Truncated octahedron

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Truncated octahedron
Truncatedoctahedron.jpg
(Click here for rotating model)
Type Archimedean solid
Uniform polyhedron
Elements F = 14, E = 36, V = 24 (χ = 2)
Faces by sides 6{4}+8{6}
Conway notation tO
bT
Schläfli symbols t{3,4}
tr{3,3} or
t0,1{3,4} or t0,1,2{3,3}
Wythoff symbol 2 4 | 3
3 3 2 |
Coxeter diagram CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
Symmetry group Oh, B3, [4,3], (*432), order 48
Th, [3,3] and (*332), order 24
Rotation group O, [4,3]+, (432), order 24
Dihedral angle 4-6: arccos(−1/3) = 125°15′51″
6-6: arccos(−1/3) = 109°28′16″
References U08, C20, W7
Properties Semiregular convex parallelohedron
permutohedron
zonohedron
Polyhedron truncated 8 max.png
Colored faces
Polyhedron truncated 8 vertfig.svg
4.6.6
(Vertex figure)
Polyhedron truncated 8 dual max.png
Tetrakis hexahedron
(dual polyhedron)
Polyhedron truncated 8 net.svg
Net
3D model of a truncated octahedron

In geometry, the truncated octahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 14 faces (8 regular hexagonal and 6 square), 36 edges, and 24 vertices. Since each of its faces has point symmetry the truncated octahedron is a zonohedron. It is also the Goldberg polyhedron GIV(1,1), containing square and hexagonal faces. Like the cube, it can tessellate (or "pack") 3-dimensional space, as a permutohedron.

The truncated octahedron was called the "mecon" by Buckminster Fuller.[1]

Its dual polyhedron is the tetrakis hexahedron.

If the original truncated octahedron has unit edge length, its dual tetrakis cube has edge lengths 9/82 and 3/22.

Construction[edit]

Truncated Octahedron with Construction.svg   Square Pyramid.svg

A truncated octahedron is constructed from a regular octahedron with side length 3a by the removal of six right square pyramids, one from each point. These pyramids have both base side length (a) and lateral side length (e) of a, to form equilateral triangles. The base area is then a2. Note that this shape is exactly similar to half an octahedron or Johnson solid J1.

From the properties of square pyramids, we can now find the slant height, s, and the height, h, of the pyramid:

The volume, V, of the pyramid is given by:

Because six pyramids are removed by truncation, there is a total lost volume of 2a3.

Orthogonal projections[edit]

The truncated octahedron has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, on two types of edges, and two types of faces: Hexagon, and square. The last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes.

Orthogonal projections
Centered by Vertex Edge
4-6
Edge
6-6
Face
Square
Face
Hexagon
Solid Polyhedron truncated 8 from blue max.png Polyhedron truncated 8 from red max.png Polyhedron truncated 8 from yellow max.png
Wireframe Cube t12 v.png Cube t12 e46.png Cube t12 e66.png 3-cube t12 B2.svg 3-cube t12.svg
Dual Dual cube t12 v.png Dual cube t12 e46.png Dual cube t12 e66.png Dual cube t12 B2.png Dual cube t12.png
Projective
symmetry
[2] [2] [2] [4] [6]

Spherical tiling[edit]

The truncated octahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling, and projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane.

Uniform tiling 432-t12.png Truncated octahedron stereographic projection square.png
square-centered
Truncated octahedron stereographic projection hexagon.png
hexagon-centered
Orthographic projection Stereographic projections

Coordinates[edit]

Truncated octahedron in unit cube.png Triangulated truncated octahedron.png Rhombic triacontahedron in truncated octahedron.png
Orthogonal projection in bounding box
(±2,±2,±2)
Truncated octahedron with hexagons replaced by 6 coplanar triangles. There are 8 new vertices at: (±1,±1,±1). Truncated octahedron subdivided into as a topological rhombic triacontahedron

All permutations of (0, ±1, ±2) are Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of a truncated octahedron of edge length a = √2 centered at the origin. The vertices are thus also the corners of 12 rectangles whose long edges are parallel to the coordinate axes.

