View from Fifth Avenue
|Type||Retail, office, and residential|
|Location||721 Fifth Avenue|
New York City, NY 10022
|Current tenants||The Trump Organization|
|Named for||Donald Trump|
|Inaugurated||November 30, 1983|
|Owner||Donald Trump, The Trump Organization|
|Architectural||664 ft (202 m)|
|Design and construction|
|Architecture firm||Poor, Swanke, Hayden & Connell|
|Structural engineer||Irwin Cantor|
|Number of units||238|
|Number of restaurants||3|
|Number of bars||1|
Trump Tower is a 58-floor, 664-foot-tall (202 m) mixed-use skyscraper at 721–725 Fifth Avenue, between 56th and 57th Streets, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Trump Tower serves as the headquarters for the Trump Organization. Additionally, it houses the penthouse condominium residence of the building's namesake and developer, businessman and real estate developer (and later U.S. president) Donald Trump. Several members of the Trump family also live, or have resided, in the building. The tower stands on a plot where the flagship store of department-store chain Bonwit Teller was formerly located.
Der Scutt of Poor, Swanke, Hayden & Connell designed Trump Tower, and Trump and the Equitable Life Assurance Company (now the AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company) developed it. Although it is in one of Midtown Manhattan's special zoning districts, the tower was approved because it was to be built as a mixed-use development. Trump was permitted to add more stories to the tower because of the atrium on the ground floor. There were controversies during construction, including the destruction of historically important sculptures from the Bonwit Teller store; Trump's alleged underpaying of contractors; and a lawsuit that Trump filed because the tower was not tax-exempt.
Construction on the building began in 1979. The atrium, apartments, offices, and stores opened on a staggered schedule from February to November 1983. At first, there were few tenants willing to move in to the commercial and retail spaces; the residential units were sold out within months of opening. Since 2016, the tower has seen a large increase in visitation because of Trump's 2016 presidential campaign and subsequent election—his 2016 campaign was headquartered in the tower.
Donald Trump—the son of New York City developer Fred Trump—had envisioned building a tower at 56th Street and Fifth Avenue in Manhattan since childhood, but formulated plans to develop the site only in the mid-1970s, when he was in his thirties. At the time, the Bonwit Teller flagship store, an architecturally renowned building built in 1929, occupied the lot. The site was next to Tiffany's flagship store on 57th Street, which Trump considered the city's best real-estate property. Approximately twice every year, Trump contacted Bonwit Teller's parent company, Genesco, to ask whether they were willing to sell Bonwit Teller's flagship store. Trump said the first time he contacted Genesco, "they literally laughed at me." Genesco continued to decline his offers and, according to Trump, "they thought I was kidding."
In 1977, John Hanigan became the new chairman of Genesco. He looked to sell off some assets to pay debts, and Trump approached him with an offer to buy the Bonwit Teller building. In February 1979, Genesco sold off many of the Bonwit Teller locations to Allied Stores, and sold the brand's flagship building to the Trump Organization. At the time, the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States owned the land, while Genesco had a long-term lease on the land, with 29 years remaining. If Trump were to buy the land, his tower's ownership could be transferred to Equitable in 2008, once the lease expired. Equitable initially refused to sell the land to Trump, but the Trump Organization bought the lease instead, and Equitable exchanged the land in return for a 50% stake in the construction project itself. This was more profitable for Equitable, since they were getting only $100,000 per year from Genesco for the use of the land, while a single condominium in the tower could be sold for millions of dollars. Trump also bought the air rights around Tiffany's flagship store to prevent another developer from tearing down the store and building a taller building.
Trump then needed to convince the New York City Department of City Planning, Manhattan Community Board 5, and the New York City Board of Estimate to rezone the area for his planned tower. In 1979, the New York Committee for a Balanced Building Boom had opposed the planned rezoning over fears Fifth Avenue's character would be changed by the construction of skyscrapers. Trump later said a positive review of the building by the famed architectural critic Ada Louise Huxtable had played a part in securing the support of some of the more skeptical members on each committee. The deal attracted some criticism from the media. A writer for New York magazine said the approval of Trump Tower has "legitimized a pushy kid nobody took seriously," while The Wall Street Journal wrote that Trump combined "a huckster's flair for hyperbole with a shrewd business and political sense," and The Village Voice said Trump "turn[s] political connections into private profits at public expense."
The Trump Organization closed Bonwit Teller's flagship store in May 1979, and the store was demolished by 1980. Trump hired Der Scutt, the architect of Trump Tower, in July 1978, a year before the Bonwit Teller site was purchased. Scutt had collaborated with Trump before to develop Grand Hyatt New York and several other projects. The architect initially proposed a design similar to Boston's John Hancock Tower, but Trump objected strongly. He preferred a building that was both expensive and very tall, with a design critics and potential tenants would approve of. The real-estate mogul later stated that "the marble in Trump Tower would cost more than the entire rent from one of my buildings in Brooklyn."
Two major factors affected Trump Tower's construction. One was the decision to build it around a concrete frame, in contrast to many other skyscrapers, which were built on steel frames. Scutt said a concrete frame was easier to build and was more rigid than a steel frame was. More specifically, it employed a concrete tube structure, which had been pioneered by Bangladeshi-American structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan in the 1960s.
The other was the decision to design Trump Tower as a mixed-use building with retail, office, and residential units. Originally, Trump only wanted to build an office building on the site, but the plot was located in a special zoning district, which specified height limits for most office towers in the area. However, mixed-use towers with public space were exempt from the height limit. The Trump Organization built a five-story, 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m2) atrium, which was legally designated a "public space" according to city code, in exchange for permission to add twenty stories to the planned tower. The Trump Organization also constructed terraces on the building's setbacks, as well as a pedestrian arcade at ground level through the middle of the block, which connected to IBM's 590 Madison Avenue tower to the east. At the time, the building was the only skyscraper on Fifth Avenue with its own retail space.
As originally planned, the tower was to have 60 stories consisting of 13 office floors, 40 condominium floors, and two floors for mechanical uses, but this was later amended. The base was to be made of limestone, while the building's elevators were to be in a separate glass structure outside the main tower. The final plan called for the building to contain 58 stories. The lowest six floors were to be occupied by the atrium, followed by 13 office floors above it, and 39 condominium floors above the office floors.
While creating the final design for Trump Tower, Scutt studied the designs of other skyscrapers, almost all having a similar architectural form. To make Trump Tower stand out from the "boxy" International Style buildings being erected at the time, Scutt designed the tower as a 28-faced edifice with an "inverted pyramid of cubes" at the base. This design received mixed reviews from critics: although it was widely praised as creative, many reviewers also believed the tower could be covered in masonry to blend in with neighboring buildings, or that its height should be reduced for the same reason. The city ultimately accepted this design.
HRH Construction was hired as the contractor on Trump Tower. The company would go on to build many of Trump's other real-estate developments. HRH hired several dozen subcontractors to work on different aspects of the building. Barbara Res, who had worked on some of Trump's other projects, was hired as the construction executive in October 1980. She had previously worked for HRH Construction during the building of the Citigroup Center and the Grand Hyatt. Res was the first woman assigned to oversee a major New York City construction site. She was often ignored by subcontractors and suppliers who were new to the project, as they thought the person in charge of construction was a man.
The head superintendent of the project was Anthony "Tony Raf" Rafaniello, who worked for HRH Construction. He was in charge of coordinating construction based on the site's blueprints. Rafaniello was supported by five assistant superintendents, including Jeff Doynow, who was one of the first "concrete supervisors" to be hired for the construction of a skyscraper. After Rafaniello was hired for the Trump Tower project in September 1980, he spent a week planning a three-phase construction schedule. Once the subcontractors were hired, Rafaniello made sure they met once a week to ensure they were working on the same phase.
Trump Tower's proposed mixed-use status posed obstacles during construction since there were different regulations for residential, commercial, and retail spaces. Several prospective commercial and residential tenants requested custom-made features, including the installation of a swimming pool for one unit, and the removal of a wall with utilities inside it for another. Trump's then-wife, Ivana Trump, was involved in selecting some of the tower's minor details. Donald Trump and Res agreed to fulfill many of these requests, but they did not always agree on matters of design. In one case, Trump so hated the marble slabs at some of the tower's corners that he demanded they be removed completely, even at great cost; he eventually decided bronze panels should be placed over the marble, but Res later said she refused to buy them.
Trump Tower was one of the first skyscrapers with a concrete frame, along with Chicago's One Magnificent Mile engineered by Fazlur Rahman Khan in 1983. The contractors had to complete a floor before they started erecting the floor above it. Concrete was more expensive in New York City than anywhere else in the United States, which raised the construction costs. All the floors above the 20th used a roughly similar design, and each of these floors could be completed within two days. However, the floors below the 20th floor were all different, so each took several weeks to erect. Trump Tower was topped out by July 1982, two-and-a-half years after the start of construction.
Originally, it was estimated the tower would cost $100 million to build. The total cost ended up being approximately twice that; this included $125 million in actual construction costs and $75 million for other expenditures such as insurance.
