Troop engagements of the American Civil War, 1863

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19th century lithograph depicting the wounding of Thomas J. "Stonweall" Jackson
Battle of Chancellorsville by Kurz and Allison (depicting the wounding of Confederate Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson on May 2, 1863)

The following engagements took place in the year 1863 during the American Civil War. During the year, Union forces captured the Confederate cities of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, giving them complete control over the Mississippi River, while forcing Confederates out of the North following the Battle of Gettysburg.

History[edit]

In the Eastern theater, the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Joseph Hooker, attacked the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia commanded by General Robert E. Lee in the Battle of Chancellorsville. Hooker planned to moved most of his army around to the Confederates's rear before Lee could react and force Lee to retreat but the Union army was slowed and then stopped by a small Confederate force, which was reinforced by the rest of the Confederate army. Lee then sent a flanking column led by Thomas J. Jackson around Hooker's left, which attacked a few hours before sunset on May 2; this attack and further Confederate attacks the following day forced Hooker to retreat on May 6. During the battle, Jackson was wounded by friendly fire and died several days later.[1] Lee reorganized his army following the campaign and launched an invasion of Union territory in June, moving through the Shenadoah Valley into Pennsylvania; Hooker was relieved of command on June 29, due to continuous disputes with the government over the garrison of Harpers Ferry, and replaced by Major General George Meade. During the Battle of Gettysburg from July 1 to July 3, Meade successfully held off Lee's attacks while inflicting heavy casualties in return. Lee was forced to retreat back to Virginia; Meade followed in close pursuit but was unable to find an opportunity to completely crush the Confederate army.[2] In October, Lee attempted to isolate and destroy Meade during the Bristoe Campaign but failed in an attack on Union positions at the Battle of Bristoe Station on October 14. Pressed by Union authorities, Meade also tried to attack Lee's positions along the Mine Run; however, Lee was able to establish a fortified defensive line across the Union line of advance. Meade judged the Confederate position too strong to attack and retreated.[3]

19th century lithograph of the Siege of Vicksburg
Siege of Vicksburg, by Kurz and Allison.

In the Western Theater, simultaneous Union offensives from northern Mississippi and eastern Louisiana resulted in the sieges of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, both along the Mississippi River. Ulysses S. Grant started the Vicksburg campaign near the end of April when he crossed the Mississippi River near Bruinsburg Landing, south of Grand Gulf. He then marched inland and captured the Mississippi state capital of Jackson before turning east to Vicksburg; this isolated the Confederate garrison from Confederate supplies and reinforcements. After a six-week siege, the Confederate garrison surrendered on July 4, followed by the surrender of Port Hudson on July 9; this resulted in the complete Union control of the Mississippi River and made Grant a hero in the North.[4] In central Tennessee, the Union Army of the Cumberland commanded by Major General William S. Rosecrans maneuvered the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by General Braxton Bragg, towards Chattanooga, Tennessee during the Tullahoma Campaign from late June to early July. In early September, Rosecrans launched another offensive which resulted in the capture of Chattanooga, an important Confederate rail center; however, a few weeks later Bragg, reinforced with James Longstreet's corps from the Army of Northern Virginia, attacked Rosecrans near the Chickamauga Creek and routed much of the Union army, forcing it to retreat back to Chattanooga. Stubborn resistance from the troops of George H. Thomas prevented the Confederates from launching an immediate pursuit. [5] Bragg settled his army into a siege of Chattanooga, almost completely cutting off all supplies to the Union army. Soon, dissension and arguments began to create tension in the Confederate army's high command; this resulted in Longstreet being sent to eastern Tennessee and a reorganization of the army in an attempt by Bragg to rid the army of his critics. Grant, promoted to command of the Military Division of the Mississippi, took command of the Union forces near the city, which was reinforced by the Army of the Tennessee and a detachment from the Army of the Potomac. During the three days from November 23 to the 26, Grant launched a series of attacks on the Confederate positions and was able to drive off Bragg's army. A rear guard action by Patrick Cleaburne at Ringgold Gap halted the Union pursuit long enough for Bragg to reach safety. A few weeks after the battle, Bragg was relieved of command by his own request.[6]

