Tropical Storm Cindy (1993)

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For other storms of the same name, see Hurricane Cindy (disambiguation).
Tropical Storm Cindy
Tropical storm (SSHWS/NWS)
TS Cindy (1993).JPG
Tropical Storm Cindy on August 15, 1993
Formed August 14, 1993
Dissipated August 17, 1993
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 40 mph (65 km/h)
Lowest pressure 1007 mbar (hPa); 29.74 inHg
Fatalities 4 total
Damage $19 million (1993 USD)
Areas affected Lesser Antilles (Martinique), Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico
Part of the 1993 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Cindy was a weak but unusually wet Atlantic tropical cyclone that caused disastrous floods and mudslides across Martinique in August 1993. Forming east of the island, Cindy became the annual hurricane season's third named storm on August 14. Due to unfavorable atmospheric conditions, the storm remained disorganized throughout its journey across the northeastern Caribbean Sea. After attaining maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), Cindy began to weaken from interaction with the high terrain of Hispaniola. It made landfall in the Dominican Republic as a tropical depression on August 16, and dissipated over the territory the following day.

Despite its poor cloud and wind structure, Cindy dropped torrential rain over portions of the northeastern Caribbean. The island of Martinique received a record 12 inches (305 mm) of rain over a 24-hour period, affecting many northern villages and communes. Le Prêcheur in particular was devastated by an extensive debris flow, which washed away entire structures. The disaster left two people dead and hundreds homeless on the island, and wrought $19 million (1993 USD) in damage. En route to Hispaniola, Cindy affected the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico with rough surf and moderate rain. Heavy downpours and flooding killed two people in the Dominican Republic, though the exact extent of the damage there is unknown.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

The origins of Tropical Storm Cindy can be traced to a tropical wave that departed the western coast of Africa on August 8, 1993. Over the following days, the wave tracked steadily west-northwestward across the tropical Atlantic while retaining a distinct cloud pattern on satellite images. Although initial data from a reconnaissance aircraft mission on August 13 indicated that the system lacked a defined wind circulation, a second mission at 1200 UTC the next day revealed an improvement in its structure at the lower levels of the atmosphere. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) thus classified the system as a tropical depression—a tropical cyclone with sustained winds of less than 39 mph (62 km/h)—and initiated public advisories on it soon thereafter.[1][2]

Steered by a mid- to low-level wind flow, the depression decreased in forward speed and continued west-northwest toward Martinique. Satellite images showed the development of a central dense overcast, and reconnaissance soon revealed that wind speeds near the center had increased to gale force. Based on this, the NHC upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Cindy at 1800 UTC on August 14, at which time the cyclone was located over Martinique with winds of 40 mph (65 km). Although Cindy briefly developed a favorable outflow, its upper-level structure debilitated after it moved away from the Lesser Antilles, preventing further development.[1] Over the course of August 15, Cindy's cloud pattern remained disorganized due to unfavorable wind shear; the center of circulation became ill defined, with the strongest thunderstorms confined to the eastern portion of the cyclone.[3][4] Despite the unfavorable conditions, the storm managed to strengthen marginally on August 16, attaining its peak intensity with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 1007 mbar (hPa; 29.74 inHg), roughly 85 mi (140 km) southeast of Santo Domingo.[1]

Shortly after peaking in strength, Cindy began to interact with the mountains of nearby Hispaniola. The high terrain disrupted its circulation, causing it to weaken to a tropical depression around 2100 UTC on August 16. The depression made landfall near Barahona, Dominican Republic, with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h). It became increasingly disorganized over land, prompting the NHC to declassify it as a tropical cyclone on August 17. The remnants proceeded inland near the border with Haiti and emerged into the Atlantic, where they spread across the Bahamas before eventually dissipating the next day.[1][5]

Preparations[edit]

When Cindy became a tropical cyclone on August 14, tropical storm warnings were issued for the Lesser Antilles from Martinique northward to the Virgin Islands. A tropical storm watch was posted for Puerto Rico at the time.[6][7] The warnings, excluding those for the Virgin Islands, were discontinued on August 15.[8] As Cindy drifted further north later that day, the watch for Puerto Rico was upgraded to a tropical storm warning.[8] Officials issued flash flood warnings for parts of the island, and about 600 people living in flood-prone areas sought shelter ahead of the storm. Ferry service between Fajardo and the offshore islands of Culebra and Vieques was suspended, leaving about 400 passengers stranded for a day.[9] A price freeze was placed on emergency supplies such as wood, nails, batteries, kerosene, and lanterns.[10][11]

