Troop engagements of the American Civil War, 1862

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The following is a list of engagements that took place in 1862 during the American Civil War. During the winter and early spring of the year, Union forces gained several successes over the Confederacy, seizing control of Missouri, northern Arkansas, Kentucky, and western Tennessee, along with several coastal areas. Confederate forces defended the capital of Richmond, Virginia, from Union assaults, and then launched counter–offensives into Kentucky and Maryland, both of which end in Union victories.

History[edit]

In the Eastern Theater, the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General George B. McClellan, was transported to Fort Monroe in April to begin an offensive against Richmond, Virginia. Convinced that he was outnumbered by the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston, McClellan advanced cautiously, taking nearly a month to capture the Confederate defensive works near Yorktown and an additional month to march westward and arrive just outside Richmond.[1] Here on May 31, Johnston attacked an isolated portion of the Union army in the Battle of Seven Pines; Johnston's plan failed, due to uncoordinated attacks and to Confederate columns which failed to arrive at their assigned positions, and Johnston was wounded during the battle.[2] To replace Johnston, Confederate President Jefferson Davis choose General Robert E. Lee, who launched the Seven Days Battles in late June. While the Confederate attacks were often disjointed and several commands failed to arrive at their assigned destinations on time, Lee was still able to drive the Union army back to Harrison's Landing, forcing McClellan to give up his attempt to capture Richmond.[3] Although he had driven the Union army away from the Confederate capital, Lee was disappointed that he had failed to destroy the Union army.[4]

Lee then turned northward to deal with the Union Army of Virginia, commanded by Major General John Pope, planning to defeat Pope's army before it could unite with McClellan's army, which was arriving in northern Virginia from the Peninsula. During the Second Battle of Bull Run, Lee routed Pope's army[5] and then invaded Maryland, hoping to seize supplies from Union territory and also hoping that a major Confederate victory in Northern territory would secure foreign recognition for the Confederacy. However, McClellan attacked Lee through the passes of South Mountain and forced Lee to call off his planned invasion of Pennsylvania, instead concentrating his army behind Antietam Creek. Neither army gained a victory at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, but Lee's retreat back to Virginia gave the Union a strategic victory in the campaign.[6] During October and November, Union President Abraham Lincoln pressured McClellan to launch an aggressive campaign against Lee but McClellan refused, instead moving slowly and demanding supplies. Lincoln replaced McClellan on November 7[7] with Major General Ambrose Burnside, who hoped to cross the Rappahannock River near Fredericksburg, Virginia in order to get between Lee and Richmond. However, delays in obtaining a pontoon bridge prevented Burnside from crossing the river until December 11, by which time Lee was able to concentrate his entire army along a series of ridges near Fredericksburg. On December 13, Burnside attacked the Confederate positions and lost heavily; two days later he retreated back across the river and went into winter quarters.[8]

19th century lithograph picturing the Battle of Shiloh
Battle of Shiloh by Thure de Thulstrup.

In the Western Theater, the Confederate forces, commanded by General Albert S. Johnston, were forced to abandon Kentucky and much of central and western Tennessee following the loss of Fort Donelson and Fort Henry in February. The capture of the two forts turned the Union commander in the battles, Major General Ulysses S. Grant, into a national hero.[9] Johnston, following a plan proposed by his second-in-command General P. G. T. Beauregard, concentrated as many forces as he could near Corinth, Mississippi and attacked Grant's Army of the Tennessee near Shiloh Church. Although successful in driving the Union army almost into the Tennessee River on April 6, Johnston was mortally wounded during the battle, while Grant was reinforced during the night by the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Major General Don Carlos Buell. Grant then led a counterattack the following morning and drove the Confederates from the field, who then retreated back to their base at Corinth.[10] Major General Henry W. Halleck took command of the Union forces operating in western Tennessee and advanced to Corinth, where both armies settled in for a month-long siege. Fearing that a full scale Union assault on the Confederate defenses was imminent, Beauregard evacuated Corinth during the night of May 29–30 without Halleck's forces finding out until the following morning.[11]