19th century lithograph of the Battle of Galveston
C.S. Bayou City captures the USS Harriet Lane during the Battle of Galveston

In the Trans-Mississippi Theater, only small battles and skirmishes took place. On January 1, Confederate forces led by Major General John B. Magruder recaptured the port city of Galveston, the only port city which the Confederates were able to recapture during the war. In order to cut off the Trans-Mississippi supply lines to Port Hudson, Major General Nathaniel P. Banks moved up the Bayou Teche in Louisiana during April. For the remainder of the summer, Confederate commander Major General Richard Taylor attempted to cut off Banks' supply lines to New Orleans but failed. In September, Union forces tried to invade eastern Texas to counteract the French invasion of Mexico but were defeated at Sabine Pass, losing two gunboats and 350 men while the Confederates suffered no casualties.[7]

Engagements[edit]

Date Engagement Military units Losses
January 1 Galveston II, Texas Confederate District of Texas, Union garrison Confederate 50, Union 600[8]
January 8 Springfield II, Missouri Confederate cavalry from District of Arkansas, Union garrison Confederate 240, Union 163[9]
January 9–10 Arkansas Post, Arkansas Confederate Department of the Trans-Mississippi, Union Department of West Tennessee Confederate 5,004, Union 1,092[10]
January 9–11 Hartville, Missouri Confederate cavalry, Union garrison Confederate 329, Union 78[11]
January 27 – March 3 Battle of Fort McAllister (1863), Georgia Confederate garrison, Union squadron from South Atlantic Blockading Squadron Confederate one, Union none[12]
January 29 Bear River, Idaho Union infantry, Shoshoni tribe Union 64, Shoshoni 250[13]
February 3 Dover, Tennessee Confederate cavalry from Army of Tennessee, Union garrison Confederate 855, Union 110[14]
March 4–5 Thompson's Station, Tennessee Confederate cavalry, Union infantry Confederate 357, Union 1,600[15]
March 13–15 Fort Anderson, North Carolina Confederate Department of North Carolina, Union garrison 7 total[16]
March 17 Kelly's Ford, Virginia Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 80, Union 99[17]
March 20 Vaught's Hill, Tennessee Confederate and Union cavalry Confederate 150, Union 38[18]
March 25 Brentwood, Tennessee Confederate cavalry division, Union garrison Confederate 3, Union 529[19]
March 30 – April 20 Washington, North Carolina Confederate Department of North Carolina, Union garrison 100 total[20]
April 7 Charleston Harbor I, South Carolina Confederate garrison of Fort Sumter, Union South Atlantic Blockading Squadron Confederate 14, Union 22[21]
April 10 Franklin I, Tennessee Confederate and Union cavalry Confederate 137, Union 100[22]
April 12–13 Fort Bisland, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union XIX Corps Confederate 450, Union 224[23]
April 13–15 Suffolk I, Virginia Confederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of Virginia unknown[24]
April 14 Irish Bend, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union division from XIX Corps Confederate unknown, Union 353[25]
April 17 Vermillion Bayou, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union XIX Corps unknown[26]
April 19 Suffolk II, Virginia Confederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of Virginia unknown[27]
April 26 Cape Girardeau, Missouri Confederate cavalry, Union garrison Confederate 325, Union 12[28]
April 29 Grand Gulf, Mississippi Confederate batteries from Army of Vicksburg, Union Mississippi squadron Confederate unknown, Union 80[29]
April 29 Snyder's Bluff, Mississippi Confederate artillery, Union Mississippi squadron unknown[30]
April 30 Day's Gap, Alabama Confederate and Union cavalry Confederate 65, Union 23[31]
May 1 Port Gibson, Mississippi Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 787, Union 875[32]
May 1–2 Chalk Bluff, Arkansas Confederate cavalry, Union infantry fewer than 100[28]
May 1–6 Chancellorsville, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 13,460, Union 17,304[33]
May 3 Fredericksburg II, Virginia Confederate division from Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union VI Corps and division from II Corps, Army of the Potomac Confederate 475, Union 1,100[34]
May 3–4 Salem Church, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union VI Corps and division from II Corps, Army of the Potomac Confederate 674, Union 1,523[35]
