Trump travel ban

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The Trump travel ban (sometimes called the "Muslim ban") denotes a series of executive actions enacted by Donald Trump as President of the United States in 2017.[1][2] First, Executive Order 13769 placed stringent restrictions on travel to the United States for citizens of Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen.[3] Following protests and legal challenges, a second order, Executive Order 13780, amended some provisions of the first order, and removed Iraq from the list. Finally, Presidential Proclamation 9645 added restrictions on Chad, North Korea, and Venezuela, while Sudan was removed.

On January 31, 2020, the Trump administration announced the expansion of the travel ban on six more countries. However this ban only affects certain visas for residents in countries of Eritrea, Kyrgyzstan, Myanmar, Nigeria, Sudan, and Tanzania.

On January 20, 2021, President Joe Biden issued a proclamation revoking the Trump travel bans.[4]

Comments during 2016 presidential campaign[edit]

On December 7, 2015, as a candidate for president, Donald Trump called for "a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country's representatives can figure out what the hell is going on."[5][6] His comments were condemned by several of his competitors for the Republican nomination, including Chris Christie, Jeb Bush, Marco Rubio, and Lindsey Graham, as well as by several Republican state party chairmen, civil rights activist Ibrahim Hooper of the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), and Democratic candidates for president Bernie Sanders and Martin O'Malley.[5][6]

Executive actions[edit]

In the days after the first executive order was issued, White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer objected to the characterization of the executive order as a "travel ban".[7] However, Trump himself referred to his actions as a "travel ban".[8] In early May 2017, Spicer was asked by a reporter "If this White House is no longer calling this a 'Muslim ban'...why does the president's website still explicitly call for 'preventing Muslim immigration'?" After the question was asked, the text "DONALD J. TRUMP STATEMENT ON PREVENTING MUSLIM IMMIGRATION" was removed from Trump's campaign website.[9]

All three travel bans were challenged in court. This delayed implementation and motivated the second and third revisions; eventually Presidential Proclamation 9645 and its accompanying travel ban was upheld in the Supreme Court.

In January 2020, the Trump Administration announced plans for an expansion of the travel ban.[10]

Effect on banned countries[edit]

More than 135 million people lived in countries affected by the original ban (which has since been expanded). Muslim countries were most affected— Iran, Somalia, Yemen, Libya, and Syria experienced a 92%, 86%, 83%, 80%, 83%, and 77% decrease in the number of immigrant visas to the United States compared to the previous year.[11] However, the number of visas issued to North Koreans increased by 40% during the same period.[11]

List of countries under travel ban[edit]

The countries affected by the travel ban:[12][13]

  • Eritrea – Suspended issuance of new immigrant visas that could lead to permanent residency.
  • Iran – Suspended issuance of new immigrant visas and non-immigrant visas except F, M, and J visas.[14]
  • Kyrgyzstan – Suspended issuance new immigrant visas that could lead to permanent residency.
  • Libya – Suspended entry for immigrants and individuals on B-1, B-2 and B-1/B-2 visas.[15]
  • Myanmar – Suspended issuance of new immigrant visas that could lead to permanent residency.
  • Nigeria – Suspended issuance of new immigrant visas that could lead to permanent residency.
  • North Korea – Suspended entry for immigrants or non-immigrants.[15]
  • Somalia – Suspended entry for immigrants.[15]
  • Sudan – Suspended issuance of new diversity lottery visas.
  • Syria – Suspended entry for immigrants and non-immigrants.[15]
  • Tanzania – Suspended issuance of new diversity lottery visas.
  • Venezuela – Suspended entry for officials of Venezuelan government agencies who are involved in screening and vetting procedures as nonimmigrants on B-1, B-2, and B-1/B-2 visas.[15]
  • Yemen – Suspended entry for immigrants and nonimmigrants on B-1, B-2, and B-1/B-2 visas.[15]

Exceptions[edit]

The United States government has a system to provide 'waivers' as exceptions to people affected from the countries who need visas. The waivers are granted at the discretion of the consular officers who review the applications.[12] The waiver is granted to those facing a lot of undue hardship that requires them to be with their loved ones in the United States. For example, if a family member in the United States is dying, a person from the country with a travel ban on it would be granted a waiver to see their family member one last time.[12] However, getting a waiver doesn't guarantee entry to the country. After being approved for the waiver the applicants must still apply for a visa.[12] Only 2% of the people who applied for the waiver were granted one. From 33,176 applicants through April 30, 2018, 579 applicants had been granted the waiver.[12]

Revocation[edit]

On January 20, 2021, President Joe Biden issued Proclamation 10141 revoking the Trump travel bans (Executive Order 13780, and Proclamations 9645, 9723, and 9983).[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Almasy, Steve; Simon, Darran (March 30, 2017). "A timeline of President Trump's travel bans". CNN. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  2. ^ Bier, David (December 14, 2017). "Trump's Muslim Ban is Working. Muslim Immigration Slumps". Newsweek. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  3. ^ Executive Order 13769 of January 27, 2017: Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States. Executive Office of the President. 82 FR 8977–8982. February 1, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Proclamation on Ending Discriminatory Bans on Entry to The United States Archived January 21, 2021, at the Wayback Machine". The White House. January 20, 2021. Accessed January 20, 2021.
  5. ^ a b Johnson, Jenna (December 7, 2015). "Trump calls for 'total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  6. ^ a b Taylor, Jessica (December 7, 2015). "Trump Calls For 'Total And Complete Shutdown Of Muslims Entering' U.S." NPR. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  7. ^ Fabian, Jordan (January 31, 2017). "Spicer: Trump executive order 'not a travel ban'". The Hill. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  8. ^ Marcin, Tim (June 5, 2017). "A Travel Ban or Not? Donald Trump and Sean Spicer Don't always agree on how to describe Policy". Newsweek. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  9. ^ Barbash, Fred (May 9, 2017). "Muslim ban language suddenly disappears from Trump campaign website after Spicer questioned". Washington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  10. ^ Lemire, Jonathan; Mascaro, Lisa; Colvin, Jill (January 10, 2020). "White House considering dramatic expansion of travel ban". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
  11. ^ a b Niayesh, Vahid (October 28, 2019). "Statistics show that Trump's "travel ban" was always a Muslim ban". Quartz. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e Gladstone, Rick; Sugiyama, Satoshi (July 1, 2018). "Trump's Travel Ban: How It Works and Who Is Affected". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  13. ^ "US travel ban: Trump puts restrictions on six more countries". BBC News. January 31, 2020. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  14. ^ Williams, Pete (September 25, 2017). "Trump restricts visas from eight countries as travel order expires". NBC News.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Presidential Proclamation Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats". whitehouse.gov. September 24, 2017. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 20, 2021 – via National Archives.