Tropical cyclones in 2018

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Tropical cyclones worldwide in 2018
Typhoon Yutu is the most intense tropical cyclone worldwide in 2018

Tropical cyclones in 2018 were spread out across seven different areas called basins and the Mediterranean Sea. Currently, 136 tropical cyclones have formed during the year to date. 95 tropical cyclones have been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

Tropical cyclone activity in each basin is under the authority of a RSMC. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is responsible for tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and East Pacific. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) is responsible for tropical cyclones in the Central Pacific. Both the NHC and CPHC are subdivisions of the National Weather Service. Activity in the West Pacific is monitored by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Systems in the North Indian Ocean are monitored by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). The Météo-France located in Réunion (MFR) monitors tropical activity in the South-West Indian Ocean. The Australian region is monitored by five TCWCs that are under the coordination of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Similarly, the South Pacific is monitored by both the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) and the Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited. Other, unofficial agencies that provide additional guidance in tropical cyclone monitoring include the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).

Global atmospheric and hydrological conditions[edit]

North Atlantic Ocean[edit]

In the North Atlantic Ocean, atmospheric and hydrological conditions were generally unfavorable for tropical cyclogenesis. In the tropical Atlantic, sea surface temperatures were cooler than average, characteristic of a negative phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO).[1] Additionally, high quantities of Saharan dust along with stronger than average upper-level wind shear over the tropical Atlantic created an unfavorable atmospheric environment. Despite the unfavorable conditions present, activity in the tropical Atlantic was plentiful, with Hurricanes Beryl,[2] Florence,[3] Helene,[4] and Isaac[5] developing in the region. On the contrary, conditions in the subtropical Atlantic were more conducive to tropical cyclone formation, with sea surface temperatures being warmer than average. 6 tropical cyclones; Beryl,[6] Chris,[7] Debby,[8] Ernesto,[9] Joyce[10] and Leslie[11] developed or reformed in the subtropical Atlantic.

Eastern Pacific Ocean[edit]

Summary[edit]

Typhoon YutuHurricane WillaTropical Storm Vicente (2018)Hurricane MichaelHurricane WalakaHurricane Sergio (2018)Hurricane Rosa (2018)Hurricane Leslie (2018)Typhoon Mangkhut (2018)Tropical Storm Gordon (2018)Hurricane Olivia (2018)Hurricane FlorenceTyphoon Jebi (2018)Hurricane Lane (2018)Hurricane John (2018)Hurricane Hector (2018)Typhoon JongdariTropical Storm Son-Tinh (2018)Hurricane BerylTyphoon Maria (2018)Tropical Storm Carlotta (2018)Hurricane Bud (2018)Tropical Storm Ewiniar (2018)Subtropical Storm AlbertoCyclone MekunuCyclone SagarCyclone MarcusCyclone HolaCyclone KelvinCyclone Gitatropical cyclone basins

Systems[edit]

January[edit]

The month of January was relatively active, with eleven systems forming. In the middle of the month, Cyclone Berguitta made landfall in Mauritius and Réunion, causing millions in damages and a fatality. The only system to cause significant damage was Tropical Cyclone Fehi which caused tens of millions in damages when it brought severe flooding to New Zealand in late January.

Tropical cyclones formed in January 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
07U January 1–2 35 (25) 1006 None None None
Irving January 3–9 75 (45) 993 None None None
Joyce January 7–16 85 (50) 978 Western Australia None None
Berguitta January 9–20 165 (105) 940 Mauritius, Réunion $12.1 million 1
04 January 14–16 55 (35) 999 Madagascar, Mozambique None None
10U January 14–19 Unspecified Unspecified Christmas Island None None
11U January 20–February 1 75 (45) 985 Top End, Western Australia None None
12U January 23–24 Unspecified Unspecified None None None
Cebile January 25–February 4 185 (115) 944 None None None
05F January 26–27 Unspecified 996 None None None
Fehi January 27–30 85 (50) 986 New Zealand $50 million None [12]

February[edit]

The month of February was inactive, with only six tropical cyclones forming. However, Cyclone Gita became the most intense tropical cyclone to affect Tonga since records began. Gita was also one of the worst tropical cyclones to affect the island nation, causing significant agricultural and structural damages totalling in the hundreds of millions as well as a couple fatalities. Cyclone Sanba was a system that made landfall in the Caroline Islands and the Philippines, resulting in a few million in damage and over a dozen fatalities. Cyclone Kelvin was unusual in that it maintained a healthy structure over land through a process known as the brown ocean effect, leading to tens of millions in damages.