Beauregard was relieved of command shortly afterwards, due to his health; Jefferson Davis replaced him with General Braxton Bragg. Following the Union victory at Corinth, Halleck dispersed his army across northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northern Alabama to protect the railroads, while sending Buell's Army of the Ohio eastward to capture Chattanogga, but problems with the Union supply lines prevented Buell from capturing the city.[12] Bragg, pondering how to counteract the Union threat, received a message from Lieutenant General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Department of East Tennessee, suggesting that the two combine forces to defeat Buell and retake Kentucky. Moving his troops by rail starting the end of June, Bragg arrived at Chattanooga near the end of July; from there he advanced into Kentucky towards the Ohio River.[13] Buell moved north as well, managing to reach Louisville before Bragg did; from there he moved south towards Bragg. The two armies met in battle near Perryville, Kentucky on October 8; Bragg's forces attacked Buell's left wing but without success. Bragg retreated that night and united with Smith, intending to remain in Kentucky, but when Buell threatened his line of retreat, Bragg move south for Tennessee.[14]

The Union navy, in concert with the army, captured several more coastal areas along the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf coast. Following the Union victory at Hatteras Inlet the previous year, other parts of the North Carolina coast, including New Berne, were captured; in April, Union forces attacked and captured Fort Pulaski in Georgia following a thirty hour bombardment, cutting off Savannah from blockade runners. This victory left Wilmington, North Carolina as the only major Atlantic port to remain in Confederate hands. Several ports in Florida and along the Gulf coast were captured as well, including Apalachicola and St. Augustine in Florida and Biloxi, Mississippi.[15] In April, a Union squadron commanded by Commodore David Farragut ran past Forts Jackson and St. Philip near the mouth of the Mississippi River and forced the surrender of New Orleans, the largest Confederate port city in both population and in trade volume.[16]

In the Trans-Mississippi Theater, the Confederates launched several offensive campaigns, all of which failed. In late January, Union Major General Samuel R. Curtis maneuvered the Missouri State Guard out of the state and into northwestern Arkansas; due to a shortage of supplies, Curtis had to halt his advance in the area of Pea Ridge. In response to the Union advance, Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Major General Earl Van Dorn to Arkansas to take command of the Confederate forces in the state. After he arrived in early March, Van Dorn launched an offensive of his own, which resulted in the two-day Battle of Pea Ridge, a Confederate defeat. After the battle, he was ordered to take his army east of the Mississippi River and join the Confederate army at Corinth, Mississippi, but he arrived too late to fight in the Battle of Shiloh.[17]

19th century lithograph picturing the Battle of Pea Ridge
Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., by Kurz and Allison.

In Texas, Brigadier General Henry Sibley raised a brigade of cavalry and led it into the New Mexico Territory, intending to drive the remaining Union forces from it and advance into Colorado, capturing the gold and silver mines located in the territory. He fought the main Union force in the territory, commanded by Colonel Edward R.S. Canby, at the Battle of Valverde on February 17; although the battle was a Confederate victory, Sibley failed to force Canby to surrender. Instead, Sibley continued northward, leaving Canby in his rear. Continuing northward along the Rio Grande and the Sante Fre Tail, his brigade meet a Union force, which included the 1st Colorado Infantry, at Glorieta Pass on March 28. The Confederates again drove the Union force from the field, but during the battle a Union detachment burned most of the Confederate supply train, along with most of their supplies. This meant that the Confederates had to retreat back to Texas, reaching it by mid-April, losing over 1,500 men out of an original force of 3,700 men.[18]

Engagements[edit]