Trump Tower had a low number of worker fatalities during construction. One worker died during the tower's excavation after a neighboring sidewalk collapsed. Another incident occurred when the tower's 25th through 27th floors accidentally caught fire, slightly damaging a construction crane. Firefighters had to rescue the crane's operator. The fire delayed construction for two months.
Destruction of Bonwit Teller Building features
The art dealer Robert Miller owned a gallery across Fifth Avenue from the Bonwit Teller Building. When Miller heard the building was to be demolished, he contacted Penelope Hunter-Stiebel, a curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In December 1979, Stiebel and Trump agreed that the Art Deco limestone bas-relief sculptures of semi-nude goddesses on the Bonwit Teller Building's facade, as well as the massive ornate 15 by 25 feet (4.6 by 7.6 m) grille above the store's entrance, would be removed and donated to the Metropolitan Museum. Miller had appraised the sculptures at between $200,000 and $250,000. In February 1980, Trump wrote a letter to an official at the museum, in which he stated, "Our contractor plans to begin demolition on the exterior of the building in approximately three to four weeks. He has been instructed to save these artifacts and take all necessary measures to preserve them." Every week, the Trump Organization and Stiebel would meet to discuss the transport of the sculptures. However, Stiebel later said the Trump Organization never seemed to be able to agree on a specific date for their transport, and the organization had repeatedly dismissed her concerns about not having received the letter.
On April 16, 1980, the grille and sculptures were removed from the building. They were set to be transported to a junkyard and destroyed because, according to Trump, there were general hazard concerns, expense, and a possible 10-day construction delay due to the difficulty of removing them. Stiebel rode by taxicab to the building site and attempted to pay the workmen for the sculptures, but she was rebuffed. The workers in charge of demolition told her she could make an appointment to go see the sculptures, but they then canceled several appointments that Stiebel made. The workers later told her the building's decorative grille had been transported to a New Jersey warehouse, but it was never recovered, and on May 28, Stiebel was informed the grille had been "lost". On June 5, the sculptures were destroyed. Stiebel had received notice of the sculptures' pending demolition, but by the time she reached the Trump Tower site, the workmen told her they had been ordered to "destroy it all." Trump later acknowledged he had personally ordered the destruction of the sculptures and grille. Trump said these "so-called Art Deco sculptures, which were garbage by the way," had been informally appraised by three different individuals as "not valuable," and they had pegged the sculptures' value at $4,000 to $5,000. He also told the media that carefully removing the sculptures would have cost him an extra $500,000 and would have delayed his project. In a New York Magazine article in November 1980, Trump said the decor of his Grand Hyatt New York included "real art, not like the junk I destroyed at Bonwit Teller."
The New York Times condemned Trump's actions as "esthetic vandalism," and a spokesman for Mayor Ed Koch said Trump had failed his "moral responsibility to consider the interests of the people of the city." Scutt was outraged by the destruction, having initially hoped to incorporate the goddess sculptures into the new building's lobby design; Trump had rejected the plan, preferring something "more contemporary." Miller lamented that such things would "never be made again," and Peter M. Warner, a researcher who worked across the street, called the destruction "regrettable." However, Trump later said he used the notoriety of that act to advertise more residential units in the tower.
In 1983, a class-action lawsuit was filed against the Trump Organization concerning unpaid pension and medical obligations to labor unions whose members helped build the towers. Trump had paid $774,000 to a window-cleaning company that employed undocumented Polish immigrants during the renovation of an adjoining building. According to the laborers, they were paid $4 an hour (equivalent to $10 in 2019) for 12-hour shifts, and were not told about asbestos in the under-construction structure.
Trump testified in 1990 he was unaware that 200 undocumented Polish immigrants, some of whom lived at the site during the 1980 New York City transit strike, and worked round-the-clock shifts, were involved in the destruction of the Bonwit Teller building and the Trump Tower project. Trump said he rarely visited the demolition site and never noticed the laborers, who were visually distinct for their lack of hard hats. A labor consultant and FBI informant testified that Trump was aware of the illegal workers' status. Trump testified that he and an executive used the pseudonym "John Baron" in some of his business dealings, although Trump said he did not do so until years after Trump Tower was constructed. A labor lawyer testified that he was threatened over the phone with a $100 million lawsuit by a John Baron who supposedly worked for the Trump Organization. Donald Trump later told a reporter, "Lots of people use pen names. Ernest Hemingway used one."
After the laborers filed for a mechanic's lien over unpaid wages, they said a Trump Organization lawyer threatened to have the Immigration and Naturalization Service deport them. A judge ruled in favor of the Polish laborers in 1991, saying the organization had to pay the workers. The contractor was ultimately ordered to pay the laborers $254,000.
The case went through several appeals by both sides as well as non-jury trials, and was reassigned to different judges several times. The original named plaintiff, plaintiffs' attorney, and two co-defendants, died during the litigation, leading Judge Kevin Duffy to compare it unfavorably to Charles Dickens' fictional case Jarndyce and Jarndyce in June 1998, when he was assigned the case after the death of the previous presiding judge. The lawsuit was ultimately settled in 1999, with its records sealed. In November 2017, U.S. District Judge Loretta A. Preska ordered the settlement documents unsealed. In the settlement, Trump agreed to pay a total of $1.375 million, which, according to the plaintiffs' lawyer, was the full amount that could have been recovered at trial.
There were several other controversies related to the construction process. In one case, Trump sued a contractor for "total incompetence." Construction was also halted twice because minority rights' groups protested outside the Trump Tower site to condemn the dearth of minority construction workers.
Trump was also involved in a disagreement with Mayor Koch about whether the tower should get a tax exemption. In 1985, Trump was one of the plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the state in the New York State Court of Appeals concerning the payment of a 10% state tax in the event that a real estate property is transacted for $1 million or more. The exemption was reported as between $15 million and $50 million. The tax on Trump Tower was upheld in a 4-to-1 decision.
The City of New York granted Trump permission to build the top twenty stories of the building in exchange for operating the atrium as a city-administered, privately owned public space. In the lobby of the building are two Trump merchandise kiosks (one of which replaced a long public bench) operating out of compliance with city regulations. The city issued a notice of violation in July 2015, demanding the bench be put back in place. Although the Trump Organization initially said the violation was without merit, a lawyer speaking for Trump's organization stated in January 2016 that the kiosks would be removed in two to four weeks, before an expected court ruling.
Trump maintained a connection with organized crime members to supply the building's concrete. According to former New York mobster Michael Franzese, "the mob controlled all the concrete business in the city of New York," and that while Trump was not "in bed with the mob ... he certainly had a deal with us. ... he didn't have a choice." Mafia-connected union boss John Cody supplied Trump with concrete in exchange for giving his mistress a high-level apartment with a pool, which required extra structural reinforcement. A 1992 book by journalist Wayne Barrett concludes that "Trump didn't just do business with mobbed-up concrete companies: he also probably met personally with [Anthony] Salerno at the townhouse of notorious New York fixer Roy Cohn ... at a time when other developers in New York were pleading with the FBI to free them of mob control of the concrete business." Barrett questioned some of Trump's business dealings in a Daily Beast article in 2011, and alleged that concrete was one of "several dozen" suspected mob connections Trump had. Trump admitted in 2014 that he had "had no choice" but to work with "concrete guys who are mobbed up."
Opening and later years
Trump bought full-page advertisements in multiple newspapers and magazines to advertise his new tower. The first tenants included Asprey and Ludwig Beck, who moved into the building before its planned opening in early 1983. The grand opening of the atrium and stores was held on February 14, 1983, with the apartments and offices following shortly afterwards. The tower's forty ground-level stores opened for business on November 30, 1983. At the building's dedication, Mayor Koch said, "This is not your low-income housing project ... of which we need many. But we also need accommodations, uh, for those who can afford to pay a lot of money and bring a lot of taxes into the city." By August 1983, the construction loan for Trump Tower's construction had been paid off using the $260 million revenue from the sale of 85% of the 263 condominium units. Ninety-one units, representing over a third of the tower's total housing stock, had sold for more than $1 million. The first residents were set to begin moving in that month.
Despite the destruction of the Bonwit Teller store's building, the flagship store itself was able to keep operating at the site, having signed a lease for 80,000 square feet (7,400 m2) within the lower-levels' shopping area. The controversy over the destruction of the Bonwit Teller decorations had largely passed: in August 1983, one New York Times reporter wrote that "the only negative comments about Donald Trump these days are given off the record." By then, there were forty high-end outfits that had opened stores in the tower. These included Buccellati, Charles Jourdan brands, Mondi, and Fila. Trump said in 1985 that there were more than a hundred stores wanting to move into a space in the tower. Around this time, he began describing the tower as "something of a New York landmark."
By 1986, between 15% and 20% of the tower's original stores had closed or moved to another location. The commercial rents were the highest of any building along Fifth Avenue at the time, with retail space in the atrium costing $450 per square foot ($4,800/m2) per year. One writer for Vanity Fair magazine noted that as tenants were evicted from the tower's atrium due to high rents, several of them sued the Trump Organization for issues such as overbilling and illegal lease termination.