May 12 Raymond, Mississippi Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 442, Union 514[36]
May 14 Jackson, Mississippi Confederate garrison, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 850, Union 286[37]
May 16 Champion Hill, Mississippi Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 3,840, Union 2,441[38]
May 17 Big Black River Bridge, Mississippi Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 1,741, Union 276[39]
May 18 – July 4 Vicksburg, Mississippi Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 32,697 (29,495 surrendered), Union 4,835[40]
May 21 Plains Store, Louisiana Confederate Department of Mississippi, Union Department of the Gulf Confederate 100, Union 150[41]
May 22 – July 9 Port Hudson, Louisiana Confederate garrison, Union Department of the Gulf Confederate 7,500, Union 10,000[42]
June 7 Milliken's Bend, Louisiana Confederate division, Union garrison Confederate 185, Union 652[43]
June 9 Brandy Station, Virginia Cavalry corps from Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 515, Union 866[44]
June 13–15 Winchester II, Virginia Confederate Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union garrison from Middle Department Confederate 269, Union 4,443[45]
June 17 Aldie, Virginia Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 119, Union 300[46]
June 19 Middleburg, Virginia Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac unknown[47]
June 19 Ashby's Gap, Virginia Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac unknown[48]
June 20–21 LaFourche Crossing, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union garrison Confederate 219, Union 49[49]
June 21 Upperville, Virginia Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac unknown[50]
June 24–26 Hoover's Gap, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland Confederate unknown, Union 583[51]
June 28 Donaldsonville II, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union garrison Confederate 301, Union 23[52]
June 28 Near Fort Rice, North Dakota Party of Sioux Indians, Union Department of the Northwest Sioux three, Union one[53]
June 29 Oyster's Point (Camp Hill), Pennsylvania Confederate cavalry brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of the Susquehanna Confederate none, Union one wounded[54]
June 29–30 Goodrich's Landing, Louisiana Confederate cavalry, Union garrison Confederate 6, Union 150[55]
June 30 Hanover, Pennsylvania Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 150, Union 200[56]
June 30 Sporting Hill, Pennsylvania Confederate cavalry brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of the Susquehanna Confederate 35–45, Union unknown[57]
July 1–3 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 22,625, Union 22,813[58]
July 1–2 Cabin Creek, Oklahoma Confederate Cherokees and Texas cavalry, Union infantry Confederate 59, Union 21[59]
July 1 Hunterstown, Pennsylvania Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac unknown[60]
July 3 Fairfield, Pennsylvania Confederate cavalry brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, Union 6th U.S. Cavalry Regiment Confederate 44, Union 242[61]
July 4 Helena, Arkansas Confederate District of Arkansas, Union garrison Confederate 1,636, Union 239[62]
July 6 Williamsport, Maryland Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 254, Union 400[63]
July 7 Funkstown, Maryland Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac unknown[64]
July 8 Boonsboro, Maryland Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac 100 total[65]
July 9 Corydon, Indiana Confederate cavalry, Union militia Confederate 51, Union 360[66]
July 10 Funkstown, Maryland Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac 479 total[67]
July 10–11 Fort Wagner I, South Carolina Confederate garrison of Fort Wagner, Union Department of the South Confederate 12, Union 339[68]
July 12 Jackson, Mississippi Confederate Department of the West, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 50, Union 510[69]
July 12–13 Kock's Plantation, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union Department of the Gulf Confederate 33, Union 465[70]
July 14 Hoke's Run or Falling Waters, Maryland Confederate division from Army of Northern Virginia, Union cavalry from Army of the Potomac unknown[71]
July 16 Grimball's Landing, South Carolina Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South Confederate 18, Union 46[72]
