Tropical Storm Cristina (1996)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tropical Storm Cristina
Tropical Storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Cristina 03 july 1996 1319Z.jpg
Tropical Storm Cristina at peak intensity on July 3 off the Mexican coast.
FormedJuly 1, 1996
DissipatedJuly 3, 1996
Highest winds1-minute sustained: 70 mph (110 km/h)
Lowest pressure991 mbar (hPa); 29.26 inHg
Fatalities13 dead, 62 missing
Areas affectedMexico
Part of the 1996 Pacific hurricane season

Tropical Storm Cristina was the third tropical cyclone to make landfall along the Pacific Coast of Mexico in 10 days. On July 1, an area of disturbed weather developed into a tropical depression off the coast of Central America. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Cristina on July 2 as it moved west-northwest. Cristina was almost a hurricane at the time of its landfall near Puerto Ángel on July 3. The cyclone dissipated over the mountains of Mexico on the same day. Tropical Storm Cristina claimed 13 lives and left 62 missing. Eleven fishing boats were reported missing and 350 people were left homeless

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Cristina likely originated from area of thunderstorms that was affiliated with a tropical wave that had passed over Panama on June 29. By June 30, thunderstorm activity increased while located west the Pacific coast of Central America.[1] At 1200 UTC June 1, as convective banding became organized, the National Hurricane Center initialed advisories Tropical Depression Five-E. At this time, the low located 300 miles (480 km) south of San Salvador, El Salvador.[1] With warm water and low wind shear, meteorologists anticipated strengthening into a hurricane.[2][3]

Quickly organizing, the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Cristina while 260 miles (420 km) south of Guatemala City, Guatemala.[1] During the night of July 1–2, the "tropical storm" peaked just under hurricane strength with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h)[1][4] and a minimum pressure of 991 mbar (hPa).[1] Early on July 3, the center of Tropical Storm Cristina crossed the Mexican coast near Puerto Ángel at peak intensity.[1] Within six hours, Cristina had weakened into a minimal tropical storm over the mountainous terrain of Mexico.[5] By early July 3, the remnants of the tropical storm had completely dissipated.[1]

Preparations, Impact, and aftermath[edit]

Rainfall totals in Mexico from the storm.

On July 2, the Mexican government issued a tropical storm warning from the Mexico-Guatemala border to Punta Maldonado.[1][6] Making landfall in the middle of the warning area, Cristina was the third storm to hit the region in less than two weeks.[1][7] Tropical Storm Cristina dropped extremely heavy precipitation over southern Mexico and over 1,350 sites received rain. Many areas received more than 10 in (250 mm) of rainfall and a peak of 15.12 in (384 mm) fell in San Perdo Tapantepec.[8]

One fisherman drowned, another went missing, and another was found alive after their fishing boat sank off the coast of Oaxaca.[1] Flash flooding and mudslides in Oaxaca killed five and in Guerrero killed at least seven people died.[9] In the latter state, 51 communities were flooded, thus leaving 350 people homeless.[10] In addition, 62 people were declared missing when eleven fishing boats were reported missing on July 2.[1][11] On July 18, the President of Mexico had a meeting for the victims of Boris and Cristina in Acapulco.[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mayfield, Max (August 11, 1996). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Cristina". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  2. ^ Mayfield, Max (July 1, 1996). "Tropical Depression Five-E Discussion 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  3. ^ Pasch, Richard J. (July 1, 1996). "Tropical Storm Cristina Discussion 2". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  4. ^ Avila, Lixon A. (July 2, 1996). "Tropical Storm Cristina Discussion 6". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  5. ^ Pasch, Richard J. (July 3, 1996). "Tropical Storm Cristina Discussion 8". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  6. ^ Mayfield, Max (July 2, 1996). "Tropical Storm Cristina Advisory 4". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  7. ^ "Mexican hurricane". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. July 3, 1996. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  8. ^ David M. Roth. "Tropical Storm Cirstina". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  9. ^ "U.S. Embassy in Pakistan orders tighter security". Chicago Sun-Times. July 8, 1996. p. 22.
  10. ^ "TROPICAL STORM KILLS FIVE IN MEXICO". Sun Sentinel - Fort Lauderdale. July 8, 1996.
  11. ^ "62 Fishermen Missing After Tropical Storm". Los Angeles Times. July 4, 1996.
  12. ^ Mexican Government (July 18, 1996). "Victims for Boris and Cristina". Mexico. Retrieved November 24, 2008.