The residential units were more successful, and 95% of the condominiums were sold in the first four months after it opened, despite their high prices. The cost of condominiums at the tower started at $600,000 and ranged up to $12 million, and the penthouse was sold for $15 million in 1985. The tower attracted many rich and famous residents, including Johnny Carson, David Merrick, Sophia Loren, and Steven Spielberg. In total, Trump received $300 million from the sale of the condominiums, which more than offset the $200 million cost of construction. By 1991, Trump was involved in lawsuits against residents: in October of that year, he successfully sued actor Pia Zadora and her husband, businessman Meshulam Riklis, to collect $1 million in unpaid rent.
The flagship Bonwit Teller store remained as one of Trump Tower's retail offerings until March 1990, when its parent company declared bankruptcy and closed the Trump Tower location. In July of that year, Galeries Lafayette announced that it would sign a 25-year lease to move into the space previously occupied by Bonwit Teller, a move that expanded its business to the United States while helping Trump pay off the debts incurred by the tower's construction and operation. The new store opened in September 1991 after a $13.7 million renovation, but was unprofitable and lost a net $3.6 million in the first year alone because it had made only $8.4 million in sales. Galeries Lafayette announced that it would be closing the Trump Tower location in August 1994, less than three years after it opened, due to its inability to pay the $8 million annual rent and taxes. However, critics cited other factors, including the decision not to include merchandise from top French designers as the company's French locations had done.
The Galeries Lafayette store was replaced with a Niketown location. By this time, most of the high-end retailers had moved out of Trump Tower, having been replaced with more upper-middle-class outlets such as Coach and Dooney & Bourke. The Niketown store still remained in the tower as of the 2016 election with a lease at that location until 2022. Nike also leased some space at 6 East 57th Street next to the tower, but in November 2016, it signed a $700 million contract for a new retail space a few blocks south, having intended to move out of 6 East 57th since 2013. During and after the election, there were petitions to relocate the Niketown store, created by advocacy organizations who opposed Trump's election.
In 2006, Forbes magazine valued the 300,000 square feet (28,000 m2) of office space at up to $318 million; the tower itself was valued at $288 million, since the Trump Organization had a $30 million mortgage on the property. As of 2013[update], that mortgage had risen to $100 million. News outlets reported in 2020 that Trump had taken a ten-year, $100 million mortgage loan on the building in 2012. The valuation of the building rose from $490 million in 2014 to $600 million in 2015 due to increased rent payments by anchor store Gucci. This revaluation made the tower the single most expensive property under Trump's ownership.
In 2016, however, the tower's value dropped sharply from $630 million to $471 million, losing $159 million of valuation due to a 20% reduction in the tower's operating income and a further 8% decline in the overall value of real estate in Manhattan. Due to a $100 million debt incurred on Trump Tower, Forbes magazine calculated the tower's net worth at $371 million, excluding the Trumps' three-story penthouse, which has a net floor area of 10,996 square feet (1,021.6 m2). The New York Times reported in 2020 that rent from the building's commercial spaces had earned Trump $336 million from 2000 through the end of 2018, amounting to over $20 million per year in profits.
In March 2017, after Trump was elected president, he wrote several posts on Twitter claiming former president Barack Obama had wiretapped phones in the tower toward the end of the 2016 campaign. An Obama spokesperson refuted the claims and, during a subsequent meeting with the House of Representatives' Intelligence Committee that discussed the issue, FBI Director James Comey informed the committee that there was no evidence of wiretapping in the tower.
Trump also claimed to own the painting Two Sisters (On the Terrace), an 1881 work by French Impressionist artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir. The original work hangs in the Art Institute of Chicago. In October 2017, Timothy L. O'Brien said that during his interviews with Trump for the book TrumpNation: The Art of Being The Donald, he asked Trump about the copy of Two Sisters, which was then on Trump's plane. Trump repeatedly said his copy was the genuine work, despite O'Brien's statements to the contrary. By then, the Renoir copy was hanging in Trump's penthouse office. The Art Institute of Chicago released a statement refuting Trump's claim that his Renoir copy was the genuine one.
Trump Tower has been criticized for being environmentally unfriendly, and has been described as one of the city's least energy-efficient buildings per square foot. In 2017, Trump Tower's Energy Star score was 44 out of 100, below the city's overall median Energy Star score and lower than the 48 out of 100 score recorded in 2015. In May 2019 it was reported that eight of Trump's buildings in New York City, including Trump Tower, failed to meet the city's 2030 carbon emission standards, which were implemented as part of the city's "Green New Deal". The city threatened to fine Trump Organization for each year the infractions went unfixed.
On August 9, 2016, a man posted a YouTube video where he said he was an independent researcher wishing to speak to Donald Trump; the video went viral. The next day, a man, suspected to be the one who had posted the YouTube video, climbed the outside of Trump Tower from the 5th to the 21st floors. He was aid climbing using industrial suction cups. During the incident, the police attempted to "safely isolate" the climber, breaking and removing windows to try to capture him. After he had climbed for two hours and 45 minutes, the NYPD Emergency Service Units (ESU) apprehended him at the 21st floor of the tower. The man identified himself as Stephen Rogata, a 20-year-old Virginia resident. Rogata was arrested for endangerment and criminal trespassing and taken to Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric evaluation.
At around 5:30 p.m. (EDT) on April 7, 2018, a 4-alarm fire broke out in a condominium in the tower's 50th floor, killing a resident and injuring six firefighters; the apartment was almost entirely engulfed in flames by the time the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) arrived. In a Twitter post, Trump attributed the fire's limited damage to the building's design. The sole fatality was 67-year-old Todd Brassner, an art dealer known for his association with Andy Warhol, who had endured debilitating medical problems for several years. Brassner's apartment, as well as the rest of the residential units in Trump Tower, did not contain sprinklers because the structure had been built before 1999, when the city passed a law requiring sprinklers in residential units; Trump had lobbied against the proposal. The FDNY later announced that the fire had been accidentally caused by power wires that had overheated. The April 2018 fire followed a minor electrical fire at the tower earlier that year, which had injured three people.
In July 2020, activists including New York City mayor Bill de Blasio painted the words "Black Lives Matter" in giant letters on Fifth Avenue directly in front of the building. The project was announced in response to the George Floyd protests in New York City, a series of pro-police-reform protests that started after the killing of George Floyd, a black man in Minneapolis, in May 2020. Trump expressed his opposition to the mural after it was announced.
Trump Tower is located at 721–725 Fifth Avenue in north Midtown, on the east side of Fifth Avenue between 56th and 57th Streets. It is adjacent to the L. P. Hollander & Company Building to the north, the Bergdorf Goodman Building to the northwest, the Crown Building to the west, 712 Fifth Avenue on the southwest, and 550 Madison Avenue to the southeast. The building's main entrance is on Fifth Avenue, with a side entrance on 56th Street only for residents. On the sidewalk opposite the main entrance, there is a four-sided brown-and-beige clock, which was created by the Electric Time Company and is nearly 16 feet (4.9 m) tall. Retail outlets include Gucci's flagship store at ground floor retail. A Tiffany & Co. store is next door in its own Art Deco building at 1 East 57th Street. The tower is close to three New York City Subway stations: Fifth Avenue/53rd Street, Fifth Avenue–59th Street, and 57th Street–Sixth Avenue.
In the 2012 presidential election, Republican nominee Mitt Romney earned over 50% of the vote in the precinct that included Trump Tower, one of two Manhattan voting precincts to do so (the other being the precinct that included the Waldorf Astoria New York hotel). However, although Trump received 23 votes in the district during the 2016 Republican primary, signifying the most votes of any Republican candidate there, there were 67 votes for his opponent Hillary Clinton in the 2016 Democratic primary. In 2016, within the precinct that contained Trump Tower, 200 people voted for Clinton as opposed to 95 for Trump.
Since the launch of Trump's presidential campaign in 2015, the number of visits to the tower had risen drastically, with many of the visitors being supporters of Trump's candidacy. The tower gained popularity among New York City tourists in 2016, especially after Trump was elected president. There are stores selling Trump merchandise in the atrium. During Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, the stores sold campaign memorabilia such as hats, with the proceeds going toward funding his campaign. In 2017, the city ordered the removal of two unauthorized kiosks in Trump Tower selling Trump's merchandise.
Serious issues concerning safety and security in the building arose after Trump became president-elect of the United States on November 8, 2016. Trump Tower had served as a rallying point for protests against Trump in the days after the election's results were announced, thus requiring extra deployment of security officials. The Federal Aviation Administration imposed a no-fly zone over Trump Tower until January 20, 2017, and the NYPD stated that it expected to spend $35 million to provide security to the tower, of which $7 million would be repaid by Congress. The NYPD later revised its estimate to $24 million.
Street closures were imposed along the east side of Fifth Avenue and on the north side of 56th Street, and NYPD officers started stopping and questioning pedestrians about their destinations. The block of 56th Street between Fifth and Madison Avenues was closed completely to vehicular traffic, but the eastern part of the street, located west of Madison Avenue, was later reopened to allow local deliveries. Customers of the Gucci and Tiffany stores in Trump Tower's lobby were allowed to proceed, while other pedestrians were redirected to the opposite side of the street. During presidential visits, dump trucks from the New York City Department of Sanitation were parked outside the tower to prevent car bombs. Fire protection was also provided for the tower whenever Trump visited it. The press nicknamed the now-heavily secured building White House North, comparing it to the White House's West Wing.
