Troop engagements of the American Civil War, 1862
The following is a list of engagements that took place in 1862 during the American Civil War. During the winter and early spring of the year, Union forces gained several successes over the Confederacy, seizing control of Missouri, northern Arkansas, Kentucky, and western Tennessee, along with several coastal areas. Confederate forces defended the capital of Richmond, Virginia, from Union assaults, and then launched counter–offensives into Kentucky and Maryland, both of which end in Union victories.
In the Eastern Theater, the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General George B. McClellan, was transported to Fort Monroe in April to begin an offensive against Richmond, Virginia. Convinced that he was outnumbered by the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston, McClellan advanced cautiously, taking nearly a month to capture the Confederate defensive works near Yorktown and an additional month to march westward and arrive just outside Richmond. Here on May 31, Johnston attacked an isolated portion of the Union army in the Battle of Seven Pines; Johnston's plan failed, due to uncoordinated attacks and to Confederate columns which failed to arrive at their assigned positions, and Johnston was wounded during the battle. To replace Johnston, Confederate President Jefferson Davis choose General Robert E. Lee, who launched the Seven Days Battles in late June. While the Confederate attacks were often disjointed and several commands failed to arrive at their assigned destinations on time, Lee was still able to drive the Union army back to Harrison's Landing, forcing McClellan to give up his attempt to capture Richmond. Although he had driven the Union army away from the Confederate capital, Lee was disappointed that he had failed to destroy the Union army.
Lee then turned northward to deal with the Union Army of Virginia, commanded by Major General John Pope, planning to defeat Pope's army before it could unite with McClellan's army, which was arriving in northern Virginia from the Peninsula. During the Second Battle of Bull Run, Lee routed Pope's army and then invaded Maryland, hoping to seize supplies from Union territory and also hoping that a major Confederate victory in Northern territory would secure foreign recognition for the Confederacy. However, McClellan attacked Lee through the passes of South Mountain and forced Lee to call off his planned invasion of Pennsylvania, instead concentrating his army behind Antietam Creek. Neither army gained a victory at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, but Lee's retreat back to Virginia gave the Union a strategic victory in the campaign. During October and November, Union President Abraham Lincoln pressured McClellan to launch an aggressive campaign against Lee but McClellan refused, instead moving slowly and demanding supplies. Lincoln replaced McClellan on November 7 with Major General Ambrose Burnside, who hoped to cross the Rappahannock River near Fredericksburg, Virginia in order to get between Lee and Richmond. However, delays in obtaining a pontoon bridge prevented Burnside from crossing the river until December 11, by which time Lee was able to concentrate his entire army along a series of ridges near Fredericksburg. On December 13, Burnside attacked the Confederate positions and lost heavily; two days later he retreated back across the river and went into winter quarters.
In the Western Theater, the Confederate forces, commanded by General Albert S. Johnston, were forced to abandon Kentucky and much of central and western Tennessee following the loss of Fort Donelson and Fort Henry in February. The capture of the two forts turned the Union commander in the battles, Major General Ulysses S. Grant, into a national hero. Johnston, following a plan proposed by his second-in-command General P. G. T. Beauregard, concentrated as many forces as he could near Corinth, Mississippi and attacked Grant's Army of the Tennessee near Shiloh Church. Although successful in driving the Union army almost into the Tennessee River on April 6, Johnston was mortally wounded during the battle, while Grant was reinforced during the night by the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Major General Don Carlos Buell. Grant then led a counterattack the following morning and drove the Confederates from the field, who then retreated back to their base at Corinth. Major General Henry W. Halleck took command of the Union forces operating in western Tennessee and advanced to Corinth, where both armies settled in for a month-long siege. Fearing that a full scale Union assault on the Confederate defenses was imminent, Beauregard evacuated Corinth during the night of May 29–30 without Halleck's forces finding out until the following morning.
