). "Procambarus delicatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 5, 2010. 
  4. ^ K. A. Crandall (2010). "Cambarus pecki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  5. ^ M. Tsurnamal (2008). "A new species of the stygobiotic blind prawn Typhlocaris Calman, 1909 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Typhlocaridinae) from Israel". Crustaceana 81 (4): 487–501. doi:10.1163/156854008783797534. 
  6. ^ Fernando Alvarez, Thomas M. Iliffe & José Luis Villalobos (2006). "Macromaxillocarididae, a new family of stenopodidean shrimp from an anchialine cave in the Bahamas, with the description of Macromaxillocaris bahamaensis, n. gen., n. sp." (PDF). Journal of Crustacean Biology 26 (3): 366–378. doi:10.1651/C-2658.1.