As a result of the heavy security, businesses around the tower saw decreased patronage due to less foot traffic in the heavily secured area. Protests around the tower subsided after Trump's inauguration in January 2017, and by summer 2017, security measures around the tower had been loosened somewhat, owing to the fact that most of them were implemented only when Trump was actually in the tower. However, several businesses at the tower's base had closed by then because of a reduction in the number of customers.
Despite the heavy security after the 2016 election, there have been some detentions and arrests related to the increased security at the tower. On December 6, a woman managed to bypass security and go to the 24th floor—two floors below Donald Trump's office—before being stopped by Secret Service officers. A week later on December 13, a Baruch College student who was arrested at Trump Tower was found to have multiple weapons, including knives, a garrote, and firecrackers. The next day, NYPD detained another man who reportedly got angry after he wanted to meet Donald Trump at the tower, and threw a wine glass on the lobby floor.
The 58-story Trump Tower is 664 feet (202 m) high, making it the 64th tallest building in New York City. The top story is marked as "68" because, according to Trump, the five-story-tall public atrium occupied the height of ten ordinary stories. However, several Bloomberg L.P. writers later determined that Trump's calculations did not account for the fact the ceiling heights in Trump Tower were much taller than in comparable buildings, and the tower did not have any floors numbered 6–13. According to one author, the building may have as few as 48 usable stories.
Form and facade
The 28-sided structure, with a stepped facade, was intended to give the tower more window exposure. Above the main entrance is a logo with 34-inch-high (86 cm) brass capital letters in Stymie Extra Bold font, which reads "TRUMP TOWER". A concrete hat-truss at the top of the building, similar to one used in the Trump World Tower, ties exterior columns with the concrete core. This hat-truss increases the effective dimensions of the core to that of the building allowing the building to resist the overturning of lateral forces such as those caused by wind, minor earthquakes, and other impacts perpendicular to the building's height.
The tower is a reinforced concrete shear wall core structure. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest structure of its type in the world. Trump Tower used 45,000 cubic yards (34,000 m3) of concrete and 3,800 tons of steelwork.
Interior and public spaces
The tower's public spaces are clad in 240 tons of Breccia Pernice, a pink white-veined marble. Four gold-painted elevators transport visitors from the lobby to higher floors; a dedicated elevator leads directly to the penthouse where the Trump family lives. Mirrors and brass are used throughout the well-furnished apartments and the kitchens are outfitted with "standard suburban" cabinets. The building has thirteen office floors on levels 14 to 26, then another 39 condominium floors containing 263 condominiums on levels 30–68. Trump later said he had placed the first residential floor on the level numbered 30 as part of a marketing strategy for all his towers, and that he "did not see why he should be forced to call the first residential floor something mundane like the second floor, or even the 20th floor." Many of the apartments are furnished, but some of the upper-floor commercial spaces come unfurnished.
The design extends to the office lobby, located off Fifth Avenue, and the five-level atrium, which features a 60-foot-high (18 m) internal waterfall along the eastern wall that is spanned by a suspended walkway, shops, and cafes. The atrium, legally a privately operated public space (POPS), is bedecked in marble, which has been described as "rosy and yellow," and is crowned with a skylight. The atrium was originally supposed to be furnished with multiple 40-foot (12 m), 3,000-pound (1,400 kg) trees, which were transported at a cost of $75,000, but Trump, who supposedly did not like how the trees looked, personally cut them down after impatiently waiting for contractors to painstakingly remove them via a tunnel. The atrium comprises the northern part of a two-block pedestrian plaza between Fifth and Madison Avenues, connecting to the atrium at 550 Madison Avenue (then the AT&T Building) to the south. When the tower opened, the Fifth Avenue Association awarded the first-prize "mixed use building" award to the atrium, marking the association's first award in five years.
The tower has two outdoor terraces as part of Trump's agreement with the city during construction. There is a terrace on the fifth floor on the northern (57th Street) side of the building, with a smaller fourth-floor terrace on the southern (56th Street) side. The fifth-floor north-side terrace has several trees and a fountain, while the fourth-floor south-side terrace has little more than a few granite benches. There is also a passageway to a glass-roofed POPS at 590 Madison Avenue.
The building contains four establishments for eating or drinking: Trump Bar, Trump's Ice Cream Parlor, Trump Cafe, and Trump Grill. Of these, Trump Bar is the only establishment at the atrium level; the other three are in the basement.
Trump Grill was generally panned as gaudy-looking and the food bland-tasting. Vanity Fair called it a contender for "the worst restaurant in America," with different menus for different customers and "steakhouse classics doused with unnecessarily high-end ingredients." Eater rated the food as "totally unadventuresome and predictable, though competently prepared, like food you might find in a country club." New York magazine wrote that "despite what the sign reads, countless restaurants trump this spot." In December 2016, Yelp reviews of Trump Grill averaged two-and-a-half out of five stars, while Google reviews averaged three of five stars. Health inspections in 2018 reported "evidence of mice or live mice" in and around the kitchen, according to records obtained by the New York Daily News, in violations the inspectors called "critical".
Eater reviewed the three other establishments as well, finding them to be commonplace compared to Trump Tower's stature. The ice cream was described as "almost too soft to be scooped," and the cafe contained food such as a "rubbery and overcooked" hamburger patty and some "inedible" steak fries. The reviewers at Eater also wrote that the bar offered a small, overpriced drink menu and snacks that "do little to affirm the luxury that the place aspires to." Vice magazine also reviewed the bar and found it to be overpriced, with "a strong pour of watered-down vodka and a few Manzanilla olives" costing twenty dollars. New York magazine, reviewing the cafe, found the food to be "safe classics" that contrasted with the cafe's grandeur.
The NBC television show The Apprentice was filmed in Trump Tower, on the fifth floor, in a fully functional television studio. The set of The Apprentice included the famous boardroom, which was prominently featured in the television show, where at least one person was fired at the end of each episode. Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., founded in 2015, headquartered within part of the space where The Apprentice was filmed; unlike the former boardroom, the headquarters is unfurnished, with some offices containing "only drywall and no door".  After Trump's successful 2016 election, the campaign was moved out of the Tower and instead into office space in Arlington, Virginia, where his unsuccessful 2020 re-election campaign was headquartered. 
Condo owners and tenants
President of the United States
Donald Trump, his wife Melania, and their son Barron maintain a three-story residence on the penthouse floors. Until 2017, the tower was their main residence, among the family's other homes at Mar-a-Lago in Florida; Seven Springs in Bedford, New York; and part of an estate in Charlottesville, Virginia. Since January 2017, Trump lives primarily at the White House. Melania and Barron lived in Trump Tower until June 2017, when they moved into the White House. Barron is reported to live on his own floor. Before Trump became president, his offices were located on the 26th floor, and he had a private elevator between the penthouse and his office. In a 1984 article in GQ magazine, Trump's then-wife Ivana said the first floor of the penthouse had the living, dining, and entertainment rooms and kitchen; the second had a balcony over the living room as well as their bedrooms and bathrooms; and the third contained bedrooms for the children, maids, and guests. Angelo Donghia provided the original black-and-white, brass-and-mahogany design for the penthouse, which was later replaced with a gold-and-Greek-column design after Trump reportedly saw the more lavish house of Saudi businessman Adnan Khashoggi.
Noted soccer organizations and players have rented space or lived in Trump Tower. CONCACAF, the governing body of association football in North and Central America and the Caribbean, occupies the entire 17th floor. Chuck Blazer, the former president of CONCACAF, used to live in two apartments on the 49th floor. One of these apartments, a $6,000-per-month suite, was occupied mainly by his cats, while Blazer lived in an adjoining $18,000-per-month apartment. The apartments and office space were described as part of an "extravagant" lifestyle that ultimately resulted in Blazer being apprehended and becoming an FBI informant in a corruption investigation against association soccer organizations worldwide, including CONCACAF and FIFA. Another noted soccer figure living in Trump Tower is José Maria Marin, former president of the Brazilian Football Confederation, who is currently under house arrest in his apartment for FIFA-related corruption charges. As well, Portuguese footballer Cristiano Ronaldo bought an $18.5 million apartment in the tower in August 2015 and planned to buy another $23 million apartment in 2016.
Other residents include filmmaker Vincent Gallo, art dealer Hillel "Helly" Nahmad, who bought a second apartment in the tower in July 2010; pharmaceutical entrepreneur Stewart Rahr, who has a corporate space on the 24th floor; Juan Beckmann Vidal, the owner of tequila brand Jose Cuervo; Prince Mutaib bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, who reportedly lives on an entire floor in the tower; and actor Bruce Willis, who bought a $4.26 million apartment in 2007. Additionally, Qatar Airways, owned by the Qatari government, has had a corporate campus in the tower since at least 2008, a fact that news media outlets noted when one of Trump's executive orders, EO 13769, banned immigration from seven majority-Muslim Middle Eastern countries, but not from Qatar. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China has rented the 20th floor of Trump Tower since 2008, for approximately $2 million a year.