Beauregard was relieved of command shortly afterwards, due to his health; Jefferson Davis replaced him with General Braxton Bragg. Following the Union victory at Corinth, Halleck dispersed his army across northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northern Alabama to protect the railroads, while sending Buell's Army of the Ohio eastward to capture Chattanogga, but problems with the Union supply lines prevented Buell from capturing the city. Bragg, pondering how to counteract the Union threat, received a message from Lieutenant General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Department of East Tennessee, suggesting that the two combine forces to defeat Buell and retake Kentucky. Moving his troops by rail starting the end of June, Bragg arrived at Chattanooga near the end of July; from there he advanced into Kentucky towards the Ohio River. Buell moved north as well, managing to reach Louisville before Bragg did; from there he moved south towards Bragg. The two armies met in battle near Perryville, Kentucky on October 8; Bragg's forces attacked Buell's left wing but without success. Bragg retreated that night and united with Smith, intending to remain in Kentucky, but when Buell threatened his line of retreat, Bragg move south for Tennessee.
The Union navy, in concert with the army, captured several more coastal areas along the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf coast. Following the Union victory at Hatteras Inlet the previous year, other parts of the North Carolina coast, including New Berne, were captured; in April, Union forces attacked and captured Fort Pulaski in Georgia following a thirty hour bombardment, cutting off Savannah from blockade runners. This victory left Wilmington, North Carolina as the only major Atlantic port to remain in Confederate hands. Several ports in Florida and along the Gulf coast were captured as well, including Apalachicola and St. Augustine in Florida and Biloxi, Mississippi. In April, a Union squadron commanded by Commodore David Farragut ran past Forts Jackson and St. Philip near the mouth of the Mississippi River and forced the surrender of New Orleans, the largest Confederate port city in both population and in trade volume.
In the Trans-Mississippi Theater, the Confederates launched several offensive campaigns, all of which failed. In late January, Union Major General Samuel R. Curtis maneuvered the Missouri State Guard out of the state and into northwestern Arkansas; due to a shortage of supplies, Curtis had to halt his advance in the area of Pea Ridge. In response to the Union advance, Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Major General Earl Van Dorn to Arkansas to take command of the Confederate forces in the state. After he arrived in early March, Van Dorn launched an offensive of his own, which resulted in the two-day Battle of Pea Ridge, a Confederate defeat. After the battle, he was ordered to take his army east of the Mississippi River and join the Confederate army at Corinth, Mississippi, but he arrived too late to fight in the Battle of Shiloh.
In Texas, Brigadier General Henry Sibley raised a brigade of cavalry and led it into the New Mexico Territory, intending to drive the remaining Union forces from it and advance into Colorado, capturing the gold and silver mines located in the territory. He fought the main Union force in the territory, commanded by Colonel Edward R.S. Canby, at the Battle of Valverde on February 17; although the battle was a Confederate victory, Sibley failed to force Canby to surrender. Instead, Sibley continued northward, leaving Canby in his rear. Continuing northward along the Rio Grande and the Sante Fre Tail, his brigade meet a Union force, which included the 1st Colorado Infantry, at Glorieta Pass on March 28. The Confederates again drove the Union force from the field, but during the battle a Union detachment burned most of the Confederate supply train, along with most of their supplies. This meant that the Confederates had to retreat back to Texas, reaching it by mid-April, losing over 1,500 men out of an original force of 3,700 men.
