Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Peru)
The Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) (in Spanish: Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (CVR)) (June 2001 – 28 August 2003) was established in 2001 after the fall of president Alberto Fujimori, to examine abuses committed during the 1980s and 1990s, when Peru was plagued by the worst political violence in the history of the republic. This was during the 1980–85 government of President Fernando Belaunde, Alan García's 1985–90 term, and Fujimori's 1990–2000 administration. Its work was formally concluded on August 28, 2003, when it presented its final report to President Alejandro Toledo. The Commission appointed as members many sectors of civil society, including scholars, journalists, sociologists, priests and artists.
The Commission focused on the massacres, "forced disappearances", human rights violations, terrorist attacks, and violence against women, during the internal conflict in Peru, abuses that were committed by both the rebel groups Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), as well as the military of Peru. Its work encompassed holding public meetings, collecting testimonies, and making forensic investigations. It also made recommendations for reparations and institutional reforms. Its estimate of the total number of deaths caused by the rebels and government during the period was 69,280.
- "The report we hand in contains a double outrage: that of massive murder, disappearance and torture; and that of indolence, incompetence and indifference of those who could have stopped this humanitarian catastrophe but didn't."
In its final report, the CVR identified the Shining Path as the major perpetrator of human rights violations (including torture, kidnapping, assassinations), with the Armed Forces in second place. They also noted violations by MRTA.
The CVR criticized the failures of the Catholic Church to take a stand against the abuses, especially of then Archbishop of Ayacucho Juan Luis Cipriani. A member of the Opus Dei, a conservative Catholic group, he was notable in Peru for having said, "La Coordinadora de Derechos Humanos es una cojudez" (The Human Rights Coordinator is bollocks). While Cipriani was Archbishop, he was criticized for refusing to get involved in any cases of human rights violations. His supporters in Lima and Ayacucho deny these accusations.
Some politicians, military commanders, and members of the Congress believed to have ties to Opus Dei opposed the conclusions and work of the Commission. They accused the commission of an alleged leftist bias, including suggesting that Commissioners were "pro-Senderistas". They criticized the methods used to account for the deaths committed during the violence. Supporters of the Commission's work accused critics of supposedly defending impunity for those accused and of wanting to bury the past.
The CVR set up a photographic archive. This was the basis of materials for the exhibit Yuyanapaq (Quechua, meaning "To remember"), which displayed photographs documenting the twenty years of violence. The exposition included images of terrorist attacks, terrorist propaganda, torture victims, remains and similar documentation of the victims. This exhibition is housed in the Museum of the Nation in Lima, where it is open to the public.
- Dr. Salomón Lerner Febres: Philosophy doctor and president of Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. (Chairman).
- Dr. Beatriz Alva Hart: lawyer, former member of the Congress of Peru.
- Dr. Rolando Ames Cobián: sociologist, political researcher and analyst.
- Monsignor José Antúnez de Mayolo: La Salle priest, ex apostolic administrator of the Ayacucho Archdiocese.
- Retired Air Force Lieutenant General Luis Arias Grazziani: An expert in national security issues.
- Dr. Enrique Bernales Ballesteros: Doctor at Law, constitutional authority, Executive Director of the Andean Jurists Commission.
- Dr. Carlos Iván Degregori Caso: anthropologist, professor at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, member of the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Peruvian Studies Institute).
- Father Gastón Garatea Yori: Sacred Hearts priest and president of the Consensus Building Table for Poverty Fighting.
- Minister Humberto Lay Sun: architect, leader of the Assemblies of God, evangelical denomination of the Evangelic National Concilium, CONEP.
- Ms. Sofía Macher Batanero: sociologist, former Executive Secretary of the Human Rights National Coordinator.
- Engineer Alberto Morote Sánchez: former President of Universidad San Cristóbal de Huamanga.
- Engineer Carlos Tapia García: Political researcher and analyst.
- Monsignor Luis Bambarén Gastelumendi: Bishop of Chimbote and President of the Peruvian Episcopal Conference
- List of truth and reconciliation commissions
- Accomarca massacre
- Barrios Altos massacre
- Contract killing
- Grupo Colina
- Internal conflict in Peru
- La Cantuta massacre
- Lucanamarca massacre
- Vladimiro Montesinos
- Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement
- Peruvian prison massacres
- Shining Path
- Arnaud Martin, La mémoire et le pardon. Les commissions de la vérité et de la réconciliation en Amérique latine (Memory and Amnesty. The Truth and Reconciliation Commissions of Latin America), Paris: L'Harmattan, 2009.
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission website (Spanish and English)
- State of Fear, Skylight Pictures, a documentary about Peru's war on terror based on the findings of the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
- International Center for Transitional Justice, Peru