A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore. In Old Norse sources, beings described as trolls dwell in isolated rocks, mountains, or caves, live together in small family units, and are rarely helpful to human beings.
Later, in Scandinavian folklore, trolls became beings in their own right, where they live far from human habitation, are not Christianized, and are considered dangerous to human beings. Depending on the source, their appearance varies greatly; trolls may be ugly and slow-witted, or look and behave exactly like human beings, with no particularly grotesque characteristic about them.
Trolls are sometimes associated with particular landmarks, which at times may be explained as formed from a troll exposed to sunlight. Trolls are depicted in a variety of media in modern popular culture.
The Old Norse nouns troll and tröll (variously meaning "fiend, demon, werewolf, jötunn") and Middle High German troll, trolle "fiend" (according to philologist Vladimir Orel likely borrowed from Old Norse) developed from Proto-Germanic neuter noun *trullan. The origin of the Proto-Germanic word is unknown. Additionally, the Old Norse verb trylla 'to enchant, to turn into a troll' and the Middle High German verb trüllen "to flutter" both developed from the Proto-Germanic verb *trulljanan, a derivative of *trullan.
In Norse mythology, troll, like thurs, is a term applied to jötnar and is mentioned throughout the Old Norse corpus. In Old Norse sources, trolls are said to dwell in isolated mountains, rocks, and caves, sometimes live together (usually as father-and-daughter or mother-and-son), and are rarely described as helpful or friendly. The Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál describes an encounter between an unnamed troll woman and the 9th century skald Bragi Boddason. According to the section, Bragi was driving through "a certain forest" late one evening when a troll woman aggressively asked him who he was, in the process describing herself:
Anthony Faulkes translation:
John Lindow translation:
There is much confusion and overlap in the use of Old Norse terms jötunn, troll, þurs, and risi, which describe various beings. Lotte Motz theorized that these were originally four distinct classes of beings: lords of nature (jötunn), mythical magicians (troll), hostile monsters (þurs), and heroic and courtly beings (risi), the last class being the youngest addition. On the other hand, Ármann Jakobson is critical of Motz's interpretation and calls this theory "unsupported by any convincing evidence". Ármann highlights that the term is used to denote various beings, such as a jötunn or mountain-dweller, a witch, an abnormally strong or large or ugly person, an evil spirit, a ghost, a blámaðr, a magical boar, a heathen demi-god, a demon, a brunnmigi, or a berserker.
Later in Scandinavian folklore, trolls become defined as a particular type of being. Numerous tales are recorded about trolls in which they are frequently described as being extremely old, very strong, but slow and dim-witted, and are at times described as man-eaters and as turning to stone upon contact with sunlight. However, trolls are also attested as looking much the same as human beings, without any particularly hideous appearance about them, but living far away from human habitation and generally having "some form of social organization" — unlike the rå and näck, who are attested as "solitary beings". According to John Lindow, what sets them apart is that they are not Christian, and those who encounter them do not know them. Therefore, trolls were in the end dangerous, regardless of how well they might get along with Christian society, and trolls display a habit of bergtagning ('kidnapping'; literally "mountain-taking") and overrunning a farm or estate.
Lindow states that the etymology of the word "troll" remains uncertain, though he defines trolls in later Swedish folklore as "nature beings" and as "all-purpose otherworldly being[s], equivalent, for example, to fairies in Anglo-Celtic traditions". They "therefore appear in various migratory legends where collective nature-beings are called for". Lindow notes that trolls are sometimes swapped out for cats and "little people" in the folklore record.
A Scandinavian folk belief that lightning frightens away trolls and jötnar appears in numerous Scandinavian folktales, and may be a late reflection of the god Thor's role in fighting such beings. In connection, the lack of trolls and jötnar in modern Scandinavia is sometimes explained as a result of the "accuracy and efficiency of the lightning strokes". Additionally, the absence of trolls in regions of Scandinavia are described in folklore as being a "consequence of the constant din of the church-bells". This ring caused the trolls to leave for other lands, although not without some resistance; numerous traditions relate how trolls destroyed a church under construction or hurled boulders and stones at completed churches. Large local stones are sometimes described as the product of a troll's toss. Additionally, into the 20th century, the origins of particular Scandinavian landmarks, such as particular stones, are ascribed to trolls who may, for example, have turned to stone upon exposure to sunlight.