The edge vectors have Cartesian coordinates (0, ±1, ±1) and permutations of these. The face normals (normalized cross products of edges that share a common vertex) of the 6 square faces are (0, 0, ±1), (0, ±1, 0) and (±1, 0, 0). The face normals of the 8 hexagonal faces are 1/3, ±1/3, ±1/3). The dot product between pairs of two face normals is the cosine of the dihedral angle between adjacent faces, either −1/3 or −1/3. The dihedral angle is approximately 1.910633 radians (109.471° OEISA156546) at edges shared by two hexagons or 2.186276 radians (125.263° OEISA195698) at edges shared by a hexagon and a square.

Dissection[edit]

The truncated octahedron can be dissected into a central octahedron, surrounded by 8 triangular cupola on each face, and 6 square pyramids above the vertices.[2]

Removing the central octahedron and 2 or 4 triangular cupola creates two Stewart toroids, with dihedral and tetrahedral symmetry:

Genus 2 Genus 3
D3d, [2+,6], (2*3), order 12 Td, [3,3], (*332), order 24
Excavated truncated octahedron1.png Excavated truncated octahedron2.png

Permutohedron[edit]

The truncated octahedron can also be represented by even more symmetric coordinates in four dimensions: all permutations of (1, 2, 3, 4) form the vertices of a truncated octahedron in the three-dimensional subspace x + y + z + w = 10. Therefore, the truncated octahedron is the permutohedron of order 4: each vertex corresponds to a permutation of (1, 2, 3, 4) and each edge represents a single pairwise swap of two elements.

Permutohedron.svg

Area and volume[edit]

The area A and the volume V of a truncated octahedron of edge length a are:

Uniform colorings[edit]

There are two uniform colorings, with tetrahedral symmetry and octahedral symmetry, and two 2-uniform coloring with dihedral symmetry as a truncated triangular antiprism. The construcational names are given for each. Their Conway polyhedron notation is given in parentheses.

1-uniform 2-uniform
Oh, [4,3], (*432)
Order 48
Td, [3,3], (*332)
Order 24
D4h, [4,2], (*422)
Order 16
D3d, [2+,6], (2*3)
Order 12
Uniform polyhedron-43-t12.svg
122 coloring
Uniform polyhedron-33-t012.png
123 coloring
Truncated square bipyramid.png
122 & 322 colorings
Truncated octahedron prismatic symmetry.png
122 & 123 colorings
Truncated octahedron
(tO)
Bevelled tetrahedron
(bT)
Truncated square bipyramid
(tdP4)
Truncated triangular antiprism
(tA3)

Chemistry[edit]

The truncated octahedron exists in the structure of the faujasite crystals.

Sodalit-CageAlSi.png

Data Hiding[edit]

The truncated octahedron (in fact, the generalized truncated octahedron) appears in the error analysis of quantization index modulation (QIM) in conjunction with repetition coding.[3]

Related polyhedra[edit]

The truncated octahedron is one of a family of uniform polyhedra related to the cube and regular octahedron.

