Tropical Asia

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Tropical Asia refers to the entirety of the areas in Asia with a tropical climate. These areas are of geographic and economic importance due to their natural resources and biodiversity, which include many species of agricultural value.[1][2] There are 16 countries in tropical Asia, ranging in size from around 610 square kilometres (240 sq mi) (Singapore) to 3,000,000 square kilometres (1,200,000 sq mi) (India).[2] The total population as of 2006 was 1.6 billion, predominantly rural, and projected to reach 2.4 billion by 2025.[1][2] While mostly rural-based, in 1995, Tropical Asia included six out of 25 of the large cities in the world. Climate in tropical Asia is subject to seasonal weather patterns with the two monsoons and the amount of tropical cyclones in the three core areas of cyclogenesis (the Bay of Bengal, north Pacific Ocean and South China Sea). Stressors on the environment include growing urbanization, land industrialization, economic development, land degradation, environmental issues, and increased pollution, all of which are contributing to changes in climate.[1][2]


In tropical Asia, the distribution and character of the rain forest changes with elevation in the mountains. In Thailand, for instance, the area of tropical forests could increase from 45% to 80% of the total forest cover, while in Sri Lanka, a substantial change in dry forest and decrease in wet forest might occur.[1][2] With predictable increases in evapotranspiration and rainfall changeability, likely a negative impact on the viability of freshwater wetlands will occur, resulting in contraction and desiccation. Sea level and temperature rises are the most likely major climate change-related stresses on ecosystems.[1][2] Coral reefs might be capable of surviving this intensification, but suffer bleaching from high temperatures. Landward migration of mangroves and tidal wetlands is likely to be inhibited by human infrastructure and human activities.

Coastal lands[edit]

Coastal lands in particular are extremely vulnerable to sea-level rise as a result of climate change.[1][2] Densely settled and intensively used low-level coastal plains, deltas, and islands are particularly susceptible to coastal erosion and land loss, sea flooding and barrage, especially vulnerable to coastal erosion and land loss, inundation and sea flooding, upstream movement of the saline/freshwater front and seawater incursion into freshwater lenses.[1][2] Mainly at risk are large delta regions of Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand, and the low-lying areas of Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines.[1][2] Socio-economic effects may be noticeable to major cities and ports, tourist resorts, artisanal and commercial fishing and coastal agriculture, and infra-structure development. Global studies project that by 2100, up to 410 million people (59 per cent in tropical Asia) may be affected by a 1-metre rise in sea level.[3][4]


In tropical Asia, the Himalayas are crucial to the provision of water during the continental monsoon season in Asia.[1][2] Augmented temperatures and seasonal variability could cause a backdrop of glaciers and increasing danger from glacial lake outburst floods. Then, a diminution of average flow of snow-fed rivers, mixed with an increase in peak flows and sediment yield, could have major effects on hydropower generation, urban water supply and agriculture. Supply of hydropower generation from snow-fed rivers can occur in the short term, though not in the long term—run off snow-fed rivers might change as well. As stated before, an increased amount economic, agriculture, and industrial resources, can affect climate, but it can put an extra stress on water. Lower level basins are expected to be most affected. Hydrological changes on island and drainage basins will be relatively low to tropical Asia, despite those related to sea rise.

Food ration[edit]

The sensitivity of major cereal and tree crops, changes in temperature, moisture and CO2 concentration of the magnitudes estimated for the region has been done in many studies.[1][2] One instance is the influences on rice fields, wheat yield and sorghum yield imply that any increase in production associated with CO2 fertilization will most likely be offset by reductions in yield from temperature or moisture changes. Even though climate impression may result huge changes in crop yields, storage, and distribution., the continuing effect of the region-wide changes is tentative because of varietal disparity; local disparity in emergent season, crop management, etc. (the lack of inclusion of possible diseases, pests, and microorganisms in crop model simulations); and the vulnerability of agricultural (especially low-income rural population) areas to periodic environmental hazards such as floods, droughts and cyclones.[1][2]

