Trolleybuses in London
|London trolleybus system|
|Open||16 May 1931|
|Close||8 May 1962|
|Operator(s)||London United Tramways|
London Passenger Transport Board
London Transport Executive
Trolleybuses served the London Passenger Transport Area from 1931 until 1962. For much of its existence, the London system was the largest in the world. It peaked at 68 routes, with a maximum fleet of 1,811 trolleybuses.
In 1933, LUT was absorbed into the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) along with other tram operators. The LPTB decided to replace all trams with trolleybuses. This started in October 1935 with two more former LUT routes, and continued in stages until June 1940, when it was suspended because of World War II. By then, nearly all the trams north of the River Thames had been replaced, but there were still 1,100 trams in use in South London. In 1946, it was decided that the remaining trams would be replaced by diesel buses. Trolleybuses were bigger than diesel buses (70 seats compared to 56), and so more diesel buses would be required. It was thought, however, that there would be fewer uncollected fares on the smaller vehicles.
In 1948, a new batch of 77 trolleybuses replaced the Diddlers and those trolleybuses that had been destroyed by enemy action. A further 50 new trolleybuses were delivered in 1952 to replace the oldest vehicles, which were then 16 years old.
In 1954, it was announced that all trolleybuses were to be replaced by diesel buses, with the exception of the post-war vehicles, which would be retained until about 1970 and run over the original LUT routes. Conversion began in 1959, using AEC Regent III RT buses for the first three stages and new AEC Routemasters for the remainder.
The trolleybuses were designed and built specifically to be worthy tram replacements. Like the trams, they were large high-capacity double deckers, with rapid acceleration. They had three axles (necessary as 30 feet long), and were much quieter in operation than contemporary trams or diesel buses. Trolleybuses were built on AEC, Leyland and British United Traction chassis.
Apart from the Diddlers and a few experimental vehicles, most London trolleybuses were near-identical. There was an exception: in 1941 and 1943 London Transport acquired 43 trolleybuses that had been ordered for South Africa but could not be shipped there because of the war. These vehicles were allocated to Ilford depot.
One experimental vehicle was proposed to be the forerunner of a fleet that would use the Kingsway tramway subway, but the change of policy after the war meant that this was never carried out.
Some trolleybuses are now preserved in the United Kingdom by the East Anglia Transport Museum, the London Transport Museum, the London Bus Museum and The Trolleybus Museum at Sandtoft. One of the 1948 vehicles has also been repatriated from Spain.
List of routes
- 513: Hampstead Heath - Parliament Hill Fields
- 517: North Finchley - Holborn
- 521: Holborn - North Finchley
- 543: Holborn - Wood Green
- 555: Bloomsbury - Leyton
- 557: Chingford Mount - Liverpool Street
- 567: Barking - Smithfield
- 569: Aldgate - North Woolwich
- 581: Bloomsbury - Woodford
- 601: Twickenham - Tolworth
- 602: Dittons - Kingston loop
- 603: Tolworth - Kingston loop
- 604: Hampton Court Palace - Wimbledon
- 605: Teddington - Wimbledon
- 607: Uxbridge - Shepherds Bush
- 609: Barnet - Highgate
- 609: Moorgate - Barnet
- 611: Highgate Village - Moorgate
- 613: Parliament Hill Fields - Holborn
- 615: Parliament Hill Fields - Moorgate
- 617: North Finchley - Holborn
- 621: Holborn - North Finchley
- 623: Woodford - Manor House
- 625: Woodford - Winchmore Hill
- 626: Acton - Clapham Junction
- 627: Waltham Cross - Tottenham Court Road
- 628: Craven Park - Clapham Junction
- 629: Enfield - Tottenham Court Road
- 630: Harlesden - West Croydon
- 639: Hampstead - Moorgate
- 641: Moorgate - Winchmore Hill
- 643: Holborn - Wood Green
- 645: Canons Park - Barnet
- 647: Stamford Hill - London Docks
- 649: Waltham Cross - Liverpool Street station
- 649A: Wood Green - Liverpool Street station
- 653: Aldgate - Tottenham Court Road
- 654: Sutton - Crystal Palace
- 655: Acton Vale - Clapham Junction
- 657: Hounslow - Shepherds Bush
- 659: Waltham Cross - Holborn
- 660: North Finchley - Hammersmith
- 661: Aldgate - Leyton
- 662: Sudbury - Paddington Green
- 663: Aldgate - Chadwell Heath
- 665: Barking - Bloomsbury
- 666: Edgware - Hammersmith
- 667: Hammersmith - Hampton Court
- 669: North Woolwich - Stratford
- 677: Smithfield - West India Docks
- 679: Waltham Cross - Smithfield
- 685: North Woolwich - Walthamstow
- 687: Walthamstow - Royal Victoria and Albert docks
- 689: Stratford - East Ham circular via Plashet Grove & Green Street
- 690: Stratford - East Ham circular via Green Street & Plashet Grove
- 691: Barking - Barkingside
- 693: Barking - Chadwell Heath
- 696: Woolwich - Dartford
- 697: Chingford Mount - Docks
- 698: Woolwich - Bexleyheath
- 699: Chingford Mount - Docks
- Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia, p. 73. Yateley, Hampshire, UK: Trolleybooks. ISBN 0-904235-18-1.
- Short, Peter. "Former UK systems". British Trolleybus Society. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 84–95, 159. London: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-1647-X.
- London Trolleybus Routes, Hugh Taylor, Capital Transport, 1994
- Farewell to London's Trolleybuses, Michael H C Baker. Ian Allan Publishing, 1994
- London Trolleybuses to Go Commercial Motor 7 May 1954
- Last of London's trolleybuses Commercial Motor 13 April 1962
- "Trolleybus (1981/528)". London Transport Museum website. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Preserved British Trolleybus Fleet List trolleybus.co.uk
- South African Trolleybuses for London Commercial Motor 14 November 1941
- Zebedee, John (30 November 2010). "A List of Preserved Trolleybuses in the UK". British Trolleybus Society. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Hugh Taylor (1994), London Trolleybus Routes, Capital Transport, ISBN 9781854141552
- Trolley Bus Replacement program 1959 - 1962 London Buses
- Return of the trolleybus Autocar 18 December 2012
- Blacker, Ken (2002). The London Trolleybus. Volume 1: 1931–1945. Harrow: Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-260-3.
- Blacker, Ken (2004). The London Trolleybus. Volume 2: 1946–1962. Harrow: Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-285-6.
- Fairhurst, Doug (2014). A London Trolleybus Experience. Clophill, Bedfordshire, UK: Irwell Press. ISBN 9781906919672.
- Taylor, Hugh (2006). London Trolleybuses - A Class Album. Harrow: Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-302-0.
- Webber, Mick (1997). London Trolleybus Chronology 1931-1962. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-2528-2.
- Webber, Mick (2009). London Trolleybuses - a black and white album. Harrow: Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-333-4.
- Wyatt, Charlie (2008). Beneath the Wires of London. Harrow: Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-325-9.
Media related to Trolleybuses in London at Wikimedia Commons