Uniform octahedral polyhedra
Symmetry: [4,3], (*432) [4,3]+
(432)
[1+,4,3] = [3,3]
(*332)
[3+,4]
(3*2)
{4,3} t{4,3} r{4,3}
r{31,1}
t{3,4}
t{31,1}
{3,4}
{31,1}
rr{4,3}
s2{3,4}
tr{4,3} sr{4,3} h{4,3}
{3,3}
h2{4,3}
t{3,3}
s{3,4}
s{31,1}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h0.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
= CDel nodes 11.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h0.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
= CDel nodes 11.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node h0.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
= CDel nodes.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png CDel node h1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png =
CDel nodes 10ru.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.png or CDel nodes 01rd.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png =
CDel nodes 10ru.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png or CDel nodes 01rd.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h0.png =
CDel node h.pngCDel split1.pngCDel nodes hh.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t0.svg Uniform polyhedron-43-t01.svg Uniform polyhedron-43-t1.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-t02.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t12.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-t012.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t2.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-t1.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t02.png
Rhombicuboctahedron uniform edge coloring.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t012.png Uniform polyhedron-43-s012.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t0.pngUniform polyhedron-33-t2.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t01.pngUniform polyhedron-33-t12.png Uniform polyhedron-43-h01.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-s012.svg
Duals to uniform polyhedra
V43 V3.82 V(3.4)2 V4.62 V34 V3.43 V4.6.8 V34.4 V33 V3.62 V35
CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
CDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.png
Octahedron.svg Triakisoctahedron.jpg Rhombicdodecahedron.jpg Tetrakishexahedron.jpg Hexahedron.svg Deltoidalicositetrahedron.jpg Disdyakisdodecahedron.jpg Pentagonalicositetrahedronccw.jpg Tetrahedron.svg Triakistetrahedron.jpg Dodecahedron.svg

It also exists as the omnitruncate of the tetrahedron family:

Family of uniform tetrahedral polyhedra
Symmetry: [3,3], (*332) [3,3]+, (332)
Uniform polyhedron-33-t0.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t01.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t1.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t12.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t2.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t02.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t012.png Uniform polyhedron-33-s012.svg
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png
{3,3} t{3,3} r{3,3} t{3,3} {3,3} rr{3,3} tr{3,3} sr{3,3}
Duals to uniform polyhedra
Tetrahedron.svg Triakistetrahedron.jpg Hexahedron.svg Triakistetrahedron.jpg Tetrahedron.svg Rhombicdodecahedron.jpg Tetrakishexahedron.jpg Dodecahedron.svg
V3.3.3 V3.6.6 V3.3.3.3 V3.6.6 V3.3.3 V3.4.3.4 V4.6.6 V3.3.3.3.3

Symmetry mutations[edit]

*n32 symmetry mutations of omnitruncated tilings: 4.6.2n
Sym.
*n32
[n,3]
Spherical Euclid. Compact hyperb. Paraco. Noncompact hyperbolic
*232
[2,3]
*332
[3,3]
*432
[4,3]
*532
[5,3]
*632
[6,3]
*732
[7,3]
*832
[8,3]
*∞32
[∞,3]
 
[12i,3]
 
[9i,3]
 
[6i,3]
 
[3i,3]
Figures Spherical truncated trigonal prism.png Uniform tiling 332-t012.png Uniform tiling 432-t012.png Uniform tiling 532-t012.png Uniform polyhedron-63-t012.png Truncated triheptagonal tiling.svg H2-8-3-omnitruncated.svg H2 tiling 23i-7.png H2 tiling 23j12-7.png H2 tiling 23j9-7.png H2 tiling 23j6-7.png H2 tiling 23j3-7.png
Config. 4.6.4 4.6.6 4.6.8 4.6.10 4.6.12 4.6.14 4.6.16 4.6.∞ 4.6.24i 4.6.18i 4.6.12i 4.6.6i
Duals Spherical hexagonal bipyramid.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png Spherical disdyakis dodecahedron.png Spherical disdyakis triacontahedron.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V4-6-12 Bisected Hexagonal.svg H2checkers 237.png H2checkers 238.png H2checkers 23i.png H2 checkers 23j12.png H2 checkers 23j9.png H2 checkers 23j6.png H2 checkers 23j3.png
Config. V4.6.4 V4.6.6 V4.6.8 V4.6.10 V4.6.12 V4.6.14 V4.6.16 V4.6.∞ V4.6.24i V4.6.18i V4.6.12i V4.6.6i
*nn2 symmetry mutations of omnitruncated tilings: 4.2n.2n
Symmetry
*nn2
[n,n]
Spherical Euclidean Compact hyperbolic Paracomp.
*222
[2,2]
*332
[3,3]
*442
[4,4]
*552
[5,5]
*662
[6,6]
*772
[7,7]
*882
[8,8]...
*∞∞2
[∞,∞]
Figure Spherical square prism.png Uniform tiling 332-t012.png Uniform tiling 44-t012.png H2 tiling 255-7.png H2 tiling 266-7.png H2 tiling 277-7.png H2 tiling 288-7.png H2 tiling 2ii-7.png
Config. 4.4.4 4.6.6 4.8.8 4.10.10 4.12.12 4.14.14 4.16.16 4.∞.∞
Dual Spherical square bipyramid.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png 1-uniform 2 dual.svg H2checkers 245.png H2checkers 246.png H2checkers 247.png H2checkers 248.png H2checkers 24i.png
Config. V4.4.4 V4.6.6 V4.8.8 V4.10.10 V4.12.12 V4.14.14 V4.16.16 V4.∞.∞