|January 3||Cockpit Point, Virginia||Confederate Department of Northern Virginia, Union Potomac Flotilla||none||Inconclusive|
|January 5–6||Hancock, Maryland||Confederate Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia, Union garrison||25 total||Inconclusive|
|January 8||Roan's Tan Yard, Missouri||Missouri State Guard, Union Department of the Missouri||Missouri State Guard 80, Union 11||USA|
|January 10||Middle Creek, Kentucky||Confederate Army of Central Kentucky, Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 65, Union 27||USA|
|January 11||Lucas Bend, Columbus, Kentucky||Confederate CSS Grampus and two steamers, Union U.S.S. Essex||none||Inconclusive|
|January 19||Mill Springs, Kentucky||Confederate Department No. 2, Union Army of the Ohio.||Confederate 350, Union 232||USA|
|February 6||Fort Henry, Tennessee||Confederate garrison, Union navy||Confederate 99, Union 47.||USA|
|February 6||Roanoke Island, North Carolina||Confederate garrison, Union North Atlantic Blockading Squadron||Confederate 2,643, Union 264||USA|
|February 14–16||Fort Donelson, Tennessee||Confederate garrison, Union Army of the Tennessee||Confederate 17,000 (including 13,829 prisoners), Union 2,852||USA|
|February 17||Little Sugar Creek, Arkansas||Confederate forces, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate unknown, Union 33||Inconclusive|
|February 21||Fort Craig or Valverde, New Mexico||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||Confederate 187, Union 263||CSA|
|February 23||Socorro, New Mexico||Confederate 5th Texas Mounted Rifles, Union 2nd New Mexico Militia||unknown||CSA|
|March 6–8||Pea Ridge, Arkansas||Confederate Army of the West and Missouri State Guard, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate 2,000, Union 1,384||USA|
|March 8–9||Hampton Roads, Virginia||Confederate gunboat CSS Virginia, Union gunboats Monitor, Minnesota, Congress, and Cumberland.||Confederate 24, Union 409||Tactically Inconclusive, Strategic: USA|
|March 14||New Berne, North Carolina||Confederate garrison, Union North Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 609, Union 476||USA|
|March 23||Stanwix Station, Arizona||Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Union cavalry from California Column||Confederate none, Union 1 wounded||USA|
|March 23||Kearnstown, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union division, V Corps||Confederate 718, Union 590||Tactical: USA
|March 25||La Villa, Florida||Confederate 4th Florida Infantry, Union 4th New Hampshire Infantry||Confederate one, Union eight||CSA?|
|March 26–28||Apache Canyon and Glorieta, near Santa Fe, New Mexico||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||Confederate 227, Union 132||USA|
|April 5 – May 4||Yorktown, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 300, Union 182||Inconclusive|
|April 6–7||Shiloh, Tennessee||Confederate Army of Mississippi, UnionArmy of West Tennessee, Army of the Ohio and U.S. Gunboats Tyler and Lexington.||Confederate 10,699, Union 13,047||USA|
|April 8||Island No. 10, Tennessee||Confederate Department No. 2, Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederacy 3,017 (including 3,000 prisoners), Union 51||USA|
|April 8||Albuquerque, New Mexico||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||unknown||USA|
|April 10–11||Ft. Pulaski, Georgia||Confederate garrison, Union South Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 1, Union 1||USA|
|April 14||Fort Pillow, Tennessee||Union mortar boats bombard Fort Pillow||none||CSA|
|April 14||Las Padillas, New Mexico||Confederate detachment from Army of New Mexico, Union New Mexico militia||unknown||USA?|
|April 15||Picacho Pass, Arizona||Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Union company of 1st California Cavalry.||Confederate 6, Union 6.||CSA|
|April 15||Peralta, New Mexico Territory||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||Confederate 33, Union unknown||USA|
|April 16–28||Forts Jackson and St. Philip, Louisiana||Confederate Department No. 1, Union West Gulf Blockading Squadron||Confederate 782, Union 229||USA|
|April 19||Camden, North Carolina, also called South Mills||Confederate garrison, Union detachment from North Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 25, Union 114||CSA|
|April 25||Fort Macon, North Carolina||Confederate garrison, U.S. Gunboats Daylight, Georgia, Chippewa, the bark Gemsbok, and North Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 439, Union 3||USA|
|April 25 – May 1||New Orleans, Louisiana (surrender to Union forces)||Union West Gulf Blockading Squadron||none||USA|
|April 29 – May 30||Corinth, Mississippi||Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union Army of the Mississippi, Army of West Tennessee, and Army of the Ohio||Confederate 1,000, Union 1,000||USA|
|May 5||Williamsburg, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union III and IV Corps Army of the Potomac||Confederate 1,582, Union 2,283||Inconclusive|
