True vertical depth
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In the petroleum industry, true vertical depth, abbreviated as TVD, is the measurement from the surface to the bottom of the borehole (or anywhere along its length) in a straight perpendicular line represented by line (a) in the image.
Line (b) is the actual borehole and its length would be considered the measured depth  in oilfield terminology. The TVD is always equal to or less than (≤) the measured depth. If you imagine line (b) were a piece of string and pull it straight down, you would see that it would be longer than line (a). This example oilwell would be considered a directional well because it deviates from a straight vertical line.
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