July 17 Honey Springs, Oklahoma Confederate division from Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Border Confederate 134, Union 77[73]
July 18 Fort Wagner II, South Carolina Confederate garrison of Fort Wagner, Union Department of the South Confederate 222, Union 1,515[74]
July 19 Buffington Island, Ohio Confederate cavalry, Union infantry and cavalry Confederate 900, Union 25[66]
July 23 Manassas Gap, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac 440 total[75]
July 24 Big Mound, North Dakota Union Department of the Northwest, Dakotas (Sisseton and Wahpeton tribes) Union 7, Dakotas 80[76]
July 26 Salineville, Ohio Confederate cavalry, Union cavalry Confederate 364, Union none[77]
July 26 Dead Buffalo, North Dakota Union Department of the Northwest, Dakota (Sisseton and Yanktonais tribes) and Teton Lakota (Hunkpapa and Blackfeet tribes) Union 1, Dakotas and Lakotas 9[76]
July 28 Stony Lake, North Dakota Union Department of the Northwest, Dakotas and Lakotas tribes Union none, Dakotas and Lakotas unknown[78]
August 17 – September 8 Fort Sumter II, South Carolina Confederate garrison of Fort Sumter, Union Department of the South unknown[79]
August 21 Lawrence, Kansas Confederate guerrillas, Union civilians Confederate none, Union 150[80]
August 21 Chattanooga II, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland unknown[81]
September 1 Devil's Backbone, Arkansas Confederate and Union cavalry Confederate 17, Union 14[82]
September 3–4 Whitestone Hill, North Dakota Union Department of North Dakota, Dakota tribes Union 60, Dakotas 350[83]
September 5–8 Charleston Harbor II, South Carolina Confederate garrison of Fort Wagner, Union Department of the South Confederate 100, Union 117[84]
September 8 Sabine Pass II, Texas Confederate company of 1st Texas Heavy Artillery, Union gunboats from West Gulf Blockading Squadron Confederate none, Union 350[85]
September 8 Telford's Station, Tennessee Confederate Thomas' Legion, Union 100th Ohio Infantry unknown[86]
September 10 Bayou Fourche (Little Rock), Arkansas Confederate District of Arkansas, Union Department of Arkansas Confederate 64, Union 72[87]
September 10–11 Davis' Cross Roads, Georgia Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland unknown[88]
September 19–20 Chickamauga, Georgia Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland Confederate 18,454, Union 16,179[89]
September 22 Blountville, Tennessee Confederate cavalry, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 165, Union 27[90]
September 29 Stirling's Plantation, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union Department of the Gulf Confederate 121, Union 515[91]
October 6 Baxter Springs, Kansas Confederate guerrillas, Union Department of Kansas Confederate 3, Union 70[92]
October 10 Blue Springs, Tennessee Confederate cavalry, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 216, Union 100[93]
October 11 Henderson's Mill, Tennessee Confederate cavalry detachment from Department of Southwestern Virginia, Union 5th Indiana Cavalry unknown[94]
October 13 Auburn I, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac 50 total[95]
October 14 Auburn II, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac 115 total[96]
October 14 Bristoe Station, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 1,380, Union 540[97]
October 16–18 Fort Brooke, Florida Confederate garrison, Union East Gulf Blockading Squadron Confederate unknown, Union 16[98]
October 19 Buckland Mills, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac 230 total[99]
October 24 Washington, Louisiana Confederate District of West Louisiana, Union detachment from Army of the Gulf unknown[100]
October 25 Pine Bluff, Arkansas Confederate cavalry from District of Arkansas, Union garrison Confederate 40, Union 56[87]
October 28 – 29 Wauhatchie, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland Confederate 356, Union 216[101]
November 2 – 6 Brownsville, Texas Confederate District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, Union detachment from XIII Corps unknown[102]
November 3 Collierville, Tennessee Confederate and Union cavalry Confederate 95, Union 60[103]
November 3 Bayou Bourbeau, Louisiana Confederate cavalry from District of West Louisiana, Union XIII Corps Confederate 125, Union 154[104]
November 6 Droop Mountain, West Virginia Confederate Department of Southwest Virginia, Union Department of West Virginia Confederate 275, Union 140[105]