|May 7||West Point or Eltham's Landing, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 48, Union 186||Inconclusive|
|May 8||McDowell, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley and Army of the Northwest, Union Mountain Department||Confederate 500, Union 256||CSA|
|May 10||Plum Run Bend, Tennessee||Confederate River Defense Fleet, Union Mississippi River Squadron||Confederate four ships disabled, Union two ships sunk||CSA|
|May 15||Fort Darling, James River, Virginia||Confederate garrison, U.S. Gunboats Galena, Port Royal, Naugatuck, Monitor, and Aroostook.||Confederate 15, Union 24||CSA|
|May 15–17||Princeton, West Virginia||Confederate Army of East Kentucky, Union District of the Kanawha, Mountain Department||Confederate 16, Union 129||CSA|
|May 19||Whitney's Lane, Arkansas||Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate 150, Union 45||USA|
|May 19||South Mills, North Carolina||Confederate garrison, Union division||Confederate 25, Union 114||CSA|
|May 23||Front Royal, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Shenandoah||Confederate 56, Union 904||CSA|
|May 23||Fort Craig, New Mexico||Confederate detachment Army of New Mexico, Union 3rd U.S. Cavalry||Confederate unknown, Union 3 wounded||USA|
|May 25||Winchester, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Shenandoah||Confederate 400, Union 2,019||CSA|
|May 27||Hanover Courthouse, Virginia||Confederate brigade, Army of Northern Virginia||Confederate 746, Union 355||USA|
|May 27||Dragoon Springs, Arizona||Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Chiricahuas||unknown||CSA?|
|May 31 – June 1||Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac.||Confederate 6,100, Union 5,000||USA|
|June 5||Tranter's Creek, North Carolina||Confederate 44th North Carolina Infantry, Union 24th Massachusetts Infantry||40 total||USA|
|June 6||Memphis, Tennessee||Confederate River Defense Fleet, Union Mississippi Flotilla.||Confederate 180, Union 1||USA|
|June 6||Good's Farm near Harrisonburg, Virginia||Detachments from Confederate Army of the Valley District and Union Mountain Department||Confederate 67, Union 63||CSA|
|June 7 – 8||Chattanooga I, Tennessee||Confederate and Union forces||Confederate 3, Union unknown||USA|
|June 8||Cross Keys or Union Church, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Mountain Department||Confederate 288, Union 684||CSA|
|June 9||Port Republic, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Rappahannock||Confederate 800, Union 800–1,000||CSA|
|June 16||Secessionville, James Island, South Carolina||Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South||Confederate 204, Union 683||CSA|
|June 17||St. Charles, White River, Arkansas||Confederate garrison, Union Gunboats Lexington, Mound City, Conestoga, and St. Louis.||Confederate 40, Union 160||USA|
|June 21||Simmon's Bluff, South Carolina||Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South||none||USA|
|June 26 – July 1||The Seven Days Battles, Virginia : Including engagements known as Oak Grove, Virginia on the 25, Mechanicsville on the 26, Gaines' Mills on the 27, Garnett's and Golding's Farm on the 27 and 28, Savage Station on the 29, White Oak Swamp and Glendale on the 30, and Malvern Hill on July 1.||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 20,614, Union 15,849||Overall: CSA
Garnett's and Golding's Farm:
White Oak Swamp:
|July 3||Evelington Heights, Virginia (near Harrison's Landing)||Confederate cavalry from Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||none|
|July 7||Cache River, Arkansas||Confederate cavalry, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate 272, Union 63|
|July 13||Murfreesboro, Tennessee||Confederate cavalry, Union garrison||Confederate 150, Union 1,200|
|July 15||Apache Pass, New Mexico Territory (modern-day Arizona)||Apaches, Union California Column||unknown|
|August 6–9||Kirksville, Missouri||Missouri State Guard, Union cavalry.||Confederate 368, Union 88|
|August 9||Cedar Mountain, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia||Confederate 1,400, Union 2,500|
|August 11||Independence, Missouri||Missouri State Guard, Union garrison.||Missouri State Guard unknown, Union 344|
|August 15–16||Lone Jack, Missouri||Confederate and Union cavalry||Confederate unknown, Union 272|
|August 19||New Ulm, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union civilians||Dakotas unknown, civilians 59|
|August 22||Big Hill, Kentucky||Cavalry from Confederate Department of East Tennessee and Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 16, Union 270|
|August 20–22||Fort Ridgely, Minnesota||Mdewakanton Dakotas, Union garrison||Mdewakanton Dakotas unknown, Union 26|
|August 23||New Ulm, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union civilians, militia||Dakotas unknown, Civilians, Minnesota militia 10 killed, 50 wounded|
|August 23–25||Rappahannock Station, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia||225 total|
|August 26–27||Manassas Station, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union detachments from Army of Virginia and Army of the Potomac||Confederate 173, Union 1,144|