Date Engagement Military units Losses Outcome
January 3 Cockpit Point, Virginia Confederate Department of Northern Virginia, Union Potomac Flotilla none[19] Inconclusive
January 5–6 Hancock, Maryland Confederate Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia, Union garrison 25 total[20] Inconclusive
January 8 Roan's Tan Yard, Missouri Missouri State Guard, Union Department of the Missouri Missouri State Guard 80, Union 11[21] USA
January 10 Middle Creek, Kentucky Confederate Army of Central Kentucky, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 65, Union 27[22] USA
January 11 Lucas Bend, Columbus, Kentucky Confederate CSS Grampus and two steamers, Union U.S.S. Essex none[23] Inconclusive
January 19 Mill Springs, Kentucky Confederate Department No. 2, Union Army of the Ohio. Confederate 350, Union 232[24] USA
February 6 Fort Henry, Tennessee Confederate garrison, Union navy Confederate 99, Union 47.[25] USA
February 6 Roanoke Island, North Carolina Confederate garrison, Union North Atlantic Blockading Squadron Confederate 2,643, Union 264[26] USA
February 14–16 Fort Donelson, Tennessee Confederate garrison, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 17,000 (including 13,829 prisoners), Union 2,852[27] USA
February 17 Little Sugar Creek, Arkansas Confederate forces, Union Army of the Southwest Confederate unknown, Union 33[28] Inconclusive
February 21 Fort Craig or Valverde, New Mexico Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico Confederate 187, Union 263[29] CSA
February 23 Socorro, New Mexico Confederate 5th Texas Mounted Rifles, Union 2nd New Mexico Militia unknown[30] CSA
March 6–8 Pea Ridge, Arkansas Confederate Army of the West and Missouri State Guard, Union Army of the Southwest Confederate 2,000, Union 1,384[31] USA
March 8–9 Hampton Roads, Virginia Confederate gunboat CSS Virginia, Union gunboats Monitor, Minnesota, Congress, and Cumberland. Confederate 24, Union 409[32] Tactically Inconclusive, Strategic: USA
March 14 New Berne, North Carolina Confederate garrison, Union North Carolina Expeditionary Corps Confederate 609, Union 476[33] USA
March 23 Stanwix Station, Arizona Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Union cavalry from California Column Confederate none, Union 1 wounded[34] USA
March 23 Kearnstown, Virginia Confederate Army of the Valley, Union division, V Corps Confederate 718, Union 590[35] Tactical: USA