Also on August 15, a tropical storm warning was issued for the Dominican Republic, from Samaná to Cabo Engaño along the northern coast and westward to Isla Beata off the southwestern coast.[8] Thousands of residents stocked up on bottled water, canned goods, and gas, though stores in and around the capital remained closed for the day.[12] The Santo Domingo International Airport suspended all flight operations on the morning of August 16.[13] The tropical storm warning for the island was discontinued when Cindy made landfall as no more than a weak tropical depression.[8] In Cuba, a storm alert was issued for eastern provinces as forecasters warned of possible heavy rainfall.[14]

Impact[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Martinique
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 680.7 26.80 Dorothy 1970 Fourniols [15]
2 567.0 22.32 Klaus 1990 Le Morne-Rouge [16]
3 475.0 18.07 Beulah 1967 Les Anses-d'Arlets [17]
4 450.1 17.72 Iris 1995 Ducos [18]
5 349.0 13.74 David 1979 Saint-Joseph [19]
6 332.0 13.07 Dean 2007 Fort-de-France [20]
7 305.0 12.01 Cindy 1993 Le Prêcheur [21]
8 301.5 11.87 Edith 1963 Saint-Pierre [22]
9 280.0 11.02 Allen 1980 Grand-Rivière [23]
10 230.1 9.059 Marilyn 1995 Le Morne-Rouge [24]

Lesser Antilles[edit]

On August 14, Cindy passed over Martinique with rough winds and particularly violent rain. The greatest quantities fell to the northeast of a line between Sainte-Marie and Fort-de-France, with day totals of more than 4 in (100 mm) recorded at every weather station in that region. The highest 1- and 24-hour rainfall rates were observed in Le Prêcheur, totaling 5.79 in (147 mm) and 12.0 in (305 mm), respectively.[25][26] These amounts were well above the September average of 9.29 in (236 mm), making Cindy one of the most extreme rain events in the island's history.[25][27] A maximum gust of 40 mph (65 km/h) was recorded during the storm, though sustained winds onshore did not reach tropical storm force.[21]

Initially, Cindy's brisk winds downed banana trees and power lines across northern Martinique.[28] After hours of continued rain, several rivers—such as the Rivière des Pères, Rivière Claire and Rivière Sèche—quickly swelled and overflowed.[29] Heavy flooding and mudslides swept through northern villages, submerging homes and destroying roads and bridges.[28][30][31] News footage on national television showed "cars [being] swept away to sea and buried in mud".[10] The Prêcheur River, which normally flows at 18 ft3/s (0.5 m3/s), burst its banks upon attaining an exceptional discharge rate of nearly 25,000 ft3/s (700 m3/s). Large amounts of volcanic matter from the riverbed congealed into a massive debris flow that struck the small commune of Le Prêcheur.[32][33] Reaching heights of up to 10 ft (3 m), the debris completely covered houses and roads and wreaked an estimated 15 million (1993 value; $2.7 million in 1993 USD) in structural damage.[33] Flash floods following the overflow of the Grande Rivière surged through the adjacent village of the same name, devastating property and drowning one person.[28][34] Despite recent improvements to its flood defenses, the Rivière Roxelane rapidly topped its banks and inundated much of Saint-Pierre.[35] Farther south, a combination of torrential rainfall and poor storm drains resulted in widespread flood damage to private property and an aquafarm in Le Morne-Vert.[36]

In all, Cindy killed 2 people, injured 11, and destroyed more than 150 homes across Martinique.[10][31] Monetary losses reached ₣107 million ($19 million), with road damage pinned at ₣68 million ($12 million).[37] After the storm's passage, thousands of people on the island sought refuge in emergency shelters, and about 3,000 residents became homeless.[10][28] La Capricieuse, a French Navy ship stationed in French Guiana, delivered disaster relief supplies to Fort-de-France; the goods included 250 packages with clothing items, distributed by the Lions Club Association of Saint Barthélemy.[38] Unseasonable sea conditions in Cindy's wake temporarily hindered local fishers from selling their catch to trading vessels in Petite Martinique.[39] Due to the severity of the flooding in Martinique, waterways and harbors were dredged and river banks and dykes were reinforced to prevent recurrence.[40]

Minimal effects were felt elsewhere in the Lesser Antilles. In Guadeloupe, the storm dropped rain across southern Basse-Terre Island through August 14–15; a peak total of 9.02 in (229 mm) was recorded at the summit of La Grande Soufrière.[37] Wind gusts at Raizet Airport reached 38 mph (61 km/h), just below tropical storm force.[41] Moderate breeze embedded with gusts to 28 mph (44 km/h) brushed Dominica, and 1.25 in (32 mm) of rain fell at Canefield Airport within 24 hours of Cindy's passage.[42] Further south, a weather station in Saint Lucia recorded 1.88 in (48 mm) of precipitation, as well as light winds.[43] As Cindy passed south of the Virgin Islands, unsettled seas and minor beach erosion affected the islands' southern shores, with swells of 4 to 5 ft (1.2 to 1.5 m) reported at Saint Croix.[11] Onshore, the island experienced wind gusts to 35 mph (55 km/h) and 1.48 in (38 mm) of rainfall.[21][44]