|August 28||Thoroughfare Gap, Virginia||Confederate Right Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union detachment, Army of Virginia||100 total|
|August 28– 30||Second Battle of Bull Run or Manassas, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia (with units of Army of the Potomac attached)||Confederate 3,353, Union 13,826|
|August 30||Richmond, Kentucky||Confederate Department of East Tennessee, Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 603, Union 5,600|
|August 30||Bolivar, Tennessee||Detachments from Confederate Army of the West and Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 100, Union 87|
|September 1||Chantilly, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia and Army of the Potomac||Confederate 800, Union 1,300:|
|September 1||Denmark, Mississippi||Detachments of Confederate Army of the West and Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 288, Union 88|
|September 2 – 3||Birch Coulee, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union Department of the Northwest||Dakotas unknown, Union 19|
|September 3 – 6||Fort Abercrombie, Minnesota||Dakotas, Yanktons, and Yanktonais, Union Company D, 5th Minnesota Infantry||Dakotas unknown, Union five|
|September 12 – 15||Harper's Ferry, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union garrison||Confederate 286, Union 12,719 (including 12,500 captured)|
|September 14||Turner's and Crampton's Gap, South Mountain, Maryland||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 2,300, Union 2,325|
|September 14 – 16||Munfordville, Kentucky||Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union garrison||Confederate 285, Union 4,148|
|September 17||Antietam, Maryland||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 10,300, Union 12,400|
|September 19 – 20||Iuka, Mississippi||Confederate Army of the West, Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 594, Union 790|
|September 20||Blackford's Ford, Sheppardstown, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union V Corps, Army of the Potomac||Confederate 291, Union 363|
|September 23||Wood Lake, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union Department of the Northwest||Dakotas 25, Union 41|
|September 30||Newtonia, Missouri||Confederate and Union cavalry||Confederate 78, Union 245|
|October 1 – 3||St. John's Bluff, Florida||Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South||unknown|
|October 3–4||Corinth, Mississippi||Confederate Army of West Tennessee, Union Army of the Mississippi.||Confederate 4,312, Union 2,520|
|October 5||Hatchie's Bridge or Davis Bridge, Tennessee||Confederate Army of West Tennessee, Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 337, Union 570|
|October 8||Perryville, Kentucky||Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 3,396, Union 4,211|
|October 22||Old Fort Wayne, Indian Territory||Confederate cavalry, Union division Army of the Frontier||Confederate 60–100, Union 10|
|October 31–November 2||Bloomfield and Union, Loudoun County, Virginia||Cavalry from Confederate Army of the Potomac and Union Army of the Potomac.||Confederate 18, Union 12|
|November 2||Philomont, Virginia||Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac.||Confederate 13, Union 15|
|November 27||Yellville, Arkansas||Confederate garrison, Union cavalry Army of the Frontier||Confederate 60 (all prisoners), Union none|
|November 28||Cane Hill, Arkansas||Confederate cavalry, Trans-Mississippi Department, Union 1st Division Army of the Frontier.||Confederate 80, Union 44|
|December 4||Reed's Mountain, Arkansas||Cavalry from Confederate I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department and Union Army of the Frontier||unknown|
|December 7||Prairie Grove, Arkansas||Confederate I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Frontier.||Confederate 1,483, Union 1,251|
|December 7||Hartsville, Tennessee||Confederate cavalry, Union detachment from Army of the Cumberland.||Confederate 139, Union 2,096|
|December 13||Fredericksburg, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 5,300, Union 12,600|
|December 14||Kinston, North Carolina||Confederate brigade, Union Department of North Carolina.||Confederate 525, Union 160|
|December 16||White Hall, North Carolina||Confederate cavalry, Union Department of North Carolina||150 total|
|December 17||Goldsboro Bridge, North Carolina||Confederate brigade, Union Department of North Carolina||220 total|
|December 27-29||Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi||Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union XVII Corps||Confederate 187, Union 1,176|
|December 30||Parker's Cross Roads, Tennessee||Confederate Forrest's Cavalry Corps, Union infantry and artillery||Confederate 500, Union 237|
|December 31 – January 2||Murfreesboro' or Stone River, Tennessee||Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland||Confederate 10,000, Union 13,000|
- Foote, pp. 273, 399.