Human health[edit]

The occurrence and level of some vector-borne diseases have risen with global warming.[1][2] Diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and dengue, which are significant causes of mortality and morbidity in tropical Asia, are very climate-sensitive and likely to spread into new regions on the margins of currently widespread areas as a result of climate change. Populations that are newly affected will initially experience higher fatality rates.[1][2] According to one study specifically focused on climate influences on infectious disease in presently vulnerable regions, a growth in epidemic potential of 12-27 per cent for malaria and 31 to 47 per cent for dengue and a decrease of schistosomiasis of 11-17 per cent are expected under a range of Global Climate Model (GCM) scenarios through climate change.[1][2] Waterborne and water-related infectious diseases, already accounting for the majority of epidemic emergencies in the area, are also expected to increase when higher temperatures and higher humidity are placed over on existing conditions and estimated upsurge in population, urbanization, deduction of water quality and other trends.[1][2]

Tropical rain forest resources[edit]

Edible plants[edit]

Tropical Asia has an abundance of edible resources.[5] The following section involves various edible resource plants.

Bananas are the most famous members of Musa with 21 species and edible subspecies.[5] Especially in the Mayan area, it is probably native to Southeast Asia and widely refined in the tropics.[5] Black pepper is vine to the East Indies—made by drying the whole fruit (peppercorn); white pepper is made by first hulling the fruit, then grinding. The majority of production is in India and Indonesia; outside the region, America is a chief importer. Four of the main cultivators of this plant are capsicum annuum: cayenne pepper, sweet pepper, paprika, and jalapenos grown in temperate regions.[5]

Native to India, cardamom is the most valuable spice.[5] Cashews, originally from tropical America, are a rich nut full of vitamins. Further on, cocoa/chocolate as well as the soft drink cola, is native to lowland tropical America, but is confined through the west African tropics. Citrus fruits are of the most valued fruits in tropical Asia. More than 55 million tons are sold annually, including oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, tangerines, and more.[5] The largest citrus is the pummelo. The scented flower buds of cloves come from a tropical evergreen tree native to Zanzibar, Madagascar, and Indonesia.[5] Coconuts are originally native to the Indo-Pacific area and are around every tropical area except rain forests. They can be used for oil, fruit, and fibers. Coffee, probably native to North East Africa, is grown throughout the tropics.[5]

In addition, grown throughout the tropics is mango, native to India (valuable in many parts) and from Southeast Asia (includes root tubers used as spice and perfumes). Mung bean is also native to India, is a potentially prosperous food.[5] Nutmeg comes from the trees of an island in Maluku. Mace is formed of nutmeg, and is used as spice. The peanut, native to South America, is commercially spread in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions—it is used as a chief source of oils and protein.[5] Another important tropical and subtropical plant is pineapple, likely domestic by the Guarani of Brazil and Paraguay during the Pre-Columbian Era. Continuing on, Sesame is an early African oil seed plant—grown primarily in Southeast Asia. Squash is native to many American tropics and is cultivated tropical and subtropical America and temperate zones. Native to Southeast Asia and cultivated in India, turmeric is dried, ground rhizomes, and produce the spice. Then of the legume family, tamarind, is thought to be originally from India. It is grown throughout the tropics and used as a table fruit, drink, preserves, and medicinal properties.[5] Vanilla is indigenous to tropical America, it is most commercially important of all the 35,000 species of orchid. It is made from the dried seeds of the rainforest orchid tree.[5] It is widely grown, especially in Madagascar.

Human-health plants[edit]

This is not an advertisement for these medicines, but a discussion of these plants.