Past tenants include Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier, the ex-president of Haiti who died in 2014, who was discovered to have lived in a $2 million apartment on the 54th floor in 1989, when public records in Haiti showed that he had forgotten to pay his bills. The singer Michael Jackson rented an apartment on the 63rd floor during the 1990s. The composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, known for musicals such as Cats, moved out of his 59th and 60th floor apartment in 2010 after 17 years of stating his intention to do so. Carlos Peralta, a billionaire businessman from Mexico, sold an apartment in Trump Tower in 2009 for $13.5 million. Former Trump campaign manager Paul Manafort, who lived in the tower when he was Trump's campaign manager, agreed to forfeit his Trump Tower condo in September 2018, as part of a plea deal made during the Special Counsel investigation of Russian ties to the 2016 election. In addition, Donald J. Trump for President, Inc.'s headquarters were on the fifth floor. Trump's parents, Fred and Mary, had a second home on the 63rd floor they sometimes used when visiting Manhattan.
In February 2017, the United States Department of Defense announced it was looking to lease space in Trump Tower, to house "personnel and equipment" dedicated to protecting President Trump. This followed precedents where the DOD bought space in other presidents' properties, but the difference in this case was that the DOD's plan would directly profit Trump's business holdings. Later that month, a controversial Indiegogo campaign launched to house refugees in Trump Tower in response to EO 13769, which barred nationals of several majority-Muslim countries from entering the United States before being superseded by EO 13780.
Since it was launched in January 2017, the Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign paid more than $890,000 in rent for space in Trump Tower, and the Republican National Committee spent $225,000.
Fodor's New York City 2010 described Trump Tower's "ostentatious atrium" as an example of the "unbridled luxury" of the 1980s, characterized by "expensive boutiques and gaudy brass everywhere." The tower's public atrium, along with that of Citigroup Center a few blocks away, was described as a convenient public area.
Frommer's called the tower a "bold and brassy place" whose golden sign "practically screams 'Look at me!'", with more evidence of the tower's gaudiness provided by its spacious atrium, pink-marble waterfall, and interior mall. Meanwhile, Insight Guides' 2016 edition recommended Trump Tower as an example of the "opulence synonymous with Manhattan in the 1980s." The tower's atrium and waterfall was described as distinguishable for those who watched The Apprentice.
In a 1982 review of the building, New York Times architecture critic Paul Goldberger contrasted the "reflective" Trump Tower with the nearby postmodern 550 Madison Avenue building. In a later review just before the tower opened, Goldberger said the tower was "turning out to be a much more positive addition to the cityscape than the architectural oddsmakers would have had it," and that the indoor atrium might become "the most pleasant interior public space to be completed in New York in some years." However, he criticized the "hyperactive" exterior of the tower, contrasting it with Tiffany's "serene," solid facade next door, as well as the narrowness of passageways within the atrium, saying it created "little room for milling or casual strolling."
Before the atrium opened, Ada Louise Huxtable, an architectural critic for the New York Times, said the building was a "dramatically handsome structure." However, she reversed her opinion on the opening of the atrium, saying the tower was really a "monumentally undistinguished one" and saying her earlier comments had been taken out of context. Huxtable also called the atrium a "pink-marble maelstrom" and publicly requested in one of her editorials that Trump remove one of her quotes from his building's lobby. Another writer for that newspaper described the tower in 1984 as "preposterously lavish" and "showy, even pretentious." Architect Gregory Stanford described the atrium as "pretty horrible." By contrast, a review from 1983 had predicted it could be New York City's "most pleasant interior public space" to be built in recent history.
The fifth edition of the AIA Guide to New York City, published in 2010, described Trump Tower as a "fantasyland for the affluent shopper" hidden by "folded glass," with the Trump theme evident throughout the building. Comparing the building's interior design to alcoholic drink brands, the authors wrote that the design was less like a high-end "Veuve Clicquot" and more like a generic "malt liquor."
In popular culture
Trump Tower served as the location for Wayne Enterprises in Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Rises. In a 2012 vlog post, comprising one of the few movie reviews on the Trump Organization's YouTube channel, Trump referred to the movie as "really terrific" and that "most importantly Trump Tower—my building—plays a role." Other films have used Trump Tower as a filming location as well. For instance, the 2010 comedy film The Other Guys contains a car chase scene that has Samuel L. Jackson's character drive his car into Trump Tower. The penthouse in Trump Tower was used as a filming location for the action film Self/less (2015).
Trump Tower, a romance novel by Jeffrey Robinson, chronicles the sexual activities of fictional characters living in the tower. News media reported on the novel's existence during the last week of the 2016 presidential campaign. The novel was never formally published but is registered as having an International Standard Book Number. For unknown reasons, some versions of the novel are advertised with Trump as the author.
- List of things named after Donald Trump
- Timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections
- Timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections (July 2016 – election day)
- Timeline of post-election transition following Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections
- "Trump Tower". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 15.
- Gray, Christopher (October 3, 2014). "The Store That Slipped Through the Cracks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- "A Builder Who Trumps His Peers". Chicago Tribune. February 9, 1987. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Tuccille 1985, p. 150.
- "New Genesco Chief Aims to Consolidate Divisions". The New York Times. May 3, 1977. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 15–16.
- Barmash, Isadore (February 6, 1979). "45 Genesco Shops to Go To Allied". The New York Times. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Barmash, Isadore (February 6, 1979). "45 Genesco Shops to Go To allied". The New York Times. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 22.
- Tuccille 1985, p. 151.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, pp. 22–23.
- Wedemeyer, Dee (March 1, 1979). "60‐Story Tower Sought For Bonwit‐Teller Site". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Elstein, Aaron. "Trump's lost Empire: The deal that marked the Donald's turn from New York real estate". Crain's New York Business. Archived from the original on March 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 23.
- "Zoning Change Opposed For Tower at Bonwit Site". The New York Times. September 6, 1979. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 25.
- Brenner, Marie (November 17, 1980). Trumping the Town. New York Media, LLC. p. 27.
- Fowler, Glenn (June 5, 1979). "Bonwit Seeks to Return To a Fifth Avenue Site". The New York Times. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 28.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 29.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 35.
- Seinuk, Ysrael A.; Cantor, Irwin G. (March 1984). "Trump Tower: Concrete Satisfies Architectural, design, and construction demands". Concrete International. 6 (3): 59–62. ISSN 0162-4075.
- Ali, Mir M. (2001). "Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers: from Ingalls to Jin Mao". Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering. 1 (1): 2–14. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 30.
- Cheshes, Jay (November 30, 2001). "New York Metro Short List: Trump's Edifice Complex". New York. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Huxtable, Ada Louise (July 1, 1979). "Architecture View". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- "Everything You Should Know About Trump Tower". Town & Country. August 16, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, pp. 32–33.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 36.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984.
- "THE MANAGER BEHIND THE MOGUL". Washington Post. September 23, 1989. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 100.
- Daly, Michael (February 25, 2016). "Trump's Female Tower Boss Talks About His Half-Billion Dollar Debt, Womanizing, and How He Learned to be Shameless". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 75.
- Res, Barbara A. (July 2013) All Alone on the 68th Floor: How one Woman Changed the Face of Construction. Createspace Publishing, New Jersey.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 74.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 95.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 97.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 111.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 101.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 76.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, pp. 77–78.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 119.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, pp. 120–121.
- "POSTINGS; Tower Topped Off". The New York Times. July 11, 1982. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 16.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 136.
- "Fire officials said today the four-alarm fire that roared ..." UPI. January 29, 1982. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 139.
- Buder, Leonard (May 13, 1983). "2 HURT AS GLASS FALLS FROM HOIST AT TRUMP TOWER". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "THE CITY; Man Hit by Glass From Tower Dies". The New York Times. June 28, 1983. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 42.
- Leccese, Michael (July 1, 1980). "New York City Trumped: Developer Smashes Panels". Preservation News. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- "Trump's first media controversy is a really great story—The Portland Press Herald / Maine Sunday Telegram". March 18, 2016. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 43.
- Michael Kranish; Marc Fisher (August 23, 2016). Trump Revealed: An American Journey of Ambition, Ego, Money, and Power. Simon and Schuster. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-5011-5577-2.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 44.
- "Developer Scraps Bonwit Sculptures; Builder Orders Bonwit Art Deco Sculptures Destroyed" (PDF). The New York Times. June 6, 1980. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 45.
- Brenner, Marie (November 17, 1980). Trumping the Town. New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. p. 26. ISSN 0028-7369.