- Foote, pp. 410, 444–450.
- Foote, pp. 451, 481–514.
- Burton, p. 391.
- Foote, pp. 590, 633–641.
- Foote, pp. 668–669, 703.
- Foote, pp. 751–754.
- Kennedy, pp. 144–148.
- Foote, pp. 214–217, 305.
- Foote, pp. 319–320, 333–348.
- Foote, pp. 381–385.
- Foote, pp. 390, 558.
- Foote, pp. 572–575.
- Foote, pp. 732–740.
- Foote, pp. 351–353.
- Foote, pp. 353–370.
- Foote, pp. 278–293.
- Foote, pp. 296–305.
- Kennedy, p. 18–19.
- Kennedy, p. 74.
- Kennedy, p. 27.
- Kennedy, p. 30.
- Wegner, p. 30.
- Kennedy, p. 32.
- Kennedy, p. 44
- Kennedy, p. 60.
- Kennedy, p. 48.
- Shea & Hess, pp. 42–43.
- Kennedy, p. 39.
- Frazier, p. 183.
- Shea & Hess, pp. 270–271.
- Kennedy, p. 88.
- Chaitin, p. 37.
- Frazier, p. 207.
- Kennedy, p. 78.
- Sheppard, p. 50.
- Kennedy, p. 44.
- Kennedy, p. 90.
- Kennedy, p. 52.
- Kennedy, p. 56.
- Frazier, pp. 237–238.
- Kennedy, p. 66.
- Long, 1971, p. 200.
- Frazier, pp. 241–242.
- Frazier, p. 258.
- Frazier, p. 248.
- Kennedy, p. 58
- Kennedy, pp. 61–62.
- Kennedy, p. 61
- Kennedy, p. 59.
- Kennedy, pp. 52–56.
- Sears, p. 82.
- Sears, p. 86.
- Cozzens (2008), p. 273.
- Long, 1972, pp. 40–41.
- Long, 1971, pp. 209–210.
- Sears, p. 94.
- Kennedy, p. 80
- Kennedy, p. 38.
- Kennedy, p. 62
- Kennedy, p. 81
- Frazier, p. 271.
- Kennedy, p. 82.
- Kennedy, p. 92
- Frazier, p. 271
- Kennedy, p. 93.
- Kennedy, p. 62
- Kennedy, p. 57.
- Cozzens (2008), p. 439.
- Kennedy, p. 122.
- Kennedy, p. 84.
- Kennedy, p. 87.
- Kennedy, p. 69.
- Kennedy, p. 70.
- Burton p. 386.
- Burton, pp. 282–283.
- Shea & Hess, pp. 302–303.
- Josephy, p. 274.
- Kennedy, p. 133.
- Kennedy, p. 107.
- Kennedy, p. 133
- Kennedy, pp. 133–134.
- Josephy, p. 121.
- Bennett, p. 19.
- Kennedy, p. 135.
- Josephy, p. 121.
- Kennedy, p. 108.
- Naisawald, pp. 64, 69.
- Cheeks, p. 55.
- Hennessy, p. 115.
- Kennedy, p. 111.
- Bennett, p. 50.