Lindow compares the trolls of the Swedish folk tradition to Grendel, the supernatural mead hall invader in the Old English poem Beowulf, and notes that "just as the poem Beowulf emphasizes not the harrying of Grendel but the cleansing of the hall of Beowulf, so the modern tales stress the moment when the trolls are driven off."
Smaller trolls are attested as living in burial mounds and in mountains in Scandinavian folk tradition. In Denmark, these creatures are recorded as troldfolk ("troll-folk"), bjergtrolde ("mountain-trolls"), or bjergfolk ("mountain-folk") and in Norway also as troldfolk ("troll-folk") and tusser. Trolls may be described as small, human-like beings or as tall as men depending on the region of origin of the story.
In Norwegian tradition, similar tales may be told about the larger trolls and the Huldrefolk ("hidden-folk") yet a distinction is made between the two. The use of the word trow in Orkney and Shetland, to mean beings which are very like the Huldrefolk in Norway may suggest a common origin for the terms. The word troll may have been used by pagan Norse settlers in Orkney and Shetland as a collective term for supernatural beings who should be respected and avoided rather than worshiped. Troll could later have become specialized as a description of the larger, more menacing Jötunn-kind whereas Huldrefolk may have developed as the term for smaller trolls.
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- In the fairy tale called Three Billy Goats Gruff, a troll resides under a bridge that the three goats must cross to get to the fields.
- In 1959, the Troll dolls were manufactured in Denmark. This later served as the inspiration to the DreamWorks Animation film Trolls.
- In Poul Anderson's novel Three Hearts and Three Lions, trolls are depicted as eight-foot-tall, man-eating creatures that are almost impossible to kill, since their bodies immediately re-knit and repair any damage, however severe. Even beheading a troll is of no avail: He would simply pick up his head and place it back on his neck and within a moment be "as good as new". A troll's only vulnerability is to fire. The only way to kill one is to cut him to pieces and burn each and every one of them before they had a chance to re-knit.
- Trolls are considered a nuisance in the 1988 high fantasy film Willow, with the title character expressing his disdain for trolls early in the film. Towards the climax, it is discovered that the castle of Tir Asleen is overrun by trolls with Madmartigan accidentally treading on troll scat. The transformed sorceress Fin Raziel instructs Willow to use Cherlindrea's wand against a threatening troll, transforming it into an eborsisk, a giant two-headed, fire-breathing dragon-like monster.
- In The Lord of the Rings franchise, there are different types of trolls ranging from Stone Trolls (which turn to stone when exposed to sunlight), Two-Headed Trolls, Hill Trolls, Cave Trolls, Mountain Trolls, Snow Trolls, and the Olog-Hai (the type of Trolls that can withstand sunlight).
- In Dungeons & Dragons, the Trolls are depicted as tall skinny humanoids with long noses, rubbery skin, a regenerating ability, and vulnerability to fire. Other types of Trolls include the Black Trolls, Blood Trolls, Cave Trolls, Crystalline Trolls, Desert Trolls, Fell Trolls, Fire Trolls, Forest Trolls, Giant Trolls (which is a crossbreed between a troll and a Hill Giant), Giant Two-Headed Trolls (which is a crossbreed between a troll and an Ettin), Gray Trolls, Ice Trolls, Mountain Trolls, Rock Trolls, Scrags, Slime Trolls, Spirit Trolls, Stone Trolls, Tree Trolls, War Trolls, and Wasteland Trolls. In addition, they keep the canine-like Trollhounds as pets in their tribes.