November 7 Rappahannock Station, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 2,041, Union 461[106]
November 16 Campbell's Station, Tennessee Confederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 570, Union 400[107]
November 23 – 25 Chattanooga III, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Military Division of the Mississippi Confederate 6,667, Union 5,815[108]
November 26 – December 2 Mine Run, Virginia Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 795, Union 1,633[109]
November 27 Ringgold Gap, Georgia Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Military Division of the Mississippi Confederate 221, Union 507[110]
November 29 Fort Sanders, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 800, Union 15[111]
December 14 Bean's Station, Tennessee Confederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 222, Union 115[112]
December 29 Mossy Creek, Tennessee Confederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate unknown, Union 151[113]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kennedy, pp. 197–199.
  2. ^ Kennedy, pp. 202–213.
  3. ^ Kennedy, pp. 251–259.
  4. ^ Kennedy, pp. 157–173, 181–184.
  5. ^ Kennedy, pp. 225–231.
  6. ^ Kennedy, pp. 241–248.
  7. ^ Kennedy, pp. 139, 179–180, 232.
  8. ^ Kennedy, p. 139.
  9. ^ Kennedy, p. 177.
  10. ^ Kennedy, p. 157.
  11. ^ Kennedy, pp. 177–178.
  12. ^ Kennedy, p. 190.
  13. ^ Josephy, p. 259.
  14. ^ Hurst, pp. 113–114.
  15. ^ Kennedy, p. 189.
  16. ^ Kennedy, pp. 194–195.
  17. ^ Kennedy, p. 196.
  18. ^ Kennedy, pp. 189–190.
  19. ^ Hurst, p. 115.
  20. ^ Kennedy, p. 195.
  21. ^ Kennedy, pp. 191–192.
  22. ^ Hurst, pp. 115–116.
  23. ^ Parrish, pp. 271–272.
  24. ^ Wert, p. 235.
  25. ^ Parrish, p. 274.
  26. ^ Kennedy, p. 179.
  27. ^ Kennedy, pp. 195–196.
  28. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 178.
  29. ^ Kennedy, pp. 157–158.
  30. ^ Kennedy, p. 158.
  31. ^ Kennedy, pp. 176–177.
  32. ^ Kennedy, pp. 158–164.
  33. ^ Sears (1996), p. 492, 501.
  34. ^ Sears (1996), p. 357.
  35. ^ Sears (1996), p. 385.
  36. ^ Kennedy, pp. 164–167.
  37. ^ Kennedy, p. 167.
  38. ^ Kennedy, pp. 167–170.
  39. ^ Kennedy, pp. 170–171.
  40. ^ Kennedy, pp. 171–173.
  41. ^ Kennedy, pp. 181–182.
  42. ^ Kennedy, pp. 182–184.
  43. ^ Kennedy, pp. 173–175.
  44. ^ Longacre, p. 87.
  45. ^ Sears (2003), p. 81.
  46. ^ Longacre, p. 109.
  47. ^ Kennedy, pp. 205–206.
  48. ^ Longacre, pp. 124–125.
  49. ^ Kennedy, p. 180.
  50. ^ Kennedy, p. 206.
  51. ^ Kennedy, pp. 225–226.
  52. ^ Parrish, pp. 301–302.
  53. ^ Josephy, p. 148.
  54. ^ Ney, p. 340
  55. ^ Kennedy, p. 175.
  56. ^ Longacre, p. 178.
  57. ^ Nye, p. 355.
  58. ^ Sears (2003), p. 496, 498.
  59. ^ Kennedy, pp. 218–219.
  60. ^ Longacre, p. 201.
  61. ^ Longacre, p. 236.
  62. ^ Kennedy, pp. 175–176.
  63. ^ Kennedy, pp. 212–213.
  64. ^ Wittenberg et al., pp. 167–169.
  65. ^ Wittenberg et al., pp. 173–183.
  66. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 216.
  67. ^ Wittenberg et al., pp. 207–225
  68. ^ Chaitin, p. 124.
  69. ^ Sheppard, p. 131.
  70. ^ Parrish, p. 304.
  71. ^ Wittenberg et al., pp. 282–299.
  72. ^ Kennedy, p. 192.
  73. ^ Kennedy, pp. 219–221.
  74. ^ Kennedy, pp. 192–193.
  75. ^ Kennedy, pp. 213–214.
  76. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 222.
  77. ^ Kennedy, pp. 216–217.
  78. ^ Kennedy, pp. 222–223.
  79. ^ Kennedy, pp. 193–194.
  80. ^ Josephy, p. 373
  81. ^ Kennedy, p. 226.
  82. ^ Kennedy, p. 221.
  83. ^ Josephy, p. 145.
  84. ^ Kennedy, p. 193.
  85. ^ Josephy, p. 184.
  86. ^ Crew, p. 42.
  87. ^ a b Kennedy, p. 233.
  88. ^ Kennedy, p. 227.
  89. ^ Cozzens, p. 534.
  90. ^ Kennedy, pp. 236–238.
  91. ^ Kennedy, pp. 180–181.
  92. ^ Castel, p. 160.
  93. ^ Kennedy, pp. 239–240.
  94. ^ Crew, p. 43.
  95. ^ Kennedy, pp. 251–252.
  96. ^ Kennedy, p. 252.
  97. ^ Kennedy, pp. 252–254.
  98. ^ Kennedy, p. 263.
  99. ^ Kennedy, pp. 254–255.
  100. ^ Parrish, p. 311.
  101. ^ Kennedy, pp. 241–242.
  102. ^ "BROWNSVILLE, TX". History. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved April 9, 2013. 
  103. ^ Kennedy, p. 241.
  104. ^ Parrish, pp. 312–313.
  105. ^ Kennedy, p. 240.
  106. ^ Kennedy, p. 255.
  107. ^ Kennedy, pp. 248–249.
  108. ^ Kennedy, pp. 243–246.
  109. ^ Kennedy, pp. 255–259.
  110. ^ Kennedy, pp. 246–248.
  111. ^ Kennedy, p. 249.
  112. ^ Wert, pp. 355–356.
  113. ^ Kennedy, p. 250.