- "Topics Crumbling Patrimony; Mr. Trump's Jackhammer Days Beyond Father's". The New York Times. June 15, 1980. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Mcfadden, Robert D. (June 6, 1980). "Developer Scraps Bonwit Sculptures; Builder Orders Bonwit Art Deco Sculptures Destroyed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Raab, Selwyn (June 14, 1998). "After 15 Years in Court, Workers' Lawsuit Against Trump Faces Yet Another Delay". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Bagli, Charles V. (November 28, 2017). "Trump Paid Over $1 Million in Labor Settlement, Documents Reveal". The New York Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Baquet, Dean (July 13, 1990). "Trump Says He Didn't Know He Employed Illegal Aliens". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
- Daly, Michael (July 8, 2015). "Trump Tower Was Built On Undocumented Workers' Backs". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on August 20, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Hays, Constance L. (April 27, 1991). "Judge Says Trump Tower Builders Cheated Union on Pension Funds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- Donovan v. Kaszycki & Sons Contractors, Inc., 599 F.Supp. 860 (S.D.N.Y. 1984) ("The Court finds in favor of plaintiff on all claims and orders as follows: (1) defendants are hereby ordered to pay to plaintiff, for the benefit of the employees listed in Appendix A, $254,523.59 in unpaid wages and overtime compensation, and $254,523.59 as liquidated damages; and (2) defendants are hereby enjoined from future violations of 29 U.S.C. § 206(a), § 207(a), § 211(c), and § 215(a).").
- Raab, Selwyn (June 14, 1998). "After 15 Years in Court, Workers' Lawsuit Against Trump Faces Yet Another Delay". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- Reversing summary judgment to defendant: Diduck v. Kaszycki & Sons Contractors, Inc., 874 F.2d 912 (2nd Cir. 1989) ("Surmise, conjecture and conclusory allegations are not enough; plaintiff must make an affirmative showing that his version of events is not fanciful. United States v. Potamkin Cadillac Corp., 689 F.2d 379, 381 (2d Cir.1982). Insofar as the T-E defendants are concerned, plaintiff has failed to satisfy this burden.").
- Granting judgment to plaintiffs: Diduck v. Kaszycki & Sons Contractors, Inc., 774 F.Supp. 802 (S.D.N.Y. 1991) ("In sum, plaintiff is awarded the following: 1) unpaid contributions in the amount of $325,415.84; 2) interest from April 1, 1980 calculated at the rate of interest set by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to 26 U.S.C. § 6621; and 3) attorney's fees and costs. Plaintiff shall submit a judgment.").
- Partially reversing judgment to plaintiffs: Diduck v. Kaszycki & Sons Contractors, Inc., 974 F.2d 270 (2nd Cir. 1992) ("I respectfully dissent from the remand of the claims against Senyshyn for breach of fiduciary duty and against Trump for participation in that breach. I concur in all other aspects of the Court's judgment.").
- "Tycoon with towering ambition" (PDF). Finger Lakes Times. Geneva, New York. February 8, 1988. p. 10. Retrieved August 11, 2016 – via fultonhistory.com.
- "The Other Time Trump Was Huge: Newsweek's 1987 Look at the Presidential Candidate". Newsweek. July 30, 2015. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Geist, William E. (April 8, 1984). "THE EXPANDING EMPIRE OF DONALD TRUMP". The New York Times. p. 2. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "Trump ruling to cost NYC $22M in taxes" (PDF). Gannett Westchester Newspapers. Westchester, New York. Associated Press. July 6, 1984. p. 6. Retrieved August 11, 2016 – via fultonhistory.com.
- Smith, Randy (February 28, 1981). "Trump to be dealt $50M tax break on tower". Daily News. p. 3. Retrieved August 18, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Carroll, Maurice (May 1, 1985). "STATE'S TOP COURT REJECTS TRUMP TAX APPEAL". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- Barbanel, Josh. "Trump and New York City Spar Over Access to Tower Lobby". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Chaban, Matt A. V. (January 28, 2016). "Trump Tower to Remove Disputed Kiosks From Public Atrium". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- "Part 1: New Frontiers". Biography: The Trump Dynasty. February 25, 2019. Event occurs at 1:14–1:18. A&E.
- Johnston, David Cay. "Just What Were Donald Trump's Ties to the Mob?". Politico. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- Johnston, David Cay (July 10, 2015). "21 Questions For Donald Trump". The National Memo. Archived from the original on August 4, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Barrett, Wayne (May 26, 2011). "Inside Donald Trump's Empire: Why He Didn't Run for President in 2012". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- Barmash, Isadore (May 3, 1985). "ASPREY PLANS TO OPEN A 5TH AVE. STOREFRONT". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Slesin, Suzanne (April 2, 1983). "BAVARIAN WARES COME TO 5TH AVE. IN A NEW STORE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Tuccille 1985, pp. 196–197.
- Miller 2007, p. 117.
- Bender, Marylin (August 7, 1983). "THE EMPIRE AND EGO OF DONALD TRUMP". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- Tuccille 1985, p. 197.
- "HIGH RENTS, BUT HIGH SALES, TOO". The New York Times. February 8, 1986. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- Nguyen, Tina. "How Donald Trump Bullied His Own Trump Tower Tenants". The Hive. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- Berkow, Ira (January 1, 1984). "TRUMP BUILDING THE GENERALS IN HIS OWN STYLE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 6, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Plunz, Richard (September 6, 2016). A History of Housing in New York City. Columbia University Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-231-54310-1. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017.
- Brozan, Nadine (January 10, 1992). "CHRONICLE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Hylton, Richard D. (October 5, 1991). "Trump, the Landlord, Seeks Rent From $100,000-a-Month Guests". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- James, George (March 10, 1990). "Bonwit Stores To Be Sold". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Barmash, Isadore (July 10, 1990). "French Seek Niche With Trump Site". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Strom, Stephanie (September 26, 1991). "COMPANY NEWS; French Retailer Seeks Piece Of the Fifth Avenue Trade". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Loss Grows At French Store". The New York Times. June 25, 1992. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Zuckerman, Laurence (August 31, 1994). "Galeries Lafayette to Close Its Doors". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "A bigger Niketown: The Trump Organization said Tuesday it ..." Chicago Tribune. August 30, 1994. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Deutsch, Claudia H. (April 24, 1994). "Commercial Property/Trump Tower; New Tenant Mix, New Image and New Revenues". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Weiss, Lois (December 1, 2016). "Nike to move into 70,000 square-foot Fifth Ave. store". New York Post. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Brenzel, Kathryn; Pincus, Adam (November 30, 2016). "Nike signs one of NYC's most expensive retail leases ever at 650 Fifth". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Dua, Tanya (August 17, 2017). "Nike is under fire for 'supporting' Trump". Business Insider. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Kaufman, Sarah (October 24, 2016). "Nike Should Remove Flagship Store From Trump Tower, Petition Says". Patch. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Fitch, Stephane (September 20, 2006). "What is Trump Worth?—Forbes". Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Katherine Clarke (July 1, 2013). "What does Donald Trump really own". The Real Deal. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
- Alexander, Dan. "Donald Trump Has At Least $1 Billion In Debt, More Than Twice The Amount He Suggested". Forbes. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
- "Trump Tower Remains Its Namesake's No. 1 Cash Cow". Commercial Observer. September 27, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
- Abelson, Max; Drucker, Jesse; Mider, Zachary R. (October 25, 2016). "Inside Trump Tower, the Center of the Billionaire's Universe". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Wang, Jennifer (September 28, 2016). "Donald Trump's Fortune Falls $800 Million To $3.7 Billion". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Peterson-Withorn, Chase (May 3, 2017). "Donald Trump Has Been Lying About The Size Of His Penthouse". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Buettner, Russ; Craig, Susanne; McIntire, Mike (September 27, 2020). "Trump's Taxes Show Chronic Losses and Years of Income Tax Avoidance". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
- In chronological order, the tweets are:
- @realdonaldtrump (March 4, 2017). "Terrible! Just found out that Obama had my "wires tapped" in Trump Tower just before the victory. Nothing found. This is McCarthyism!" (Tweet). Retrieved March 21, 2017 – via Twitter.
- @realdonaldtrump (March 4, 2017). "Is it legal for a sitting President to be "wire tapping" a race for president prior to an election? Turned down by court earlier. A NEW LOW!" (Tweet). Retrieved March 21, 2017 – via Twitter.
- @realdonaldtrump (March 4, 2017). "I'd bet a good lawyer could make a great case out of the fact that President Obama was tapping my phones in October, just prior to Election!" (Tweet). Retrieved March 21, 2017 – via Twitter.
- @realdonaldtrump (March 4, 2017). "How low has President Obama gone to tapp my phones during the very sacred election process. This is Nixon/Watergate. Bad (or sick) guy!"" (Tweet). Retrieved March 21, 2017 – via Twitter.