- In the Harry Potter franchise, the Trolls are strong creatures and are listed as XXXX by the Ministry of Magic's classification on them. There were different types of trolls, ranging from Forest Trolls, Mountain Trolls, and River Trolls. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Quirinus Quirrel had let a Mountain Troll into Hogwarts, which was defeated by Harry Potter. In the other books, there are Security Trolls that are skillfully trained to guard several wizarding locations.
- In Bridge to Terebithia, there is a female giant troll that resides in Terebithia.
- Trolls exist in the Warcraft franchise, though they are notably African in culture, practicing voodoo and speaking in Jamaican accents.
- Trolls are among the creatures that appear in the Ugly Americans animated television series.
- Moomintroll, the main character in the Moomins books by Tove Jansson, is a "moomin" — a little white troll with a big, round hippopotamus-like nose — a warm-hearted, highly sympathetic character, deliberately inverting the traditional image of trolls.
- The English family name Trollope is derived from the place-name Troughburn, in Northumberland, England,  originally Trolhop, Norse for "troll valley".
- Changeling, in Scandinavian folklore, a human baby is sometimes swapped with a troll child
- Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr, a Norse goddess whose surname sometimes contains the element -troll
- Orel (2003:410-411).
- Orchard (1997:167).
- Lindow (2007:22).
- Faulkes (1995:132).
- Ármann Jakobsson (2006).
- Ármann Jakobsson (2008).
- Simek (2007:335).
- Kvedelund, Sehsmdorf (2010:301—313).
- Lindow (1978:33—35).
- See Lindow (1978:89), but noted as early as Thorpe (1851:154) who states "The dread entertained by Trolls for thunder dates from the time of paganism, Thor [ . . . ] being the deadly foe of their race".
- Thorpe (1851:158, 154—156).
- MacCulloch (1930:223—224).
- MacCulloch (1930:219—223, 224).
- Narváez (1997:118).
- MacCulloch (1930:228 & 231).
- "The Guardian view on Moomintroll: a hero for our time". 16 December 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Big in Japan, but could America love Moomin?". Reuters. 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
- Hey: p.7
- Ármann Jakobsson (2006). "The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Bárðar saga and Its Giants" in The Fantastic in Old Norse/Icelandic Literature, pp. 54–62. Available online at dur.ac.uk (archived version from March 4, 2007)
- Ármann Jakobsson (2008). "The Trollish Acts of Þorgrímr the Witch: The Meanings of Troll and Ergi in Medieval Iceland" in Saga-Book 32 (2008), 39–68.
- Kvideland, Reimund. Sehmsdorf, Henning K. (editors) (2010). Scandinavian Folk Belief and Legend. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-1967-2
- Lindow, John (1978). Swedish Folktales and Legends. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03520-8
- Lindow, John (2007). "Narrative Worlds, Human Environments, and Poets: The Case of Bragi" as published in Andrén, Anders. Jennbert, Kristina. Raudvere, Catharina. Old Norse Religion in Long-Term Perspectives. Nordic Academic Press. ISBN 978-91-89116-81-8 (google book)
- MacCulloch, John Arnott (1930). Eddic Mythology, The Mythology of All Races In Thirteen volumes, Vol. II. Cooper Square Publishers.
- Narváez, Peter (1997). The Good People: New Fairylore Essays (The pages referenced are from a paper by Alan Bruford entitled "Trolls, Hillfolk, Finns, and Picts: The Identity of the Good Neighbors in Orkney and Shetland"). University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-0939-8
- Orchard, Andy (1997). Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-34520-2
- Orel, Vladimir (2003). A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill. ISBN 9004128751
- Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. D.S. Brewer ISBN 0-85991-513-1
- Thorpe, Benjamin (1851). Northern Mythology, Compromising the Principal Traditions and Superstitions of Scandinavia, North Germany, and the Netherlands: Compiled from Original and Other Sources. In three Volumes. Scandinavian Popular Traditions and Superstitions, Volume 2. Lumley.
Media related to trolls at Wikimedia Commons