Tropical cyclones formed in February 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
14U February 1 Unspecified Unspecified None None None
Gita February 3–19 205 (125) 927 Vanuatu, Fiji, Wallis and Futuna, Samoa, American Samoa, Niue, Tonga, New Caledonia, Queensland, New Zealand $186.6 million 2 [12]
08F February 3–11 Unspecified 994 Fiji None None
Sanba (Basyang) February 8–16 65 (40) 1000 Caroline Islands, Philippines $3.2 million 14 [13]
15U February 9–12 Unspecified Unspecified None None None
Kelvin February 12–20 110 (70) 974 Top End, Western Australia, South Australia $25 million None [14][12]

March[edit]

March was an active month with twelve systems. Early in the month, Cyclone Hola made landfall in Vanuatu causing a few fatalities and later in New Caledonia and New Zealand where it caused minor damages. At the same time, Tropical Depression 18U made landfall in Northern Territory, causing tens of millions in damage despite being a weak system. In the middle of the month, Cyclone Eliakim made landfall in Madagascar, causing close to two dozen deaths and an unknown amount of damage. Also forming in the middle of month, Cyclone Marcus was a very intense tropical cyclone that affected the Tanimbar Islands, Top End, and Kimberley, causing tens of millions in damages. Cyclone Iris was a very long lived system that formed several days later, lasting for nearly four weeks as a tropical cyclone before dissipating in mid-April. Cyclone Josie was a system that formed in late March. It affected southern Fiji, causing millions in damages and several deaths.

Tropical cyclones formed in March 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Dumazile March 1–6 165 (105) 945 None None None
Hola March 3–11 165 (105) 952 Vanuatu, New Caledonia, New Zealand Unknown 3 [15][16]
18U March 4–9 Unspecified 1001 Northern Territory $40 million None [12]
Eliakim March 12–20 110 (70) 980 Madagascar Unknown 20+ [17][18]
Linda March 13–16 75 (45) 993 Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, South East Queensland None None
ARB 01 March 13–15 45 (30)3 1006 None None None
Marcus March 14–24 230 (145) 912 Tanimbar Islands, Top End, Kimberley $75 million None [12]
Nora March 19–27 155 (100) 958 Queensland, Papua New Guinea None None
Iris March 20–April 13 100 (65) 987 None None None
23U March 23–25 Unspecified 1004 None None None
Jelawat (Caloy) March 24–April 1 195 (120) 915 Caroline Islands None None
Josie March 29–April 2 75 (45) 993 Southern Fiji $5 million 6 [12]

April[edit]

April was an inactive month with only four systems forming globally. Tropical Cyclone Keni made landfall in Fiji, causing millions in damages. Later in the month, Tropical Cyclone Fakir made landfall in Réunion, causing millions in damages and a small number of fatalities.

Tropical cyclones formed in April 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Keni April 5–11 140 (85) 970 Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga $5 million None [12]
14F April 17–20 Unspecified 1000 Romuta None None
Fakir April 20–24 130 (80) 975 Reunion $18 million 2 [19][12]
Flamboyan April 26–May 1 110 (70) 983 None None None

May[edit]

May was a relatively inactive month with only seven systems forming. In the middle of the month, Cyclone Sagar affected Yemen, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, causing tens of millions in damages and several dozen deaths. Several days later, Cyclone Mekunu affected Yemen, Oman, and Saudi Arabia, causing hundreds of millions in damages and close to a few dozen deaths. At the same time, Subtropical Storm Alberto caused over a hundred million in damages and a dozen fatalities throughout the Northwest Caribbean and the Eastern United States. Late in the month, BOB 01 caused a few deaths in Myanmar.