- Cozzens (1997), p. 47.
- Kennedy, p. 112.
- Cozzens (1997), p. 48.
- Josephy, pp. 129–130.
- Josephy, pp. 131–132.
- Kennedy, p. 115.
- Kennedy, p. 117.
- Kennedy, p. 123.
- Kennedy, p. 120.
- Kennedy, p. 129.
- Kennedy, p. 121.
- Josephy, p. 136.
- Kennedy, p. 134.
- Kennedy, p. 140.
- Cozzens (1997), pp. 305–306.
- Cozzens (1997), p. 292.
- Kennedy, p. 127.
- Shea, p. 40.
- Longacre, pp. 154–155.
- Longacre, p. 154.
- Long, 1971, p. 284.
- Shea, p. 74.
- Shea, p. 104.
- Shea, pp. 123–124.
- Shea, p. 261.
- Kennedy, p. 150.
- Kennedy, p. 149.
- Barrett, p. 144.
- Barrett, p. 146.
- Kennedy, p. 63.
- Kennedy, p. 156.
- Wills, p. 97.
- Kennedy, p. 154.
- Barrett, John G. The Civil War in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1963. ISBN 0-8078-0874-1.
- Bennett, B. Kevin. "The Battle of Richmond, Kentucky: 'A Victory Brilliant and Complete'", in Blue & Gray, Volume 25, issue 6 (2009), pp. 6–26, 43–50. ISSN 0741-2207.
- Burton, Brian K. Extraordinary Circumstances: The Seven Days Battles. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-253-33963-4.
- Chaitin, Peter M. The Coastal War: Chesapeake Bay to Rio Grande. Alexandria, Virginia: Time–Life Books, 1984. ISBN 0-8094-4732-0.
- Cheeks, Robert C. "Ewell's Flawless Performance at Kettle Run", in America's Civil War, Volume 13, Number 5 (November 2000), pp. 50–55. ISSN 1046-2899.
- Cozzens, Peter. The Darkest Days of the War: The Battles of Iuka & Corinth. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8078-2320-1.
- Cozzens, Peter. Shenandoah 1862: Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8078-3200-4.
- Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Volume I: Fort Sumter to Perryville. New York: Vintage Books, 1958. ISBN 0-394-74623-6.
- Frazier, Donald S. Blood & Treasure: Confederate Empire in the Southwest. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-89096-639-7.
- Hennessy, John J. Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN 0-671-79368-3.
- Josephy, Jr., Alvin M. The Civil War in the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. ISBN 0-394-56482-0.
- Kennedy, Frances H. (editor) The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
- Long, E. B. The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971. OCLC 68283123.
- Long, E. B. "Plum Run Bend: The Forgotten Battle", in Civil War Times Illustrated, Vol. XI, no. 3 (June 1972), pp. 4–11, 40–45. ISSN 0009-8094.
- Longacre, Edward G. Lee's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of Northern Virginia. Mechanisburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2002. ISBN 0-8117-0898-5.
- Naisawald, L. VanLoan. "Stonewall's Manassas Return", in America's Civil War, Volume 15, Number 5 (November 2002), pp. 62–69. ISSN 1046-2899.
- Sears, Stephen W. To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign. New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1992. ISBN 0-89919-790-6.
- Shea, William L. Fields of Blood: The Prairie Grove Campaign. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8078-3315-5.
- Shea, William L., & Earl J. Hess. Pea Ridge: Civil War Campaign in the West. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8078-2042-3.
- Sheppard, Jonathan C. By the Noble and Daring of Her Sons: The Florida Brigade of the Army of Tennessee. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-8173-1707-2.
- Symonds, Craig L. A Battlefield Atlas of the Civil War. Annapolis, Maryland: The Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1983. ISBN 0-933852-40-1.
- Wegner, Dana. "Commodore William D. Porter", in Civil War Times Illustrated, Vol. XI, no. 4 (July 1972), pp. 26–25. ISSN 0009-8094.
- Wills, Brian Steel. A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest. New York: Harper Collins, 1992. ISBN 0-06-016832-3.