Sources[edit]

  • Castel, Albert. Civil War Kansas: Reaping the Whirlwind. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997. ISBN 978-0-7006-0872-0.
  • Chaitin, Peter M. The Coastal War: Chesapeake Bay to Rio Grande. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1984. ISBN 0-8094-4732-0.
  • Cozzens, Peter. This Terrible Sound: The Battle of Chickamauga. Urbanna, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-252-01703-2.
  • Crew, Vernon H. "The Thomas Legion", in Civil War Times Illustrated, Vol. X, no. 3 (June 1971), pp. 40–45. ISSN 0009-8094
  • Hurst, Jack. Nathan Bedford Forrest: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. ISBN 0-394-55189-3.
  • Josephy, Jr., Alvin M. The Civil War in the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. ISBN 978-0-394-56482-1.
  • Kennedy, Frances H. The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. ISBN 978-0-395-74012-5.
  • Longacre, Edward. The Cavalry at Gettysburg: A Tactical Study of Mounted Operations during the Civil War's Pivotal Campaign, 9 June – 14 July 1863. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-8032-7941-4.
  • Nye, Wilbur Sturtevant. Here Come the Rebels! Dayton, Ohio: Morningside Bookshop, 1988. OCLC 38910989
  • Parrish, T. Michael. Richard Taylor: Soldier Prince of Dixie. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8078-2032-2
  • Sears, Stephen W. Chancellorsville. New York: Mariner Books, 1996. ISBN 978-0-395-63417-2
  • Sears, Stephen W. Gettysburg. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. ISBN 978-0-395-86761-7.
  • Sheppard, Jonathan C. By the Noble and Daring of Her Sons: The Florida Brigade of the Army of Tennessee. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-8173-1707-2.
  • Wert, Jeffry D. General James Longstreet: The Confederacy's Most Controversial Soldier – A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN 0-671-70921-6
  • Wittenberg, Eric J., J. David Petruzzi, and Michael F. Nugent. One Continuous Fight: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, July 4th–14th, 1863. New York: Savas Beatie, 2008. ISBN 978-1-932714-43-2.