Trois petites liturgies de la présence divine
Trois petites liturgies de la présence divine (in English, Three Small Liturgies of the Divine Presence) is a piece by Olivier Messiaen for women's voices, piano solo, ondes Martenot, and orchestra (without winds), in three movements. The libretto for the piece was written by Messiaen himself.
Composition and premiere
Trois petites liturgies was commissioned by Denise Tual for the Concerts de la Pléiade in Paris and composed during World War II, between November 15, 1943, and March 15, 1944. Messiaen originally conceived the piece as a work for two pianos, as he had achieved success in that format previously with Visions de l'amen. The sung words evoke the presence of God in himself and in all things, as indicated by the title. According to Messiaen, each movement describes a different facet of God's presence:
The principal idea is that of the divine presence, with each section dedicated to a different kind of presence. The first section, 'Antienne de la conversation intérieure' ('Antiphon of the Interior Conversation') is dedicated to the God who is present within us; the second section, 'Sequence du verbe, cantique divin' ('Sequence of the Word, Divine Song') is dedicated to the God who is present in Himself; and the third section, 'Psalmodie de l’ubiquité par amour' (Psalmody of the Ubiquity of Love) is inscribed to the God who is present in all things. These inexpressible ideas are not expressed but remain of the order of a dazzling display of color.
The work was premiered during the Concerts de la Pléiade at the Ancien Conservatoire on April 21, 1945, by Ginette Martenot (ondes Martenot), Yvonne Loriod (piano), the Yvonne Gouverné Chorale, and the Orchestra of the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, under the direction of Roger Désormière.
The audience present at the premiere included such respected persons as Arthur Honegger, Georges Auric, Francis Poulenc, Henri Sauguet, Roland-Manuel, André Jolivet, Claude Delvincourt, Lazare Lévy, Daniel-Lesur, Irène Joachim, Maurice Gendron, Jean Wiener, Georges Braque, Paul Eluard, Pierre Reverdy, Pierre Boulez, Serge Nigg, and Pierre Henry. Although the piece was well received by the public, the critics reacted more harshly. The work sparked a controversy which came to be known as "bataille des liturgies". The two primary points of contention were "the quality and relevance of Messiaen's commentaries" and the use of "unusual sounds" for expressing religious themes. Claude Rostand responded particularly vehemently at the premiere, describing the work as a "work of tinsel, false magnificence and pseudo-mysticism, this work with dirty nails and clammy hands, with bloated complexion and unhealthy flab, replete with noxious matter, looking about anxiously like an angel wearing lipstick." Years later Rostand would write  that the premiere agitated musical Paris in a frenzy, partly caused by the end of German Occupation, and never seen since the heyday of Stravinsky, with Messiaen "acclaimed and crucified at the same time". In spite of this, critical opinion now judges the work to be one of Messiaen's most accomplished yet undemanding, still rooted in tonality but foreshadowing his later experiments with birdsong, Hindu rhythms and plainchant.
- Antienne de la conversation intérieure (Antiphon of the Interior Conversation)
- A-B-A (ternary form)
- Séquence du verbe, cantique divin (Sequence of the Word, Divine Song)
- Strophic form with variations, refrains, and couplets alternating continuously
- Psalmodie de l'ubiquité par amour (Psalmody of the Ubiquity of Love)
The piece lasts approximately thirty-five minutes.
- Piano solo
- Ondes Martenot solo
- 36 female voices
- Percussion ensemble (vibraphone, celeste, suspended cymbal, tamtam, and maracas)
- Strings (8 first violins, 8 second violins, 6 violas, 6 cellos, and 4 contrabasses)
- Laurence Taylor (2002-04-28). ""Messiaen: Trois petites liturgies de la présence divine", Princeton Symphony Orchestra Program" (PDF). Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. .
- Peter Hill; Nigel Simeone (2005). Messiaen. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 0-300-10907-5.
- Roger Nichols, Messiaen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 40.
- Andrew Shenton, "Olivier Messiaen: Trois Petites Liturgies de la Présence divine, Boston Symphony Orchestra Program Notes (Friday, November 28, and Saturday, November 29, 2008): 2–4. (archive from July 19, 2011, accessed July 26, 2014).
- Rostand, Claude (1957). Olivier Messiaen. Paris: Ventadour. p. 9.
- Nichols, p. 41