Anise manages the upper respiratory problems like bronchitis, coughs, and stuffy noses. Moreover, it relieves upset stomach and aids digestion.[6] It is useful to curb flatulence and aids asthma. It also alleviates female organ troubles and conditions. Castor oil is a cathartic reliever. The practice is a poultice of warm oil soaked in wool flannel and applied with a heating pad (1 hour, 3 times a week) to cause relief of arthritis, calluses and corns, colds, colitis, cysts, gallstones, gout, headaches, hepatitis and warts, ichthyoids, indigestion, moles, seborrhea, nervous tics, varicose veins, even vertigo.[6]

Cocoa butter and coconut oil are good for the complexion.[6] Tropical vines such as yams and sweet potatoes also have these abilities and are good for eyes and intestines.[6] Cinnamon and turmeric help regulate blood sugar (triple the capability of insulin to metabolize glucose in the laboratory).[6] It is taken in small amounts on cereal: ½ teaspoon or so. Cloves also provide short-term pain relief, cure mild depression, are a sedative and sleep tonic, and help digestion. Corn silk cures kidney problems and cleanses them, and is a diuretic. Cumin has anti-cancer properties (known to increase a chemical in the body that protects against cancer). It blocks 83% of the chromosome damage usually caused by a cancer-causing chemical.[6] It is cooked with beans and lentils. The Seminole Maroons also use cumin seed tea to relieve labor pains.

Dandelion greens work to purify the system, especially during leisure. Garlic is supposedly a life span enhancer.[6] Its abilities include: lowering blood pressure, cold and flu prevention, internal vermin, diarrhea, blood sugar problems such as diabetes, pains in the muscles and joints, food poisoning, high cholesterol, urinary tract infections, heals wounds and yeast infections.[6] Ginger, also has a medical use for controlling colds, helps digestion, enhances circulation, helps pain relief and nausea, relieves slight arthritis pain, heart problems, high blood pressure, cholesterol problems, etc. Onions also possess several of those abilities.[6] Lemon and Lines and Mace and nutmeg also prevents flus and viruses, the latter also helps clear thinking and helps circulation.[6]

Mint helps/aids/controls: headaches, female conditions, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, asthma and dryness of breath, toothaches, digestion; poultices for headaches, trouble in muscles and joints. Peanuts, then serve as tension preventatives.[6] It is an oil for massage gout, arthritis, bursitis, and more. Black Pepper is also a cancer pre-emptive, in many occasions a lifespan enhancer.[6] It helps heart problems such as disease and high cholesterol. Hot peppers, a capsaicin main ingredient, is a pain reliever that prevents colds, flus, and those above. In addition, Plantains keeps the heart healthy by containing high potassium. Poppy seeds are cancer presenters (blocking 80% of the chromosomal damage in carcinogen).

Spices have a high amount of biological activity and enhance life.[6] Next, Thyme helps with/does: helps digestion., breaks fever, relieves the following: headaches, sore throats, uterine problems, phlegm, shortness of breath, flatulence, colic, stale breath, etc. Tomatoes aid colds and flus. Seeds of Watermelon are good for kidneys; relieves hypertension, cystitis, insomnia.[6]

Tropical destinations[edit]

Perhentian Islands, Malaysia

The Perhentian Islands are a group of two small islands in northeastern Malaysia: Perhentian Besar (or ”Big Perhentian”) and Perhentian Kecil ( or" Small Perhentian").[7] Small abandoned of Susu Dara, Seringgi and Rawa lie off Kecil.[7] The area belongs to Pulau Redang National Marine Park, which is a marinal site especially for fishing. In Malay, the word "Perhentian" means "point to stop", referring to their hoary role as a waypoint for traders between Bangkok and Malaysia. The islands were sparingly inhabited by fishermen for centuries, although tourism accounts now for most economic activity.[7]

In the Perhentian, the most common activities are scuba diving, sunbathing, and snorkeling.[7] The Perhentian offers detailed diving and draw diving skills. Competition for dives is competitive, though quite cheap, averaging out to RM60-80 per dive depending on how many dives done and a person brings their own gear.[7] There are 5 dive centers on Kecil's Long Beach: Spice Divers, Coral Sky Divers, Sea dragon Divers, Turtle Bay Divers and Sunlight Divers.[7] For Snorkeling, all resorts rent out snorkeling gear (RM30 a day for mask, snorkel and fins) and organize snorkeling tours throughout the islands. General snorkeling spots on Besar include Teluk Pauh (on the left of the beach in front of the PI Resort), Shark Point and Tanjung Basi. Sharks (though usually at the bottom of the reef) are most commonly seen on boat, at a very small beach, between Shark Point and the Teluk Dalam large beach.[7] Turtles, are most commonly viewed in the middle of the beach in front of Perhentian Island Resort, where the sandy bottom is covered with algae.[7]