- * Johnston, Chris (March 4, 2017). "'This is McCarthyism!': Trump accuses Obama of 'wire-tapping' his office before election". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Jeremy Diamond; Jeff Zeleny; Shimon Prokupecz. "Trump's baseless wiretap claim". CNN. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- "Trump urged to back up claims his phones were tapped by Obama". BBC News. March 5, 2017. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- "Obama Spokesman Says President Trump's Wiretapping Claim Is 'Simply False'". Time. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- "President accuses Obama of wiretapping Trump Tower during campaign". NBC News. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- * "Comey: 'no information' to back Trump's claim Obama wiretapped him". NBC News. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Barrett, Ellen Nakashima, Karoun Demirjian, Devlin. "FBI Director Comey: 'No information' to support Trump's wiretapping claims". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Bilton, Nick. "Donald Trump's Fake Renoir: The Untold Story". The Hive. Vanity Fair. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Pierre-Auguste Renoir — Two Sisters (On the Terrace), 1881". The Art Institute of Chicago. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- Alm, David (October 19, 2017). "Donald Trump Insisted He Owns A Renoir That's Hung In Chicago Museum Since 1933". Forbes. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Crowe, Joe (October 20, 2017). "Chicago Museum: Renoir Painting at Trump Tower Not Real". Newsmax. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Trump's Renoir painting not real—museum". BBC News. October 20, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Silverstein, Jason (April 21, 2019). "Trump buildings could be forced to go green under sweeping New York City climate bill". CBS News. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- "Donald Trump's Trump Tower at 521 Fifth Avenue is a conspicuous consumer of energy". Crain's New York Business. December 10, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Frisbie, d; Kantor, Alice (April 25, 2017). "Trump's plan to kill Energy Star could benefit his properties". CNN. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Reuters (May 13, 2019). "New York Mayor Threatens to Fine Trump Organization Over Pollution". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Milman, Oliver (May 13, 2019). "Trump buildings face millions in climate fines under new New York rules". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- on YouTube
- Ha, Thu-Huong (August 10, 2016). "Who Is Leven Thumps?". Quartz. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
- Shrier, Adam; Dimon, Laura (August 10, 2016). "WATCH LIVE: Donald supporter scales Trump Tower with suction cups". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
- Villeda, Ray; Dienst, Jonathan (August 10, 2016). "WATCH: Man Trying to Scale Trump Tower, Cops Await". NBC New York. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
- Dentico, Michael J. (August 10, 2016). "Trump Tower Climber Stephen Rogata Captured By NYPD After Reaching 21st Floor". Inquisitr. Archived from the original on August 14, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
- Blake, Paul; Shapiro, Emily (August 10, 2016). "Police Capture Man Who Scaled Trump Tower". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
- Rosenberg, Eli (August 11, 2016). "Trump Tower Climber Now Faces Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Linton, Caroline (April 8, 2018). "Fire at Trump Tower leaves 1 civilian dead, 6 firefighters with minor injuries". CBS News. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- "Trump Tower fire: Blaze breaks out at New York property". BBC. April 7, 2018. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- Zwirz, Elizabeth (April 7, 2018). "Fire erupts at Trump Tower in New York City". Fox News. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- Marino, Joe; Woods, Amanda (April 7, 2018). "Fire on 50th floor of Trump Tower leaves 1 critically injured". New York Post. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- Helsel, Phil; Winter, Tom (April 7, 2018). "Fire breaks out at Trump Tower, blaze is out". NBC News. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- Peiser, Jaclyn; Lucero II, Louis (April 7, 2018). "Fire at Trump Tower Critically Injures One, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- Fedschun, Travis (April 8, 2018). "Todd Brassner's Death at Trump Tower". Fox News. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Leland, John; Ferré-Sadurní, Luis (April 7, 2018). "Art Collector and Bon Vivant Dies in Trump Tower Home He Couldn't Sell". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- Porter, Tom (April 8, 2018). "Trump Tower Fire Death Update: Trump Lobbied Against Proposal to Make Sprinklers Mandatory". Newsweek. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- "Trump Tower fire was an accident, fire department says". MSN. April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- Bromwich, Jonah Engel (January 8, 2018). "Minor Fire Breaks Out Near Top of Trump Tower". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Wu, Nicholas (July 9, 2020). "New York City paints Black Lives Matter mural in front of Trump Tower". USA Today. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- Gold, Michael; Slotnik, Daniel E. (July 9, 2020). "N.Y.C. Paints 'Black Lives Matter' in Front of Trump Tower". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- Zaveri, Mihir (June 25, 2020). "'Black Lives Matter' Will Be Painted on Street Outside Trump Tower". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- "NYCityMap". NYC.gov. New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Goldstein, Joseph (November 16, 2016). "Shopping at Gucci? Tiffany's? You May Proceed to Trump Tower". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- "14 Trump Tower secrets you should know". am New York. January 20, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Roberts, Sam (March 3, 2016). "New York's Sidewalks, Unsung Moneymakers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- Reysen, Jamie (January 20, 2017). "Secrets of Tiffany's: The Trump connection, more". am New York. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Bagli, Charles V. (November 23, 1999). "Tiffany's Owns the Building Once Again". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- "MTA Neighborhood Maps: neighborhood". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (November 23, 2012). "In Manhattan, Largely Blue, One Bright Spot and a Tie for Romney". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "MAP: The New York Primary by NYC Neighborhood". WNYC. April 19, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Yanofsky, David (April 19, 2016). "At the very most, just 23 Trump Tower residents voted for Donald Trump". Quartz. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Ali, Tanveer (November 9, 2016). "How Every New York Neighborhood Voted in the 2016 Presidential Election". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on October 21, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Maier, Lilly (March 24, 2016). "We visited Trump Tower, and it perfectly epitomizes its eccentric, contradictory owner". qz.com. Quartz. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Ngo, Emily (December 25, 2016). "NYC tourists flocking to Trump Tower". Newsday. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Barbanel, Josh (February 2, 2016). "'Trump Store' Kiosks Must Go, City Says". WSJ. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- Marc Ambinder (November 18, 2016). "How Donald Trump will retrofit Midtown Manhattan as a presidential getaway". Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 20, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Medina, Eli Rosenberg, Jennifer; Eligon, John (November 12, 2016). "Protesters Take Anti-Trump Message to His Doorstep, and Plan Next Steps". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Alexander Burns (December 9, 2016). "Donald Trump Loves New York. But It Doesn't Love Him Back". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- "The FAA will limit flights over New York until Trump is sworn in". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Brown, Nicole (December 7, 2016). "Trump Tower security by the numbers". am New York. Archived from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Goldstein, Joseph (February 22, 2017). "New York Police Lower Cost Estimate of Guarding Trump and His Tower". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- Nir, Sarah Maslin (December 23, 2016). "Businesses Near Trump Tower Say Security Is Stealing Their Christmas". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Lockie, Alex (August 15, 2017). "Why Trump Tower is surrounded by dump trucks filled with sand for Trump's visit to NYC". Business Insider. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Usborne, Simon (December 4, 2016). "White House North – is Trump Tower the new West Wing?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Leibovich, Mark (December 1, 2016). "The Trump Transition Reality Show". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 9, 2017.
- "On New York's Fifth Avenue, Trump's White House North". Washington Post. December 18, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Izaguirre, Anthony; Rayman, Graham (December 8, 2016). "Increased Trump Tower security is hurting local businesses". NY Daily News. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Nir, Sarah Maslin (April 21, 2017). "With Trump Gone, New Yorkers Find Alternatives to Shouting at His Door". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Nir, Sarah Maslin; Alani, Hannah (June 21, 2017). "With First Family in Washington, Midtown Tries to Recover". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Woman Slips By Security at Trump Tower, Gets to 24th Floor". Associated Press. December 5, 2016. Archived from the original on December 9, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016 – via NBC New York.
- Silverman, Alex. "Student Arrested, Accused Of Trying To Bring Weapons Into Trump Tower". Archived from the original on December 14, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Student Arrested at Trump Tower With Weapons, Water Gun". NBC New York. Archived from the original on December 17, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "N.J. man reportedly angry over not meeting president-elect arrested at Trump Tower". NJ.com. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Man with fake ID smashes wine glass in Trump Tower temper tantrum". NY Daily News. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Trump Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Skyscraper Page. Archived from the original on November 24, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Reilly, Rick. Commander in Cheat: How Golf Explains Trump. New York, NY: Hachette Books.
- Cantwell, John (May 7, 2009). "Trump, The Logo". Design Observer. Archived from the original on October 16, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- "Trump World Tower, New York City". Emporis Buildings. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
- "Trump Tower, Der Scutt | New York | United States | MIMOA". mimoa.eu. Mi Modern Architecture. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Rubin & Mandell 1984, p. 17.
- Gardener, Ralf Jr. (May 8, 2003). "For Tower Residents, a New Math". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Elkin, Ali (August 26, 2015). "A Look Inside Donald Trump's Campaign Headquarters". Bloomberg.com/politics. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Maier, Lilly (March 24, 2016). "We visited Trump Tower, and it perfectly epitomizes its eccentric, contradictory owner". Quartz. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Trump Tower Was Never Actually That Tacky". atlasobscura.com. Atlas Obscura. March 11, 2016. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Miller 2007, p. 141.