Strategic: CSA

March 25 La Villa, Florida Confederate 4th Florida Infantry, Union 4th New Hampshire Infantry Confederate one, Union eight[36] CSA?
March 26–28 Apache Canyon and Glorieta, near Santa Fe, New Mexico Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico Confederate 227, Union 132[37] USA
April 5 – May 4 Yorktown, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 300, Union 182[38] Inconclusive
April 6–7 Shiloh, Tennessee Confederate Army of Mississippi, UnionArmy of West Tennessee, Army of the Ohio and U.S. Gunboats Tyler and Lexington. Confederate 10,699, Union 13,047[39] USA
April 8 Island No. 10, Tennessee Confederate Department No. 2, Union Army of the Mississippi Confederacy 3,017 (including 3,000 prisoners), Union 51[40] USA
April 8 Albuquerque, New Mexico Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico unknown[41] USA
April 10–11 Ft. Pulaski, Georgia Confederate garrison, Union South Carolina Expeditionary Corps Confederate 1, Union 1[42] USA
April 14 Fort Pillow, Tennessee Union mortar boats bombard Fort Pillow none[43] CSA
April 14 Las Padillas, New Mexico Confederate detachment from Army of New Mexico, Union New Mexico militia unknown[44] USA?
April 15 Picacho Pass, Arizona Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Union company of 1st California Cavalry. Confederate 6, Union 6.[45] CSA
April 15 Peralta, New Mexico Territory Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico Confederate 33, Union unknown[46] USA
April 16–28 Forts Jackson and St. Philip, Louisiana Confederate Department No. 1, Union West Gulf Blockading Squadron Confederate 782, Union 229[47] USA
April 19 Camden, North Carolina, also called South Mills Confederate garrison, Union detachment from North Carolina Expeditionary Corps Confederate 25, Union 114[48] CSA
April 25 Fort Macon, North Carolina Confederate garrison, U.S. Gunboats Daylight, Georgia, Chippewa, the bark Gemsbok, and North Carolina Expeditionary Corps Confederate 439, Union 3[49] USA
April 25 – May 1 New Orleans, Louisiana (surrender to Union forces) Union West Gulf Blockading Squadron none[50] USA
April 29 – May 30 Corinth, Mississippi Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union Army of the Mississippi, Army of West Tennessee, and Army of the Ohio Confederate 1,000, Union 1,000[51] USA
May 5 Williamsburg, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union III and IV Corps Army of the Potomac Confederate 1,582, Union 2,283[52] Inconclusive
May 7 West Point or Eltham's Landing, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 48, Union 186[53] Inconclusive
May 8 McDowell, Virginia Confederate Army of the Valley and Army of the Northwest, Union Mountain Department Confederate 500, Union 256[54] CSA
May 10 Plum Run Bend, Tennessee Confederate River Defense Fleet, Union Mississippi River Squadron Confederate four ships disabled, Union two ships sunk[55][56] CSA
May 15 Fort Darling, James River, Virginia Confederate garrison, U.S. Gunboats Galena, Port Royal, Naugatuck, Monitor, and Aroostook. Confederate 15, Union 24[57] CSA
May 15–17 Princeton, West Virginia Confederate Army of East Kentucky, Union District of the Kanawha, Mountain Department Confederate 16, Union 129[58] CSA
May 19 Whitney's Lane, Arkansas Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Southwest Confederate 150, Union 45[59] USA
May 19 South Mills, North Carolina Confederate garrison, Union division Confederate 25, Union 114[60] CSA
May 23 Front Royal, Virginia Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Shenandoah Confederate 56, Union 904[61] CSA
May 23 Fort Craig, New Mexico Confederate detachment Army of New Mexico, Union 3rd U.S. Cavalry Confederate unknown, Union 3 wounded[62] USA
May 25 Winchester, Virginia Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Shenandoah Confederate 400, Union 2,019[63] CSA
May 27 Hanover Courthouse, Virginia Confederate brigade, Army of Northern Virginia Confederate 746, Union 355[64] USA
May 27 Dragoon Springs, Arizona Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Chiricahuas unknown[65] CSA?
May 31 – June 1 Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac. Confederate 6,100, Union 5,000[66] USA
June 5 Tranter's Creek, North Carolina Confederate 44th North Carolina Infantry, Union 24th Massachusetts Infantry 40 total[67] USA
June 6 Memphis, Tennessee Confederate River Defense Fleet, Union Mississippi Flotilla. Confederate 180, Union 1[68] USA
June 6 Good's Farm near Harrisonburg, Virginia Detachments from Confederate Army of the Valley District and Union Mountain Department Confederate 67, Union 63[69] CSA
June 7 – 8 Chattanooga I, Tennessee Confederate and Union forces Confederate 3, Union unknown[70] USA
June 8 Cross Keys or Union Church, Virginia Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Mountain Department Confederate 288, Union 684[71] CSA
June 9 Port Republic, Virginia Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Rappahannock Confederate 800, Union 800–1,000[72] CSA
June 16 Secessionville, James Island, South Carolina Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South Confederate 204, Union 683[73] CSA
June 17 St. Charles, White River, Arkansas Confederate garrison, Union Gunboats Lexington, Mound City, Conestoga, and St. Louis. Confederate 40, Union 160[59] USA
June 21 Simmon's Bluff, South Carolina Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South none[74] USA
June 26 – July 1 The Seven Days Battles, Virginia : Including engagements known as Oak Grove, Virginia on the 25, Mechanicsville on the 26, Gaines' Mills on the 27, Garnett's and Golding's Farm on the 27 and 28, Savage Station on the 29, White Oak Swamp and Glendale on the 30, and Malvern Hill on July 1. Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 20,614, Union 15,849[75] Overall: CSA

---------------

Oak Grove:

Inconclusive

---------------

Mechanicsville:

Tactical: USA

Strategic: CSA

---------------

Gaines' Mill:

CSA

---------------

Garnett's and Golding's Farm:

Inconclusive

----------------

Savage Station:

Inconclusive

----------------

White Oak Swamp:

Inconclusive

----------------

Glendale:

Inconclusive

----------------

Malvern Hill:

Tactical: USA

July 3 Evelington Heights, Virginia (near Harrison's Landing) Confederate cavalry from Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac none[76]
July 7 Cache River, Arkansas Confederate cavalry, Union Army of the Southwest Confederate 272, Union 63[77]
July 13 Murfreesboro, Tennessee Confederate cavalry, Union garrison Confederate 150, Union 1,200[70]
July 15 Apache Pass, New Mexico Territory (modern-day Arizona) Apaches, Union California Column unknown[78]
August 6–9 Kirksville, Missouri Missouri State Guard, Union cavalry. Confederate 368, Union 88[79]
August 9 Cedar Mountain, Virginia Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia Confederate 1,400, Union 2,500[80]
August 11 Independence, Missouri Missouri State Guard, Union garrison. Missouri State Guard unknown, Union 344[81]
August 15–16 Lone Jack, Missouri Confederate and Union cavalry Confederate unknown, Union 272[82]
August 19 New Ulm, Minnesota Dakotas, Union civilians Dakotas unknown, civilians 59[83]
August 22 Big Hill, Kentucky Cavalry from Confederate Department of East Tennessee and Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 16, Union 270[84]
August 20–22 Fort Ridgely, Minnesota Mdewakanton Dakotas, Union garrison Mdewakanton Dakotas unknown, Union 26[85]
August 23 New Ulm, Minnesota Dakotas, Union civilians, militia Dakotas unknown, Civilians, Minnesota militia 10 killed, 50 wounded[86]
August 23–25 Rappahannock Station, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia 225 total[87]
August 26–27 Manassas Station, Virginia Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union detachments from Army of Virginia and Army of the Potomac Confederate 173, Union 1,144[88][89][90]
August 28 Thoroughfare Gap, Virginia Confederate Right Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union detachment, Army of Virginia 100 total[87]
August 28– 30 Second Battle of Bull Run or Manassas, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia (with units of Army of the Potomac attached) Confederate 3,353, Union 13,826[91]
August 30 Richmond, Kentucky Confederate Department of East Tennessee, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 603, Union 5,600[92]
August 30 Bolivar, Tennessee Detachments from Confederate Army of the West and Union Army of the Mississippi Confederate 100, Union 87[93]
September 1 Chantilly, Virginia Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia and Army of the Potomac Confederate 800, Union 1,300:[94]
September 1 Denmark, Mississippi Detachments of Confederate Army of the West and Union Army of the Mississippi Confederate 288, Union 88[95]
September 2 – 3 Birch Coulee, Minnesota Dakotas, Union Department of the Northwest Dakotas unknown, Union 19[96]
September 3 – 6 Fort Abercrombie, Minnesota Dakotas, Yanktons, and Yanktonais, Union Company D, 5th Minnesota Infantry Dakotas unknown, Union five[97]
September 12 – 15 Harper's Ferry, Virginia Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union garrison Confederate 286, Union 12,719 (including 12,500 captured)[98]
September 14 Turner's and Crampton's Gap, South Mountain, Maryland Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 2,300, Union 2,325[99]
September 14 – 16 Munfordville, Kentucky Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union garrison Confederate 285, Union 4,148[100]
September 17 Antietam, Maryland Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 10,300, Union 12,400[101]
September 19 – 20 Iuka, Mississippi Confederate Army of the West, Union Army of the Mississippi Confederate 594, Union 790[102]
September 20 Blackford's Ford, Sheppardstown, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union V Corps, Army of the Potomac Confederate 291, Union 363[103]
September 23 Wood Lake, Minnesota Dakotas, Union Department of the Northwest Dakotas 25, Union 41[104]
September 30 Newtonia, Missouri Confederate and Union cavalry Confederate 78, Union 245[105]
October 1 – 3 St. John's Bluff, Florida Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South unknown[106]
October 3–4 Corinth, Mississippi Confederate Army of West Tennessee, Union Army of the Mississippi. Confederate 4,312, Union 2,520[107]
October 5 Hatchie's Bridge or Davis Bridge, Tennessee Confederate Army of West Tennessee, Union Army of the Mississippi Confederate 337, Union 570[108]
October 8 Perryville, Kentucky Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 3,396, Union 4,211[109]
October 22 Old Fort Wayne, Indian Territory Confederate cavalry, Union division Army of the Frontier Confederate 60–100, Union 10[110]
October 31–November 2 Bloomfield and Union, Loudoun County, Virginia Cavalry from Confederate Army of the Potomac and Union Army of the Potomac. Confederate 18, Union 12[111]
November 2 Philomont, Virginia Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac. Confederate 13, Union 15[112][113]
November 27 Yellville, Arkansas Confederate garrison, Union cavalry Army of the Frontier Confederate 60 (all prisoners), Union none[114]
