|Regions with significant populations|
|Brazil ( Mato Grosso)|
|Traditional tribal religion|
The Trumai (or Trumaí; native name: Ho kod ke) are an indigenous people of Brazil. They currently reside within the Xingu National Park, in the state of Mato Grosso. They have a population of 258 in 2014. They were 97 in 2011 and 120 in 2006, up from a low of 26 in 1966.
The Trumai are one of the last groups to have settled on the upper Xingu River, moving there in the 19th century from the region between the Xingu and Araguaia Rivers, as a result of attacks from another people. They currently live in four villages in the National Park, Terra Preta, Boa Esperança, Steinen and Terra Nova, situated halfway from the Leonardo Villas-Bôas Post and the Diauarum Indigenous Post, where some families also live.
The Trumai are one of the ethnicities included in the standard cross-cultural sample.
The Trumai language is not closely related to other languages, and it is considered a language isolate. It is severely endangered, as children are becoming native speakers of Awetï, Suyá, or Portuguese.
- "Trumai: Introduction." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Trumai." Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 Feb 2012.
- "Trumai: Name."Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 24 Feb 2012.
- Socioambiental history page
- Guirardello-Damian R, Trumai K, Trumai T (2017). "Trumai". In Stenzel K, Franchetto B. On this and other worlds: Voices from Amazonia (pdf). Berlin: Language Science Press. pp. 163–185. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1008781. ISBN 978-3-96110-018-7.
- Robert F. Murphy and Buell Quain. "The Trumai Indians of Central Brazil." American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 58, No. 4 (Aug., 1956), p. 747
- Anne Sutherland Louis. "Alliance or Descent: The Trumai Indians of Central Brazil." Man, New Series, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Mar., 1971), pp. 18–29
- Trumai language dictionary online from IDS (select simple or advanced browsing)
- Socioambiental page by Raquel Guirardello (Rice University)
- Trumai on the Documentation of Endangered Languages
- Homepage of a Trumai indigenous artist