Tropical cyclones formed in May 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Lexi May 4-9 75 (45)4 988 Alejandro Selkirk Island,n Chile. None None
04W May 10–15 Unspecified 1008 None None None
One-E May 10–11 55 (35)4 1007 None None None
Sagar May 16–20 85 (50)3 994 Yemen, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia $30 million 79 [20][21][22]
Mekunu May 21–27 175 (110)3 960 Yemen, Oman, Saudi Arabia $400 millon 31 [23][24][25]
Alberto May 25–31 100 (65)4 990 Yucatán Peninsula, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Eastern United States, Southern Canada >$125 million 12 [26]
BOB 01 May 29–30 55 (35)3 990 Myanmar None 5 [27]

June[edit]

June was an active month with fourteen systems having formed. In early June, Tropical Storm Ewiniar impacted South China and Vietnam, causing hundreds of millions in damages and over a dozen deaths. At the same time, Severe Tropical Storm Maliksi killed a couple people in the Philippines despite never making landfall. In the middle of the month, Tropical Storm Gaemi made landfall in Taiwan, causing a few fatalities. Late in the month, Prapiroon affected Japan and the Korean Peninsula, killing a few people and causing over ten million in damages.

Tropical cyclones formed in June 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Ewiniar June 2–9 75 (45) 998 Vietnam, Philippines, South China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands $573 million 15 [28][29]
Maliksi (Domeng) June 3–11 110 (70) 970 Ryukyu Islands, Philippines, Honshu Minimal 2 [30]
TD June 4–5 Unspecified 1006 None None None
Aletta June 6–11 220 (140)4 943 None None None
Bud June 9–16 215 (130)4 948 Western Mexico, Baja California Sur, Southwestern United States Unknown None
BOB 02 June 10–11 45 (30)3 989 Myanmar None None
07W June 13–15 65 (40) 993 Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands None None
Gaemi (Ester) June 13–16 85 (50) 990 Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands minimal 3 [31]
Carlotta June 14–19 100 (65)4 997 Southwestern Mexico Unknown None
TD June 17–18 Unspecified 1000 South China None None
Daniel June 24–26 75 (45)4 1003 None None None
Emilia June 27–July 1 65 (60)4 997 None None None
Prapiroon (Florita) June 28–July 4 120 (75) 960 Japan, Korean Peninsula $10 million 4 [32][33]
Fabio June 30–July 6 175 (110)4 964 None None None

July[edit]

July was an active month with fourteen systems having formed. In the middle of the month, Typhoon Maria caused a few hundred million in damages and a couple deaths in East China. Around the same time, Hurricane Chris killed a person off the coast of North Carolina. Later in the month, Tropical Storm Son-Tinh impacted the Philippines, South China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar, causing over a $235 million in damages and several dozen deaths.

Tropical cyclones formed in July 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Maria (Gardo) July 3–11 195 (120) 915 Mariana Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, East China $490 million 2 [34][32]
Beryl July 5–16 130 (80)4 994 Leeward Islands, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba, The Bahamas None None
Chris July 6–12 165 (105)4 970 Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada, Iceland None 1 [35]
Son-Tinh (Henry) July 16–24 75 (45) 994 Philippines, South China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar $235 million 68 [32]
TD July 16–17 Unspecified 998 South China, Vietnam, Laos $14.8 million None [36]
Ampil (Inday) July 17–24 95 (60) 985 South China, Vietnam, Laos $175 million 1 [37]
13W (Josie) July 20–23 55 (35) 996 Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, East China $87.4 million 16
BOB 03 July 21–23 45 (30)3 989 India $350 million 86 [38]
Wukong July 22–26 95 (60) 990 None None None
Jongdari July 23–August 4 140 (85) 965 Japan, East China $100 million None [39][40]
Gilma July 26–29 65 (40)4 1006 None None None
Nine-E July 26–27 55 (35)4 1008 None None None
16W July 31–August 2 55 (35) 1000 None None None
Hector July 31–August 16 250 (155)4 936 Hawaii, Johnston Atoll Minimal None

August[edit]

August was an active month with twenty-one systems having formed. Hurricane Florence made landfall in North Carolina with deadly flooding, resulting in over $13 billion in damages[41] and killed 53 people. In the same month,Hurricane Lane made an extremely close pass near Hawaii, becoming Hawaii's wettest tropical cyclone on record.[42]