Many of the smaller resorts of the island offer buffet-style meals with a variety of Western and Malaysian dishes. Larger beaches, such as the Pasir Panjang, offer a greater variety of eating options Meals.[7] Since most of the island imports seafood, it is served several times on mainland.[7] Mainly people travel to the islands by the provincial capitals Kota Bharu or Kuala Terengganu. Although the nearest railroad station is Tenah Merah, most tourists prefer Khotu Bharu for better service.[7] Since the islands have neither roads nor airport, arriving to the islands requires a rough speedboat trip with two large outboard motors. On the islands other than from walking, the only way of transport are water taxis.[7] Due to the eastern monsoon, the season in the Perhentian is effectively limited to the period between April and October.[7] Beyond this, the seas can be extremely rough and most space options are closed.[7]

Rai Leh, Thailand

Rai Leh, or Railay in Thailand is, a tourist area located on the Andaman Coast of Thailand, in Krabi Province, is largely known as a rock climbing spot, open to climbers from all over the world and for its gigantic limestone.[8] A peninsula surrounded by ocean and mountains, final entrée can only be by boat. "Long-tails" leave from Ao Nang (10 minutes, 60 baht/person) and Krabi (30 minutes), whose towns are the gateways to Rai Leh. Another way of access to Rai Leh is on the regular ferries that run between Ko Lanta, Ko Phi Phi, and Phuket (mainly in the dry season: November–May) From Bangkok are flights go to Krabi and Phuket, direct bus services, and trains to Surat Thani and connections by bus.

The topography of the Rai leh is in four primary areas. Phra Nang is a one white sand beach, on the southern tip of the peninsula. Rai Leh (East) is the mangrove side of the peninsula, used by long-tails to/from Krabi. Rai Leh (West), a fine white sand beach with shallow water, where most long-tails arrive from Ao Nang. Then, Ton Sai, which is a cove around the corner from Rai Ley West; rock-climbers and backpackers and practice climbing.

Boracay Island, Philippines

The Boracay Island of the Philippines is a vivid island noted by long white sand beaches among the popular beach destinations such as Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia.[9] Boracay can only be reached by ferry from Caticlan. SEAir serves up to 28 flights a day, each flight about as 35 minutes, from Manila to Caticlan Airport. Another way is through the Kalibo Airport on the other side of Aklan Island. From Kalibo, visitors take a two-hour (2-hour) ride to Caticlan. Three transportations get tourists from Kalibo to Catlican: Mini-vans, buses and other rental vehicles.


Many native animals have developed adaptations that help them aerially navigate through their tropical habitats. Some vertebrates have developed the ability to glide through the air.[10] Some fish jump out of the water to escape predators, expand their large pectoral fins and glide nearly hundreds of yards.[10] As well, many frogs have long-webbed, elongate fingers and toes that function like parachutes when they leap from the leaves and branches of trees to glide across the forest.

Several groups of mammals, for example colugos, and rodents have developed many different ways to move through the air. In Southeast Asia, the ability to glide in modern, non-avian reptiles has arisen at least three, maybe four times for lizards, and once in snakes.[10]

In Southeast Asia, the gliding lizards within Agamidae are arboreal, diurnal, and prominent predators who signal another by puffing out their throats and expanding their chests to show their radiant colour patterns.[11] Also, they can jump from branch to branch for prey or to escape predation. When threatened, Green Crested Lizards leap from one tree to next, splay out their limbs, and expand their rib cages during flight.[11]