Greater Antilles[edit]

Puerto Rico rainfall map of Cindy from the WPC

On August 16, Cindy made its closest point of approach to Puerto Rico, although its center remained well south of the island.[5] Impact from the storm was thus limited to intermittent downpours and 8 ft (2.4 m) waves along the southern coast.[45] The rough seas caused some minor erosion to beach facilities.[11] According to a report from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), a maximum of 5.54 in (141 mm) of rain fell near Río Cerrillos in Ponce, though the highest measurement from the Weather Prediction Center (WPC) was 4.60 in (117 mm) at Puerto Real in Cabo Rojo.[11][44] Many other locations received rainfall amounts of 2.0–4.5 in (50–115 mm), which flooded some roads and low-lying areas.[11]

Cindy brought considerable rainfall to southern and eastern parts of the Dominican Republic, with totals of 4–10 in (100–255 mm).[13][21] Upon the storm's landfall in the country, winds reached 35 mph (55 km/h) in Barahona.[5] The rain filled rivers and caused scattered street flooding, affecting hundreds of houses.[12][13] In Villa Altagracia, one fatality occurred when a child drowned in flood waters; the final death toll for the country stood at two.[13][21] There were no reports of damage elsewhere after Cindy's rapid demise over Hispaniola, though it is likely that the remnants produced localized showers in Haiti.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Mayfield, Max (1993-10-25). Tropical Storm Cindy: 14–17 August 1993 (Preliminary Report). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  2. ^ Avila, Lixion (1993-08-14). Tropical Depression Four Intermediate Advisory Number 1A (Advisory). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  3. ^ Lawrence, Miles B. (1993-08-15). Tropical Storm Cindy Discussion Number 4 (Advisory). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  4. ^ Sheets, Robert (1993-08-15). Tropical Storm Cindy Discussion Number 6 (Advisory). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  5. ^ a b c Mayfield, Max (1993-10-25). Tropical Storm Cindy: 14–17 August 1993 (Preliminary Report). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. table 1, p. 3. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  6. ^ Mayfield, Max (1993-08-14). Tropical Storm Cindy Public Advisory Number 2A (Advisory). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  7. ^ Lawrence, Miles B. (1993-08-14). Tropical Storm Cindy Public Advisory Number 4A (Advisory). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  8. ^ a b c d Mayfield, Max (1993-10-25). Tropical Storm Cindy: 14–17 August, 1993 (Preliminary Report). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. table 2, p. 4. Retrieved 2011-12-24. 
  9. ^ "No floods, fatalities reported on island in wake of Cindy". The San Juan Star. 1993-08-17. Retrieved 2011-12-24. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Storms near Puerto Rico and Hawaii". Houston Chronicle. 1993-08-16. p. 6A. Retrieved 2011-12-24. 
  11. ^ a b c d e U.S. Geological Survey DCP's rainfall from 08-15-93 0000L thru 08-16-93 2400L (Report). United States Geological Survey. 1993. as archived by the National Hurricane Center in its Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. Retrieved 2013-05-21. 
  12. ^ a b Leon, Ricardo R. (1993-08-16). "Tropical storm threatens Hawaii". Sun Journal. 100 (3rd ed.). Lewiston, Maine. Associated Press. p. 3. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Cindy pierde fuerza hurácan Fernanda amienza". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Bogotá, Colombia. Reuters, Agence France-Presse. 1993-08-17. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  14. ^ Times Wire Service (1993-08-17). "Hawaii on Hurricane Alert; storm plays wait-and-see: Weather: Forecasters warn course change could cause major problems as residents stock up. Dominican Republic also braces for winds, rain". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  15. ^ Perrusset, Marcell; Bouguen, Pierre (1970). La Tempête Tropicale Dorothy (Report) (in French). Météo-France. table 1 as archived by the National Hurricane Center in its Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Dorothy, 1970. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  16. ^ 1990 Klaus: Ouragan. Pluies extrêmes aux Antilles (Report) (in French). Météo-France. n.d. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  17. ^ 1967 Beulah: Ouragan. Pluies extrêmes aux Antilles (Report) (in French). Météo-France. n.d. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  18. ^ Rappaport, Edward N. (November 2, 2000). Hurricane Iris: 22 August–4 September 1995 (Preliminary Report). 1995 Atlantic Hurricane Season Preliminary Reports. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  19. ^ 1979 David: Ouragan. Pluies extrêmes aux Antilles (Report) (in French). Météo-France. n.d. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  20. ^ Franklin, James L (January 31, 2008). Hurricane Dean (AL042007): August 13–23 2007 (PDF) (Technical report). National Hurricane Center. p. 4. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Mayfield, Britt M (October 25, 1993). Tropical Storm Cindy: 14–17 August 1993 (Preliminary Report). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  22. ^ Roth, David M. (April 29, 2015). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Data. United States Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  23. ^ 1980 Allen: Ouragan. Pluies extrêmes aux Antilles (Report) (in French). Météo-France. n.d. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  24. ^ Rappaport, Edward N (January 17, 1996). Hurricane Marilyn: September 12–22, 1995 (Preliminary Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  25. ^ a b Frayssinet, Philippe (1993-10-25). Information about Tropical Storm Cindy in Martinique (Report). Météo-France. map 1 and annex 3 as faxed to the National Hurricane Center and archived in its Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy. Retrieved 2013-05-21. 
  26. ^ "Histoire des cyclones de la Martinique" (Press release) (in French). Météo-France. 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  27. ^ Saffache, Pascal; Blanchart, Éric; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Josien, Étienne; Michalon, Thierry; Saudubray, Frédéric; Scherer, Claude (2005). "Chapitre 2: Contexte de l'agriculture martiniquaise: atouts et contraintes pour l'agriculture biologique" (PDF). In François, Martine; Moreau, Roland; Sylvander, Bertil. Agriculture biologique en Martinique [Organic agriculture in Martinique] (PDF) (in French). IRD Editions. part 2, chapter 2, para. 3, p. 49. ISBN 2-7099-1555-3. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Storm Cindy soaks Martinique, heads for Dominican Republic". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. 327 (Metro ed.). Associated Press. 1993-08-16. p. 4A. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  29. ^ Saffache, Pascal. "Caractéristiques typologiques et dynamiques des rivières de la Martinique" (PDF) (in French). University of the French West Indies and Guiana. p. 6. 
  30. ^ DHA news. 13–17. United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs. 1995. p. 43. 
  31. ^ a b "La Martinique : entre menace marine et terre instable". La Chaîne Météo (in French). Météo-France. 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  32. ^ Lavergne, Réal P. (1996). Intégration et coopération régionales en Afrique de l'Ouest (in French). Karthala Editions. p. 344. ISBN 978-2-86537-663-6. 
  33. ^ a b Saffache, Pascal (2000). "Pour une protection et une gestion durables des rivières de l'île de la Martinique". Courrier de l'environnement (in French). French National Institute for Agricultural Research (39). 
  34. ^ Burac, Maurice (2006). La Caraïbe, données environnementales. Terres d'Amérique (in French). 5. Karthala Editions. p. 431. ISBN 978-2-84586-756-7. 
  35. ^ Françoise, Pagney (1994). "Villes de piémont à risques d'inondations en îles tropicales : exemple des Antilles françaises". Revue de Géographie alpine. 82 (4): 54. ISSN 1760-7426. OCLC 428086275. 
  36. ^ "Cour Administrative d'Appel de Bordeaux: 1ere Chambre, 99BX02338 (Inédit au Recueil Lebon)". Légimobile. 2003-06-19. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  37. ^ a b 1993 Cindy: Tempête tropicale. Pluies extrêmes aux Antilles (Report) (in French). Météo-France. n.d. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  38. ^ "L'histoire du patrouilleur La Capricieuse (1983–1994)". Net-Marine (in French). Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  39. ^ Chakalall, Yuri S.; Mahon, Robin; Oxenford, Hazel A.; Ryan, Raymond (2005). Fish exporting in the Grenadine Islands: Activities of trading vessels and supplying fishers (Report). CARICOM Fishery Research Document. 18. Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism. p. 53. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  40. ^ Senate of France (1993-10-16). "Compte Rendu Intégral, 7e séance: Séance du vendredi 15 octobre 1993" (PDF). Journal officiel de la République française: Débats parlementaires. Direction of Official Gazettes (61): 3200. ISSN 0755-544X. 
  41. ^ "Weather in Le Raizet Aero: August 1993, Guadeloupe". Geodata.us. 1993. Retrieved 2011-11-03. 
  42. ^ "Weather in Canefield Airport: August 1993, Dominica". Geodata.us. 1993. Retrieved 2011-11-03. 
  43. ^ "Weather in Vigie: August 1993, St. Lucia". Geodata.us. 1993. Retrieved 2011-11-03. 
  44. ^ a b Roth, David M. (2010-05-10). Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Data. Weather Prediction Center. Tropical Storm Cindy – August 15–17, 1993. Retrieved 2011-11-06. 
  45. ^ Leon, Ricardo R. (1993-08-17). "Cindy soaks Dominican Republic". The Gainesville Sun. 118 (43) (Metro ed.). Associated Press. p. 8A. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 

External links[edit]