November 28 Cane Hill, Arkansas Confederate cavalry, Trans-Mississippi Department, Union 1st Division Army of the Frontier. Confederate 80, Union 44[115]
December 4 Reed's Mountain, Arkansas Cavalry from Confederate I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department and Union Army of the Frontier unknown[116]
December 7 Prairie Grove, Arkansas Confederate I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Frontier. Confederate 1,483, Union 1,251[117]
December 7 Hartsville, Tennessee Confederate cavalry, Union detachment from Army of the Cumberland. Confederate 139, Union 2,096[118]
December 13 Fredericksburg, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 5,300, Union 12,600[119]
December 14 Kinston, North Carolina Confederate brigade, Union Department of North Carolina. Confederate 525, Union 160[120]
December 16 White Hall, North Carolina Confederate cavalry, Union Department of North Carolina 150 total[121]
December 17 Goldsboro Bridge, North Carolina Confederate brigade, Union Department of North Carolina 220 total[122]
December 27-29 Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union XVII Corps Confederate 187, Union 1,176[123]
December 30 Parker's Cross Roads, Tennessee Confederate Forrest's Cavalry Corps, Union infantry and artillery Confederate 500, Union 237[124]
December 31 – January 2 Murfreesboro' or Stone River, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland Confederate 10,000, Union 13,000[125]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Foote, pp. 273, 399.
  2. ^ Foote, pp. 410, 444–450.
  3. ^ Foote, pp. 451, 481–514.
  4. ^ Burton, p. 391.
  5. ^ Foote, pp. 590, 633–641.
  6. ^ Foote, pp. 668–669, 703.
  7. ^ Foote, pp. 751–754.
  8. ^ Kennedy, pp. 144–148.
  9. ^ Foote, pp. 214–217, 305.
  10. ^ Foote, pp. 319–320, 333–348.
  11. ^ Foote, pp. 381–385.
  12. ^ Foote, pp. 390, 558.
  13. ^ Foote, pp. 572–575.
  14. ^ Foote, pp. 732–740.
  15. ^ Foote, pp. 351–353.
  16. ^ Foote, pp. 353–370.
  17. ^ Foote, pp. 278–293.
  18. ^ Foote, pp. 296–305.
  19. ^ Kennedy, p. 18–19.
  20. ^ Kennedy, p. 74.
  21. ^ Kennedy, p. 27.
  22. ^ Kennedy, p. 30.
  23. ^ Wegner, p. 30.
  24. ^ Kennedy, p. 32.
  25. ^ Kennedy, p. 44
  26. ^ Kennedy, p. 60.
  27. ^ Kennedy, p. 48.
  28. ^ Shea & Hess, pp. 42–43.
  29. ^ Kennedy, p. 39.
  30. ^ Frazier, p. 183.
  31. ^ Shea & Hess, pp. 270–271.
  32. ^ Kennedy, p. 88.
  33. ^ Chaitin, p. 37.
  34. ^ Frazier, p. 207.
  35. ^ Kennedy, p. 78.
  36. ^ Sheppard, p. 50.
  37. ^ Kennedy, p. 44.
  38. ^ Kennedy, p. 90.
  39. ^ Kennedy, p. 52.
  40. ^ Kennedy, p. 56.
  41. ^ Frazier, pp. 237–238.
  42. ^ Kennedy, p. 66.
  43. ^ Long, 1971, p. 200.
  44. ^ Frazier, pp. 241–242.
  45. ^ Frazier, p. 258.
  46. ^ Frazier, p. 248.
  47. ^ Kennedy, p. 58
  48. ^ Kennedy, pp. 61–62.
  49. ^ Kennedy, p. 61
  50. ^ Kennedy, p. 59.
  51. ^ Kennedy, pp. 52–56.
  52. ^ Sears, p. 82.
  53. ^ Sears, p. 86.
  54. ^ Cozzens (2008), p. 273.
  55. ^ Long, 1972, pp. 40–41.
  56. ^ Long, 1971, pp. 209–210.
  57. ^ Sears, p. 94.
  58. ^ Kennedy, p. 80
  59. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 38.
  60. ^ Kennedy, p. 62
  61. ^ Kennedy, p. 81
  62. ^ Frazier, p. 271.
  63. ^ Kennedy, p. 82.
  64. ^ Kennedy, p. 92
  65. ^ Frazier, p. 271
  66. ^ Kennedy, p. 93.
  67. ^ Kennedy, p. 62
  68. ^ Kennedy, p. 57.
  69. ^ Cozzens (2008), p. 439.
  70. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 122.
  71. ^ Kennedy, p. 84.
  72. ^ Kennedy, p. 87.
  73. ^ Kennedy, p. 69.
  74. ^ Kennedy, p. 70.
  75. ^ Burton p. 386.
  76. ^ Burton, pp. 282–283.
  77. ^ Shea & Hess, pp. 302–303.
  78. ^ Josephy, p. 274.
  79. ^ Kennedy, p. 133.
  80. ^ Kennedy, p. 107.
  81. ^ Kennedy, p. 133
  82. ^ Kennedy, pp. 133–134.
  83. ^ Josephy, p. 121.
  84. ^ Bennett, p. 19.
  85. ^ Kennedy, p. 135.
  86. ^ Josephy, p. 121.
  87. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 108.
  88. ^ Naisawald, pp. 64, 69.
  89. ^ Cheeks, p. 55.
  90. ^ Hennessy, p. 115.
  91. ^ Kennedy, p. 111.
  92. ^ Bennett, p. 50.
  93. ^ Cozzens (1997), p. 47.
  94. ^ Kennedy, p. 112.
  95. ^ Cozzens (1997), p. 48.
  96. ^ Josephy, pp. 129–130.
  97. ^ Josephy, pp. 131–132.
  98. ^ Kennedy, p. 115.
  99. ^ Kennedy, p. 117.
  100. ^ Kennedy, p. 123.
  101. ^ Kennedy, p. 120.
  102. ^ Kennedy, p. 129.
  103. ^ Kennedy, p. 121.
  104. ^ Josephy, p. 136.
  105. ^ Kennedy, p. 134.
  106. ^ Kennedy, p. 140.
  107. ^ Cozzens (1997), pp. 305–306.
  108. ^ Cozzens (1997), p. 292.
  109. ^ Kennedy, p. 127.
  110. ^ Shea, p. 40.
  111. ^ Longacre, pp. 154–155.
  112. ^ Longacre, p. 154.
  113. ^ Long, 1971, p. 284.
  114. ^ Shea, p. 74.
  115. ^ Shea, p. 104.
  116. ^ Shea, pp. 123–124.
  117. ^ Shea, p. 261.
  118. ^ Kennedy, p. 150.
  119. ^ Kennedy, p. 149.
  120. ^ Barrett, p. 144.
  121. ^ Barrett, p. 146.
  122. ^ Kennedy, p. 63.
  123. ^ Kennedy, p. 156.
  124. ^ Wills, p. 97.
  125. ^ Kennedy, p. 154.