Tropical cyclones formed in August 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Shanshan August 2–10 130 (80) 970 Mariana Islands, Japan[better source needed] None None
Ileana August 4–7 100 (65)4 998 Western Mexico, Baja California Sur Unknown 4 [43]
John August 5–10 165 (105)4 969 Western Mexico, Baja California Sur, Southern California None None
Yagi (Karding) August 6–15 75 (45) 990 Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, China $74 million 7 [44][45]
Kristy August 7–11 110 (70)4 991 None None None
BOB 04 August 7–8 45 (30)3 992 Odisha, West Bengal None 1
Debby August 8–9 85 (50)4 1000 None None None
Bebinca August 9–17 95 (60) 980 South China, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar $266 million 16 [46][47]
Leepi August 11–15 95 (60) 994 Japan, South Korea None None
Rumbia August 14–19 85 (50) 985 Ryukyu Islands, China, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East $1.34 billion 22 [48][49]
Soulik August 15–24 155 (100) 950 Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Northeast China, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East, Alaska $81 million 1 [50]
Lane August 15–29 260 (160)4 922 Hawaii >$200 million 1 [40]
BOB 05 August 15–17 45 (30)3 994 India None 69
Ernesto August 15–18 75 (45)4 999 Ireland, United Kingdom None None
Cimaron August 16–24 155 (100) 950 Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands, Japan Unknown None
24W (Luis) August 22–26 55 (35) 994 Taiwan, East China $34 million 7 [51][40]
TD August 24–26 Unspecified 1000 Ryukyu Islands, East China None None
Miriam August 26–September 2 155 (100)4 974 None None None
Jebi (Maymay) August 27–September 4 195 (120) 915 Mariana Islands, Taiwan, Japan, Russian Far East $2.3 billion 17 [52][53][54][55]
Norman August 28–September 9 240 (150)4 937 None None None
Florence August 31–September 17 220 (140)4 939 East Coast of the United States, West Africa, Cape Verde, Bermuda, Atlantic Canada >$13 billion 53

September[edit]

September was the most active month in the year at 23 tropical cyclones, including Hurricane Walaka, the second most intense in the Central Pacific on record and Typhoon Mangkhut as the second most intense worldwide of the year. Typhoon Kong-Rey along with Hurricane Walaka both were Category 5 tropical cyclones on the Saffir-Simpson scale simultaneously in the Northern Hemisphere, marking the first time since 2005 that this rare occurrence happened.

Tropical cyclones formed in September 2018
Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Olivia September 1–14 215 (130)4 948 Hawaii Unknown None
Gordon September 3–8 110 (70)4 997 Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Cuba, The Bahamas, Gulf Coast of the United States, Arkansas, Missouri, Eastern United States Unknown 3 [56][57]
TD September 5–8 55 (35) 1000 Ryukyu Islands None None
BOB 06 September 6–7 55 (35)3 990 Odisha, West Bengal None None
Mangkhut (Ompong) September 7–17 205 (125) 905 Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands, Guam, Philippines, Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong, China >$2.57 billion >102
Helene September 7–16 175 (110)4 966 West Africa, Cape Verde Unknown 3 [58]
Isaac September 7–15 120 (75)4 992 West Africa, Cape Verde None None
Barijat (Neneng) September 8–13 75 (45) 998 Philippines, Taiwan, South China None None
Paul September 8–11 75 (45)4 1002 None None None
Joyce September 12–19 85 (50)4 997 Azores None None
01 September 13–17 55 (35) 1004 None None None
Nineteen-E September 19–20 55 (35)4 1003 Baja California Sur, Northwestern Mexico Minimal None
Daye September 19–21 70 (45)3 992 Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand $100 million 25
Trami (Paeng) September 20–October 1 195 (120) 915 Mariana Islands, Taiwan, Japan Unknown 2
TD September 21–23 Unspecified 1006 None None None
Eleven September 22–23 55 (35)4 1007 None None None
Kirk September 22–29 95 (60)4 998 Lesser Antilles Unknown None
Leslie September 23–October 13 150 (90)4 969 Azores, Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Madeira, Iberian Peninsula, France >$92.4 million 2 (14)
Rosa September 25–October 2 230 (145)4 940 Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico, Southwestern United States Unknown 14
29W September 25-27 55 (35) 1008 None None None
Liua September 26–29 70 (45) 995 Solomon Islands Unknown Unknown
Zorbas September 27–October 1 120 (75) 987 Tunisia, Libya, Greece, Turkey Unknown Unknown
Kong-rey (Queenie) September 28–October 6 195 (120) 900 Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea Unknown 2
Sergio September 29–October 12 220 (140)4 943 Northwestern Mexico, Southwestern United States Minimal None
Walaka September 29–October 6 260 (160)4 920 Johnston Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Unknown None

October[edit]

October was an active month of the year but less so than previous months at 11 tropical cyclones. Typhoon Yutu became the strongest tropical cyclone in 2018, neck-to-neck with Typhoon Kong-Rey. Hurricane Michael caused about $10 billion in damage after making landfall on Floridian panhandle, becoming the third most intense hurricane to make landfall in the Continental United States in terms of minimum pressure. Cyclonic Storms Luban and Titli caused extensive damage throughout countries Yemen and India, also becoming the first pair of tropical cyclones ever recorded to be active in both the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal simultaneously.

Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Luban October 6–15 140 (85)3 976 Yemen, Oman Unknown 3
Michael October 7–12 250 (155)4 919 Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, Cuba, Florida Keys, Florida Panhandle $8.1 billion 50
Titli October 8–12 150 (90)3 970 Odisha, Andhra Pradesh $378 million 52
Nadine October 9–13 100 (65)4 997 None None None
Tara October 15–17 100 (65)4 995 Southwestern Mexico Unknown None [59]
Vicente October 19–23 85 (50)4 1002 Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Southwestern Mexico Unknown None [60][61]
TD October 19–20 Unspecified Unspecified None None None
Willa October 20–24 260 (160)4 925 Southwestern Mexico Unknown None [62][63]
TD October 20 Unspecified Unspecified None None None
Yutu (Rosita) October 21–November 3 215 (130) 900 Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Philippines, South China, Taiwan Unknown 1
Oscar October 27–31 165 (105)4 970 None None None

November[edit]

November was neither an active or inactive month of the year at 10 tropical cyclones. Cyclone Gaja made landfall in South India, resulting in about 60 fatalities.

Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Xavier November 2–6 95 (60)4 999 Southwestern Mexico None None
Alcide November 5–11 165 (105) 965 Agaléga None None
TD November 9 <55 (35) 1002 None None None
Bouchra November 9–20 95 (60) 990 None None None
Gaja November 10–20 110 (70)3 1000 South India, Sri Lanka $312 million 63
02F November 11–16 Unspecified 1003 Solomon Islands None None
TL November 14–18 Unspecified 1005 Java, Sumatra None None
Usagi (Samuel) November 14–26 120 (75) 975 Caroline Islands, Philippines, Vietnam $41.9 thousand None
Toraji November 16–22 65 (40) 1004 Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra Unknown 16
Man-yi (Tomas) November 19–28 150 (90) 955 Caroline Islands None None
Owen November 29—December 7 75 (45) 995 None None None

December[edit]

Storm Name Dates Active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas Affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs

Global effects[edit]

Season name Areas affected Systems formed Damage (USD) Deaths
2018 Atlantic hurricane season Yucatán Peninsula, Cayman Islands, Cuba, United States, Canada, Lesser Antilles, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Iceland, Ireland, United Kingdom, Hispaniola, West Africa, Cape Verde, Azores 16 >$33.3 billion 154
2018 Pacific hurricane season Mexico, Baja California Sur, Southwestern United States, Hawaii, Johnston Atoll 26 >$465 million 40
2018 Pacific typhoon season1 Micronesia, Taiwan, Philippines, China, Vietnam, Mariana Islands, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Laos, Russian Far East, Thailand, Myanmar, Alaska 44 >$11.9 billion 587
2018 North Indian Ocean cyclone season India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Yemen, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea 13 $2.66 billion 346
2017–18 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season1 Madagascar, Mozamique, Mauritius, Reunion 9 $38.2 million 108
2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season2 Agaléga, Madagascar 3 None None
2017–18 Australian region cyclone season1 Indonesia, Australia, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea 23 $165 million 41
2018–19 Australian region cyclone season2 Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Java, Sumatra 4 None None
2017–18 South Pacific cyclone season1 Fiji, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Tonga, New Zealand, Samoan Islands, Wallis and Futuna, Niue, Solomon Islands 11 $285 million 11
2018–19 South Pacific cyclone season2 Solomon Islands 2 None None
Worldwide (See above) 136 >$48.09 billion 1267

Notes[edit]

1 Only systems that formed either on or after January 1, 2018 are counted in the seasonal totals.
2 Only systems that formed either before or on December 31, 2018 are counted in the seasonal totals.
3 The wind speeds for this tropical cyclone/basin are based on the IMD Scale which uses 3-minute sustained winds.
4 The wind speeds for this tropical cyclone/basin are based on the Saffir Simpson Scale which uses 1-minute sustained winds.
5The wind speeds for this tropical cyclone are based on Météo-France which uses gust winds.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers

Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Weather Service.