This polyhedron is a member of a sequence of uniform patterns with vertex figure (4.6.2p) and Coxeter–Dynkin diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel p.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png. For p < 6, the members of the sequence are omnitruncated polyhedra (zonohedra), shown below as spherical tilings. For p > 6, they are tilings of the hyperbolic plane, starting with the truncated triheptagonal tiling.

The truncated octahedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of uniform polyhedra and tilings with vertex figures n.6.6, extending into the hyperbolic plane:

*n32 symmetry mutation of truncated tilings: n.6.6
Sym.
*n42
[n,3]
Spherical Euclid. Compact Parac. Noncompact hyperbolic
*232
[2,3]
*332
[3,3]
*432
[4,3]
*532
[5,3]
*632
[6,3]
*732
[7,3]
*832
[8,3]...
*∞32
[∞,3]
[12i,3] [9i,3] [6i,3]
Truncated
figures
Hexagonal dihedron.svg Uniform tiling 332-t12.png Uniform tiling 432-t12.png Uniform tiling 532-t12.png Uniform tiling 63-t12.svg Truncated order-7 triangular tiling.svg H2-8-3-trunc-primal.svg H2 tiling 23i-6.png H2 tiling 23j12-6.png H2 tiling 23j9-6.png H2 tiling 23j-6.png
Config. 2.6.6 3.6.6 4.6.6 5.6.6 6.6.6 7.6.6 8.6.6 ∞.6.6 12i.6.6 9i.6.6 6i.6.6
n-kis
figures
Hexagonal Hosohedron.svg Spherical triakis tetrahedron.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png Spherical pentakis dodecahedron.png Uniform tiling 63-t2.svg Heptakis heptagonal tiling.svg H2-8-3-kis-dual.svg H2checkers 33i.png
Config. V2.6.6 V3.6.6 V4.6.6 V5.6.6 V6.6.6 V7.6.6 V8.6.6 V∞.6.6 V12i.6.6 V9i.6.6 V6i.6.6

The truncated octahedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of uniform polyhedra and tilings with vertex figures 4.2n.2n, extending into the hyperbolic plane:

*n42 symmetry mutation of truncated tilings: 4.2n.2n
Symmetry
*n42
[n,4]
Spherical Euclidean Compact hyperbolic Paracomp.
*242
[2,4]
*342
[3,4]
*442
[4,4]
*542
[5,4]
*642
[6,4]
*742
[7,4]
*842
[8,4]...
*∞42
[∞,4]
Truncated
figures
Spherical square prism.png Uniform tiling 432-t12.png Uniform tiling 44-t01.png H2-5-4-trunc-dual.svg H2 tiling 246-3.png H2 tiling 247-3.png H2 tiling 248-3.png H2 tiling 24i-3.png
Config. 4.4.4 4.6.6 4.8.8 4.10.10 4.12.12 4.14.14 4.16.16 4.∞.∞
n-kis
figures
Spherical square bipyramid.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png 1-uniform 2 dual.svg H2-5-4-kis-primal.svg Order-6 tetrakis square tiling.png Hyperbolic domains 772.png Order-8 tetrakis square tiling.png H2checkers 2ii.png
Config. V4.4.4 V4.6.6 V4.8.8 V4.10.10 V4.12.12 V4.14.14 V4.16.16 V4.∞.∞