References[edit]

  • Barrett, John G. The Civil War in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1963. ISBN 0-8078-0874-1.
  • Bennett, B. Kevin. "The Battle of Richmond, Kentucky: 'A Victory Brilliant and Complete'", in Blue & Gray, Volume 25, issue 6 (2009), pp. 6–26, 43–50. ISSN 0741-2207.
  • Burton, Brian K. Extraordinary Circumstances: The Seven Days Battles. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-253-33963-4.
  • Chaitin, Peter M. The Coastal War: Chesapeake Bay to Rio Grande. Alexandria, Virginia: Time–Life Books, 1984. ISBN 0-8094-4732-0.
  • Cheeks, Robert C. "Ewell's Flawless Performance at Kettle Run", in America's Civil War, Volume 13, Number 5 (November 2000), pp. 50–55. ISSN 1046-2899.
  • Cozzens, Peter. The Darkest Days of the War: The Battles of Iuka & Corinth. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8078-2320-1.
  • Cozzens, Peter. Shenandoah 1862: Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8078-3200-4.
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Volume I: Fort Sumter to Perryville. New York: Vintage Books, 1958. ISBN 0-394-74623-6.
  • Frazier, Donald S. Blood & Treasure: Confederate Empire in the Southwest. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-89096-639-7.
  • Hennessy, John J. Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN 0-671-79368-3.
  • Josephy, Jr., Alvin M. The Civil War in the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. ISBN 0-394-56482-0.
  • Kennedy, Frances H. (editor) The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
  • Long, E. B. The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971. OCLC 68283123.
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