Open surfaces are often the place where Draco, (black bearded) gliding lizards communicate with each other.[11] When not flying, their heads are usually seen sitting head up on the trunks of the trees; their wings creatively folded to their bodies. Most of their day is spent feeding on ants up and down trees, making for the majority of their diet.[11] Once in a while, they will want to change outings and leap from the tree, extend their ribs to open their wings, and glide to the next tree. The degree and speed of the glide depends on a couple of aspects: the height of the lizard on the tree and the surface area of the wing comparative to the weight of the body.[11]

The orange-haired gliding lizard has a thick neck and heavy body; it has small wings however, but despite its pace, it moves relatively fast.[11] To pick up enough speed, it commonly needs to fold down its wing for a period of time.[11] Therefore, they are seen on the tallest trees where they can safely dive to gain momentum to glide. Their flight structure helps separate them ecologically, keeping them from direct opposition with one another for some of the rainforest's resources.[11] In some areas of the forest, up to eight different species of Draco may appear together. Generally, they are closely related species with unique, restrictive life histories living in the same area, the potential for opposition is likely.[11]

Geckos are another notable gliding reptile.[12] Their wings lack the elaborate thoracic (chest) mutation of gliding lizards and are composed mainly of a large flap of skin along their flanks.[12] The flaps stay rolled across the belly until the lizard leaps off a tree the time they become inertly opened by air during the fall. Additionally, the body flaps are extended flaps along the sides of the head, neck, and tail; back sides of the hind limbs; and extensive webbing on the hands and feet. In flight, all of their wings are extended and splayed, creating the parachute effect.[12] The Frilly Gecko, the smallest of them, travel from trees uniquely on the lowest part of the same tree to avoid predators. Geckos are cryptic species that are hidden during the day and active during the night, unlike the many arboreal agamids. In addition, their color patterns normally match the substrate where they stay allowing them to go ignored.[12]

The flat-tailed gecko (Cosymbotus platyuurus), a species strongly related to the frilly gecko, is another example of intermediacy. It similarly folds skin along the head, body, limbs, and tail as the Frilly Gecko but not nearly as developed.[12] It lays these flaps out on the trunk of the tree to prevent the curving of the body from a shadow where it meets the trunk, to give away its location. These flaps inertly open up like other geckos do when the gecko jumps from one branch to another and this imparts even a small advantage by extending the length of the jump.[12]

Because of their lack of limbs, snakes are a group of vertebrates in which the ability to glide might be viewed as less likely to develop.[12] However, in Peninsular Malaysia, there are three closely related species of snakes with ability to glide for significant distances. These are the tree snakes (genus Chrysopelea). The flat, open body works like a parasail and its rolling movements in flight, similar to a spinning frisbee, prevents it from overturning.[12] Before leaping, tree snakes hang the uncoiled forepart of their body off the branch in a shape similar to that of the letter 'J'.[12] Next, by shaking the body upward in tandem reaching outward by rapidly smoothing its coils and releasing, they will hold on the branch, the snakes take flight.[12] They also enlarge their rib cage as a defense device to expose brightly colored markings on their scales.[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Tropical Asia needs to try something new". Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Ecologically diverse, Urbanly worse". Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  3. ^ Storer, Rhi (29 Jun 2021). "Up to 410 million people at risk from sea level rises – study". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  4. ^ Hooijer, A; Vernimmen, R (29 June 2021). "Global LiDAR land elevation data reveal greatest sea-level rise vulnerability in the tropics". Nature Communications. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Tropical Asian Edible Rainforest plants". Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Human Health plantics". Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Preview the Prehentians". Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  8. ^ "Towering limestone". Retrieved 2007-06-02.
  9. ^ "Boracay is not Boring, okay". Retrieved 2007-06-02.
  10. ^ a b c "The Flying Reptiles of Tropical Asia: Evolution Takes a Leap (part 1)". Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Flying Reptiles of Tropical Asia: Evolution Takes a Leap (part 2)". Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Flying Reptiles of Tropical Asia: Evolution Takes a Leap (part 3)". Retrieved 2007-03-13.

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