- Roberts, Sam (June 8, 1983). "VERTICAL MALLS: CITY SIDEWALKS MOVE INDOORS". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Gruson, Lindsey (October 2, 1983). "FIFTH AVENUE ASSN. RESUMES ARCHITECTURE AWARDS". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Elstein, Aaron. "Donald Trump has a secret garden". Crain's New York Business. Archived from the original on March 30, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- "The Privately Owned Public Space Inside Trump Tower is Already Less Accessible". Untapped Cities. December 9, 2016. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- "Midtown Bar and Lounge | Trump Tower Bar and Lounge NYC". Trump Tower NY. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Ice Cream NYC | Trump Ice Cream New York". Trump Tower NY. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Trump Midtown Cafe | Lunch In Midtown at Trump Tower". Trump Tower NY. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Midtown Restaurant | Trump Grill NYC Lunch & Midtown Brunch". Trump Tower NY. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Sietsima, Robert (January 21, 2016). "Diving Head First Into Donald Trump's Culinary Abyss". Eater NY. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Nguyen, Tina (December 14, 2016). "Trump Grill Could Be the Worst Restaurant in America". The Hive. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Squires, Kathleen. "Trump Grill". New York. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Brown, Tracy (December 15, 2016). "So how bad is Trump Grill? Yelp gives it 2½ stars — and lots of grief". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Sommerfeldt, Chris. "Trump's NYC eateries written up for 'live mice,' other 'critical' health code violations in recent months". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
- Pollack, Hilary (January 20, 2017). "I Got Drunk at the Trump Bar in Trump Tower and It Was Predictably Terrible". Munchies. Vice. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Shallwani, Pervaiz. "Trump Café". New York.
- "Donald Trump ignored his agent and did reality TV. It changed everything". Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 14, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Forgey, Quint (November 3, 2020). "Visiting campaign headquarters, Trump says 'losing is never easy'". Politico. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
- Forgey, Quint (November 3, 2020). "Visiting campaign headquarters, Trump says 'losing is never easy'". Politico. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
- Rosenberg, Zoe (October 25, 2016). "Meet the notorious characters who call Trump Tower home". Curbed NY. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Bernstein, Jacob (August 12, 2017). "Trump Tower, a Home for Celebrities and Charlatans". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- Flegenheimer, Matt; Haberman, Maggie (March 29, 2016). "With the New York Presidential Primary, the Circus Is Coming Home". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 29, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "Take A Walk Through The Opulent Homes Of Donald Trump". Business Insider. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- "Does Trump Live In The White House Now? Melania Moves Back To NYC After Inauguration". International Business Times. January 23, 2017. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- "So long, Trump Tower. First lady Melania Trump and son Barron move into White House". Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Fox, Alison (January 20, 2017). "Get to know Barron Trump, the president's 5th child". am New York. Archived from the original on February 21, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Carter, Graydon (May 1, 1984). "The Secret to Donald Trump's Success". GQ. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- Fernandez, Jennifer (July 27, 2016). "Donald Trump's 1985 Apartment Looks Exactly How You'd Imagine It". Architectural Digest. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- Cindy Boren (May 27, 2015). "Ex-FIFA official had $6,000-a-month Trump Tower apartment for unruly cats". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Thompson, Teri; Papenfuss, Mary; Red, Christian; Vinton, Nathaniel (November 1, 2014). "How ex-U.S. soccer exec Chuck Blazer became an FBI informant". NY Daily News. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Lewis, Brian (August 16, 2015). "Cristiano Ronaldo buying loft in Trump Tower". New York Post. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Green, Dennis (August 17, 2015). "Take a tour of Cristiano Ronaldo's $18.5 million apartment in Trump Tower". Business Insider. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- "See inside the $23m New York apartment interesting Cristiano Ronaldo". mirror. February 3, 2016. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- "Actor Vincent Gallo in contract for Trump Tower condo". The Real Deal New York. August 2, 2019. Retrieved November 16, 2019.
- Amanda Julius (July 22, 2010). "In Deed! Art Dealer Expands in Trump Tower; Vanity Fair Articles Editor Buys in Chelsea". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Stewart "Rah Rah" Rahr is Donald Trump's BFF and more". NY Daily News. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Stein, Joshua David (June 6, 2014). "The World Through Stewart Rahr's Neon Glasses". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 14, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Timmons, Heather (December 7, 2015). "Wealthy Muslims helped Donald Trump build his empire". Quartz. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Abelson, Max (November 7, 2007). "Bruce Willis Buys $4.26 M. Spread From Trump Foe". Observer. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Libby Nelson (January 28, 2017). "President Trump's travel ban will leave his business partners untouched". Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Huge Martin (November 12, 2016). "Will Trump side with U.S. airlines against Middle Eastern rivals?". Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- O'Connell, Jonathan; Fahrenthold, David A. (July 5, 2018). "As tariffs near, Trump's business empire retains ties to China". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 18, 2018.
The Trumps are the landlord to one of China's top state-owned banks, which has occupied the 20th floor of Trump Tower in Manhattan since 2008. The bank's lease is worth close to $2 million annually, according to industry estimates and a bank filing.
- Woodruff, Betsy; Mak, Tim (September 30, 2015). "Trump Tower: Dictators' Home Away From Home". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Margolick, David (October 27, 1989). "THE LAW: AT THE BAR; Law firm, in pursuit of Haitian property, finds the chase can be tedious and frustrating". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Lawson, Richard (February 2, 2016). "You Can Live Beneath Donald Trump for Only $23 Million". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Barbanel, Josh (October 4, 2010). "Third Try Is Hit for Lloyd Webber". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Arak, Joey (September 28, 2010). "Andrew Lloyd Webber Finally Bows Out of Trump Tower". Curbed NY. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Abelson, Max (September 1, 2009). "Carlos Peralta's Trump Tower Condo (With Jacuzzi in the Bedroom) Yours for $13.5 M." Observer. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- "Paul Manafort to hand over Trump Tower condo, house in Hamptons in plea deal". USA TODAY. September 14, 2018. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Berkowitz, Harry; Moss, Michael (June 30, 1990). "Trump's Bailout: Parents' Condo Helps Back Loan". Newsday.
- "Department of Defense looks to rent space in Trump Tower". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- Cooper, Helene (February 8, 2017). "Pentagon Considers Leasing Space at Trump Tower". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 14, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- Browne, Ryan (February 8, 2017). "US military to rent space in Trump Tower". CNN. Archived from the original on February 21, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Harlander, Thomas (December 15, 2017). "Some Genius Is Working to Provide Homes for Refugees—in Trump Tower". LA Magazine. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Frost, Mary (March 15, 2017). "Brooklyn man campaigns to house Muslim refugees in Trump Tower". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- Longman, Martin (May 14, 2019). "As Trump Tower Struggles, the President Rents Office Space to Himself". Washington Monthly. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
- Alexander, Dan (March 20, 2019). "As Trump Tower Struggles, the President Rents Office Space to Himself". Forbes. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
- "Living Large in New York City: The High Life in 8 Sights". Frommer's Travel Guides. p. 1. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Hart 2009, p. 123.
- Hart 2009, p. 533.
- "Serious Shopping". Insight Guides City Guide New York. Insight City Guides. APA. 2016. ISBN 978-1-78671-549-4. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Goldberger, Paul (September 12, 1982). "ARCHITECTURE VIEW; THIS WILL BE THE YEAR OF THE SKYSCRAPER". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Goldberger, Paul (April 4, 1983). "ARCHITECTURE: ATRIUM OF TRUMP TOWER IS A PLEASANT SURPRISE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "DONALD TRUMP'S TOWER". The New York Times. May 6, 1984. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Geist, William E. (April 8, 1984). "THE EXPANDING EMPIRE OF DONALD TRUMP". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Soter, Tom (January 16, 1993). "The Great Indoors". Newsday.
- White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
- "Filming Locations for Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Rises (2012), with Christian Bale, in New York, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, the UK and India". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- "Did Trump, Known 'Dark Knight Rises' Fanboy, Channel Bane in His Inauguration Speech?". Vice. January 20, 2017. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Ebire, Bilge. "The 25 Best Cold-Open Action Scenes in Film History". Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- "Selfless Film Locations". On the set of New York.com. July 26, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Robinson, Jeffrey (2012). Trump Tower. New York: Vanguard Press. ISBN 978-1-59315-735-7.
- "Donald Trump once authored an erotic novel". The Independent. November 2, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Van Luling, Todd (October 31, 2016). "The Incredibly Sexist Book Once Billed As Trump's 'Debut Novel'". huffingtonpost.com. The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on December 12, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Zwiezen, Zack (January 20, 2017). "Ranking The Grand Theft Auto Games, From Worst To Best". Kotaku. Archived from the original on March 13, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Hart, M.T. (2009). Fodor's New York City 2010. Fodor's New York City. Fodor's. ISBN 978-1-4000-0837-7. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Miller, Kristine F. (2007). Designs on the Public: The Private Lives of New York's Public Spaces. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9781452913292.
- Rubin, Sy; Mandell, Jonathan (1984). Trump Tower (1st ed.). Lyle Stuart. ISBN 978-0-8184-0354-5.
- Tuccille, Jerome (1985). Trump: The Saga of America's Most Powerful Real Estate Baron. Beard Books. ISBN 978-1-58798-223-1. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Horsley, Carter B. "The City Book: Trump Tower".
- Stichweh, Dirk; Machirus, Jörg; Murphy, Scott (2009). New York Skyscrapers. Munich: Prestel Publishing. ISBN 978-3-7913-4054-8.
- Cuozzo, Steve (January 20, 2017). "The bizarre history of Trump Tower – and why Donald loathes to leave it". New York Post.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trump Tower (Manhattan).|