Related polytopes[edit]

The truncated octahedron (bitruncated cube), is first in a sequence of bitruncated hypercubes:

Bitruncated hypercubes
Image 3-cube t12.svgTruncated octahedron.png 4-cube t12.svgSchlegel half-solid bitruncated 8-cell.png 5-cube t12.svg5-cube t12 A3.svg 6-cube t12.svg6-cube t12 A5.svg 7-cube t12.svg7-cube t12 A5.svg 8-cube t12.svg8-cube t12 A7.svg ...
Name Bitruncated cube Bitruncated tesseract Bitruncated 5-cube Bitruncated 6-cube Bitruncated 7-cube Bitruncated 8-cube
Coxeter CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
Vertex figure Truncated octahedron vertfig.png
( )v{ }
Bitruncated 8-cell verf.png
{ }v{ }
Bitruncated penteract verf.png
{ }v{3}
Bitruncated 6-cube verf.png
{ }v{3,3}
{ }v{3,3,3} { }v{3,3,3,3}

It is possible to slice a tesseract by a hyperplane so that its sliced cross-section is a truncated octahedron.[4]

Tessellations[edit]

The truncated octahedron exists in three different convex uniform honeycombs (space-filling tessellations):

Bitruncated cubic Cantitruncated cubic Truncated alternated cubic
Bitruncated Cubic Honeycomb.svg Cantitruncated Cubic Honeycomb.svg Truncated Alternated Cubic Honeycomb.svg

The cell-transitive bitruncated cubic honeycomb can also be seen as the Voronoi tessellation of the body-centered cubic lattice. The truncated octahedron is one of five three-dimensional primary parallelohedra.

Objects[edit]

Jungle gym nets often include truncated octahedra.

Truncated octahedral graph[edit]

Truncated octahedral graph
Truncated octahedral graph2.png
3-fold symmetric Schlegel diagram
Vertices24
Edges36
Automorphisms48
Chromatic number2
Book thickness3
Queue number2
PropertiesCubic, Hamiltonian, regular, zero-symmetric
Table of graphs and parameters

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a truncated octahedral graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the truncated octahedron. It has 24 vertices and 36 edges, and is a cubic Archimedean graph.[5] It has book thickness 3 and queue number 2.[6]

As a Hamiltonian cubic graph, it can be represented by LCF notation in multiple ways: [3, −7, 7, −3]6, [5, −11, 11, 7, 5, −5, −7, −11, 11, −5, −7, 7]2, and [−11, 5, −3, −7, −9, 3, −5, 5, −3, 9, 7, 3, −5, 11, −3, 7, 5, −7, −9, 9, 7, −5, −7, 3].[7]

Three different Hamiltonian cycles described by the three different LCF notations for the truncated octahedral graph

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Truncated Octahedron". Wolfram Mathworld.
  2. ^ Doskey, Alex. "Adventures Among the Toroids – Chapter 5 – Simplest (R)(A)(Q)(T) Toroids of genus p=1". www.doskey.com.
  3. ^ Perez-Gonzalez, F.; Balado, F.; Martin, J.R.H. (2003). "Performance analysis of existing and new methods for data hiding with known-host information in additive channels". IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. 51 (4): 960–980. doi:10.1109/TSP.2003.809368.
  4. ^ Borovik, Alexandre V.; Borovik, Anna (2010), "Exercise 14.4", Mirrors and Reflections, Universitext, New York: Springer, p. 109, doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79066-4, ISBN 978-0-387-79065-7, MR 2561378
  5. ^ Read, R. C.; Wilson, R. J. (1998), An Atlas of Graphs, Oxford University Press, p. 269
  6. ^ Wolz, Jessica; Engineering Linear Layouts with SAT. Master Thesis, University of Tübingen, 2018
  7. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Truncated octahedral graph". MathWorld.

External links[edit]